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PHI 103 Week 3 Quiz Answers (2017)
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1. Mill’s methods claim that when there is a phenomenon or event that is regularly correlated with another phenomenon or event, then the two events or phenomena may be causally connected. Which of Mill’s methods does this describe?

Method of agreement

Method of difference

Joint method of agreement and difference

Method of concomitant variation

2. Which of the following is the weakest example of causal reasoning?

Claiming that a rock broke the window when one finds a shattered window and a stone in one’s living room

Claiming that the caffeine from the coffee one drank at 10p.m. made it hard to sleep

Claiming that one got into a car wreck because someone was texting

Claiming that one lost a bet because a black cat walked across one’s path

3. Inductive arguments __________.

are arguments in which the premises prove the conclusion

have premises that increase the likelihood that the conclusion is true

can be valid or invalid

represent a smaller number of arguments than deductive arguments

4. In the “What is a ‘Strong’ Argument?” video, what is the line at which we call an argument logically strong?

There is no strict line at which inductive arguments become strong; it is a matter of context.

It is strong if it confers a 90% likelihood on its conclusion.

It is only truly strong if the conclusion is absolutely certain.

It has all true premises and the conclusion is likely

5. This is the term that one uses to describe a sample that aligns well with the larger group one is studying.

Valid

Statistical

Representative

Skewed

6. What is a hypothesis?

The outcome of an experiment
A conjecture about how something works
A proven truth
A rejected theory

7. What type of inductive argument is the following example?

98% of dogs like bones. Therefore my dog will like this bone.

Argument from analogy

Inference to the best explanation

Statistical syllogism

Inductive generalization
8. Inductive arguments should never be characterized as __________.

weak
very weak
valid
strong

9. Which of the following is necessary in order for an explanation to be adequate?

It does not agree with other human knowledge.
It provides an overly complex solution.
It is noncircular.
It is contradicted by other instances.

10. If thing A is always true whenever thing B is, then ____________.

B is a sufficient condition For A

A is a sufficient condition for B

A and B are both sufficient conditions for each other

None of the above

11. One way to make an inductive argument weaker is to __________.

strengthen the conclusion
eliminate the conclusion
make the argument valid
strengthen a premise

12. Inference to the best explanation is often expressed in which invalid argumentative form?

Affirming the consequent

Denying the consequent

Denying the antecedent

Affirming the antecedent

13. What type of inductive reasoning is the following argument?
Dentists say that flossing is important, so it must be true.

Statistical syllogism

Argument from authority

Inductive generalization

This is not an inductive argument.

14. Consider the following argument.
It rained today.
It is going to rain tomorrow.
Which of the following would make this argument stronger?

Evidence that the atmospheric conditions tomorrow will be the same

Asking one’s friends if they think it is going to rain

Turning the argument into a deductive argument about the weather

Consulting someone who reads tea leaves and asking what he or she believes

15. Good explanations often can explain other phenomena. The name for this is __________.

explanatory power

fecundity

testability

falsifiability

16. Which of the following conclusions is likely to have the strongest inductive evidence?

Your teacher will eat an egg For break Fast tomorrow.

The Colts will win the Super Bowl next year.

There will be nuclear war next month.

The earth will continue to orbit the sun over the next five days

17. The acceptable confidence level for an analysis or experiment __________.

is the same across all fields

does not change based on what one is trying to determine

is more important for celebrities than for others

is often more than 90% in academic analyses

18. “When I once visited Texas, it was hot. So the next time I visit Texas, it will be hot.” This is an example of a __________.

strong inductive argument
valid inductive argument
sound deductive argument
weak inductive argument

19. One way to make an inductive argument stronger is to __________.

Make the conclusion weaker

Eliminate the conclusion

Make the argument valid

Pretend your argument is a good one

None of the above

20. Mill’s methods claim that if two or more cases share the same effect and share only one common characteristic, then this characteristic may be related to the cause of the effect. Which of Mill’s methods does this describe?

Method of agreement

Method of difference

Method of concomitant variation

Joint method of agreement and difference

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• PHI 103 Week 3 Quiz Answers (2017)
\$16.00

1. Mill’s methods claim that when there is a phenomenon or event that is regularly correlated with another phenomenon or event, then the two events or phenomena may be causally connected. Which of Mill’s methods does this describe? Method of agreem

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