Patterned social arrangements that have an enabling or constraining effect on agency are referred to as:
_____ is considered the first female sociologist and argued that injustices such as slavery and women’s inequality stunted a society’s moral development.
Formal organizations characterized by written rules, hierarchical authority, and a paid staff, intended to promote organizational efficiency, are referred to as:
The relationship between agency and structure is _____, as ______.
one-sided, agency influences structure
one-sided, structure enables or constrains agency
reciprocal, they both have an effect on one another
nonexistent, there is no relationship between the two
Accepted social behaviors and beliefs are referred to as:
The bonds that unite the members of a social group is referred to as:
_____ believed that nearly all known societies are characterized by some system of division by economic class, which results in conflict as classes compete for wealth, power, and resources.
The ability to evaluate claims about truth by using reason and evidence is referred to as:
The ability of individuals and groups to exercise free will and to make social change is referred to as:
A researcher finds that as income increases, square footage of respondent’s home also increases. This is an example of:
A variable is defined as:
The description of a relationship
A phenomena that is constantly changing
A term used to summarize a set of phenomena
A concept that can take on two or more possible values
A _____ relationship is one in which one variable is the cause of another variable.
The degree to which two or more variables are associated with one another is referred to as:
_____ reasoning starts from specific data and tries to identify larger patterns from which to derive more general theories.
A researcher finds that as years spent driving increases, the number of accidents decreases. This is an example of:
The term used to summarize a set of phenomena is:
The repetition of a previous study using a different sample or population to verify or refute the original findings is referred to as:
A culture that exists together with a dominant culture but differs from it in some important respects is referred to as:
The ability of a local culture to absorb outside influences that fit in and enrich their culture while resisting those that are alien is known as:
The beliefs, norms, behaviors, and products common to the members of a particular group are referred to as:
Powerful mores, the violation of which is considered serious and even unthinkable, are referred to as:
Cultural representations of social realities are referred to as:
The worldview whereby we judge other cultures by the standards of our own is referred to as:
Particular ideas that people accept as true are referred to as:
Abstract and general standards in society that define ideal principles such as right and wrong are referred to as:
What is the sociological definition of significant others?
Specific people important in a child’s life who have the greatest impact on their self-evaluation
Relationships characterized by intense emotional ties, face-to-face interaction, intimacy, and a strong, enduring sense of commitment
Those whose opinions provide the basis for how we judge our own attitudes or behaviors
People of similar age and social standing that influence our norms and values
Adopting the behavior or standards of a group you emulate or hope to join is referred to as:
Which of the following behaviors is most likely the result of family socialization?
Texting and holding a face-to-face conversation at the same time
Standing during the playing of the national anthem
Arriving to an important appointment 15 minutes early
Performing specific household chores
Psychoanalysis, the psychological perspective that emphasizes the complex reasoning processes of the conscious and unconscious mind, is associated with which major theorist?
George Herbert Mead
Charles H. Cooley
How would sociologists define social learning?
The process by which people learn the culture of their society
The way people adapt their behavior in response to social rewards and punishments
The way people are socialized to act in a given situation
The process by which people learn norms, what is acceptable and unacceptable behavior
The unspoken classroom socialization to the norms, values, and roles of a culture that school provides is referred to as:
Curriculum of inequality
_____ refers to when members of a group ignore anything that goes against the group consensus.
Power exercised over those who recognize it as deserved or earned is referred to as:
Which of the following is an example of a secondary group?
Two close friends who practice tennis together
A father who plays catch with his son
A college basketball team
A family who watches football together every Sunday
The simplest group, consisting of two persons, is referred to as:
The ability of groups to exclude outsiders participating in the group or enjoying group resources is referred to as:
Large, impersonal groups with minimal emotional and intimate ties are referred to as:
The act of having multiple wives is referred to as:
The argument that deviant behavior is little more than a product of the labels people attach to certain types of behavior is referred to as:
Criminal label theory
An act defined in the law as punishable by fines, imprisonment or both is referred to as:
In the United States, which of the following would not be considered to be a normative cultural goal that people strive for?
Earning economic success
Raising and supporting a family
Gaining recognition or fame
Maintaining a steady routine, day-to-day
A crime considered so heinous that it is punishable by death is referred to as:
Death penalty crime
The idea that what is labeled deviant or criminal—and therefore who gets punished—is determined by the interests of the dominant class is referred to as:
Class conflict theory
Capitalist culture theory
According to Karl Marx, the _____ own the means of production, which they use to exploit the labor of the _____.
capitalist class, worker class
The value of everything a person owns minus the value of everything he or she owes is referred to as:
Value of assets
A person’s economic position in society, based on differences in income, wealth, and occupation, is referred to as:
The upward or downward status movement of individuals or groups over time is referred to as:
Which of the following is the best sociological definition of income?
An individual’s yearly salary
Wages, tips, and other compensation
The amount of money a person or household earns in a given period of time
The value of everything a person owns, minus the value of everything he or she owes
Areas that lack places that sell competitively priced, healthy, and fresh food are referred to as:
Food insecure regions
The systematic ranking of different groups of people in a hierarchy of inequality is referred to as: