A _____ is an attribute that discredits individuals because it overshadows other attributes and merits the individual may possess.
The practice of spatially or socially segregating people on the basis of race or ethnicity is referred to as:
The coexistence of different racial and ethnic groups characterized by acceptance and respect for one another’s differences is referred to as:
The study of communities and their social status, practices, and problems to understand patterns of health and disease is referred to as:
Racial medical history
Less powerful groups who are dominated politically and economically by a dominant group are referred to as:
Socially marginalized groups
Patriarchy refers to:
Any set of social relationships in which men dominate women
The belief that one sex is innately superior to the other, and is therefore justified in having a dominant social position
The belief that men should be the breadwinner and make all important household decisions
A political system in which women are not allowed to vote or hold office
Women’s inequality is primarily the result of imperfect institutions, which can be corrected by reforms that do not fundamentally alter society itself. This statement reflects the beliefs of:
Which of the following is considered the "factory of gendered personalities"?
How early do sociologists believe parents begin socializing their children into gender?
When they begin school
When they begin to talk
At birth, sometimes even in utero
Parents do not socialize their children according to gender
Standpoint epistemology, a philosophical perspective that what we can know is affected by the position we occupy in society, is a major tenet of:
Black feminist thought
In post-industrial societies, serial monogamy describes which of the following?
Marriage to more than one person
Divorce and remarriage
Marriage to only one person
According to Nancy Chodorow women, are socialized to be _____, seeking close bonds and defining themselves through relationships.
Families characterized by parents living with their biological children and apart from other kin are referred to as:
In pre-industrial societies, which of the following marriage patterns was most common?
What expression does Talcott Parsons use to describe the family?
Factory of socialization
Factory of personalities
Sites of socialization
On which of the following points do conflict and functionalist theorists agree?
A high school degree is necessary for equal opportunity.
Education channels individuals into positions for which they are best suited.
Education trains people in the dominant norms and values of society.
Education reproduces social inequality.
_____ refers to the education of racial minorities in schools that are geographically, economically, and/or socially separated from those attended by the racial majority.
The transmission of society’s norms, values, and knowledge base by means of direct instruction is referred to as:
Which of the following is an example of the sociological term "moral education"?
Fifth graders learning about laws and rights.
Kindergartners learning how to behave in class.
Children learning to read biblical literature.
High school students learning about inequality
Which of the following is an example of a symbolic interactionist approach to studying education issues?
Analyzing data about the relationship between education status and income
Observing how certain students perform in class after being labeled as "exceptional"
Studying patterns of racial segregation in public education
Studying the reproduction of inequality in mass education
An item believed to have acquired transcendent or magical qualities connecting humans with the divine is known as:
Max Weber’s concept of the "routinization of charisma" can be described as:
The institutionalization of a charismatic leader’s beliefs into an organized religious structure
The loss of the charismatic figure from whose life a religion was born
The use of prescribed, tried-and-true techniques by a "charismatic" leader to achieve a mass following
The use of modern technology, such as radio, Internet, and television, to evangelize
Shared beliefs, values, norms, ideas, institutions, and organizations that create a common identity among a group of people is referred to as:
A system of common beliefs and rituals centered on “sacred things” that unites believers and provides a sense of meaning and purpose is referred to as:
The idea that religions can be understood as organizations in competition with one another for followers is known as:
According to Domhoff, the _____ is made up of individuals who are linked to the social upper class, the corporate community, and the policy-formation organizations that influence government policy.
Which of the following would be considered a political right?
The right to vote after being convicted of a felony
The right to Social Security
The right to freedom from racial discrimination
The right to practice one’s religion without persecution
The codified rules of behavior established by a government and backed by the threat of force are known as:
A single people or nation governed by a political authority or state is commonly referred to as:
Economically productive activities that do not result directly in a physical product are known as:
Karl Marx introduced the idea of a _____, a pool of job-seekers whose numbers outpace the available positions and who contribute to keeping wages low and conditions of work tenuous.
pool of unemployment
unemployed labor pool
reserve army of labor
labor army reserve
The replacement of human labor by machines in the process of manufacturing is known as:
Highly educated professionals who engage in mental labor and the manipulation of symbols are also known as:
Which of the following is the number one cause of premature death in the United States?
An institutionalized system for the scientific diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of illness is known as:
What is the definition of morbidity?
The rate of death
The rate of illness
The rate of incidence of physical ailments
The number of people who seek medicial attention in a given period of time
Which of the following food categories receives the most federal subsidies?
Fruits and vegetables
Meats and dairy
The phenomenon of war boosting economic productivity and employment is referred to as:
Military industrial complex
War industrial economy
Violence that is intentionally dramatic and enacted for the purpose of attracting attention and publicity and spreading fear is known as:
Of the 2.5 million young enlisted U.S. men served in Vietnam, about what percentage were from working-class and poor backgrounds?
The U.S.-Afghanistan conflict is an example of:
Asymmetrical guerilla warfare
Preemptive war of aggression
The science of population size, distribution, and composition is defined as:
Which of the following is a characteristic of a second demographic transition?
Decreased rates of divorce
A rise of non-marital births as a proportion of all births
A rise in the rate of natural increase (RNI)
Larger family sizes
Which is the preferred measure for demographers to estimate future fertility?
Crude birth rates
Age-specific fertility rates
Age-specific live births
Crude death rates
What total fertility rate represents replacement rate fertility (in which each parent is able to replace himself or herself)?
Temporary gatherings of closely interacting people with a common focus are known as:
The development of increasing societal complexity through the creation of specialized social roles and institutions is referred to as:
Division of labor
Dominant ideas that lead people to consent to their own domination are known as:
Which of the following theorists highlighted the importance of ideas in maintaining order and oppression in society?
According to Antonio Gramsci, _____ intellectuals are those who emerge from oppressed groups and create counterhegemonies that challenge dominant and dominating ideas.