1. Tom Regan’s view of animals is that:
They are important but not quite as important as human beings
They have rights, which means that they should never be used forhuman purposes
They may be ethically used because they were bred and raised for that purpose
That they may be eaten because do not have souls like we do andare lower on the food chain
2. What is speciesism according to Peter Singer’s account?
Allowing the interests of one’s own species to override the greater interests of members of other species.
The practice of treating all animals equally regardless of their abilities.
The part of science that studies species membership.
The view that different species have different characteristics.
3. What is a key feature of utilitarianism according to the assigned texts?
Utilitarianism bases morality on the outcome of our actions.
Utilitarianism depends upon belief in God.
Utilitarianism denies that moral questions have a right or wrong answer.
Utilitarianism holds that actions are right or wrong regardless of the circumstances
4. The video “Meet Your Meat” can best be described as primarily communicating which message?
Modern industrial farming methods are necessary in order to feed the world’s population.
Modern industrial farms are open and honest about the methods they use.
Modern industrial farms take every measure to ensure that animal products are healthy and free of contaminants.
Modern industrial farming methods involve extraordinary levels of cruelty and neglect of animal well-being
5. According to the video “Meet Your Meat”, which of the following is true of how animals are slaughtered on factory farms
They are driven in extreme weather conditions without food or water
They are often still conscious while being slaughtered
They are often roughly handled and severely injured by the time they make it to slaughter
They are ensured every means of avoiding fear and stress during the slaughtering process.
6. According to chapter 2 of Understanding Philosophy, which of the following would be an expression of rule utilitarianism, rather than act utilitarianism?
“It’s okay to torture this person because it may save thousands of lives.”
“It’s immoral to torture this person because the pain it would causehim outweighs any potential benefits.”
“Even if torturing this person right now might be beneficial, the overall consequences of permitting torture would be harmful, and so weshouldn’t allow it in any circumstance.”
“We shouldn't torture this person because we wouldn’t want him torturing us.”
7. What moral theory does Jeremy Bentham (with whom Singer seems to agree) endorse?
Social Contract Theory
8. In what way does Peter Singer think that speciesism is similar to racism and sexism?
They all can be habits of thought and action that we should be striving to overcome.
They all involve favoring one group over another on the basis of morally arbitrary differences.
They are all forms of unjust prejudice and discrimination
All of the above.
9. According to John Stuart Mill, utilitarianism takes into account the happiness of:
only the agent.
only the agent and those the agent cares about.
everyone, and weights everyone’s happiness equally.
everyone, but weights the happiness of the agent more heavily.
10. How does John Stuart Mill respond to the complaint that utilitarianism is a doctrine worthy of pigs?
This complaint is based on prejudice against pigs and other animals.
The life of pigs is far preferable to the life of humans, and we should strive to be more pig-like.
It’s better to have a small amount of higher, human pleasures than a large amount of lower, animal pleasures.
(a) and (b)
11. How do we determine the difference between higher and lower pleasures, according to Mill?
The relative duration and intensity.
The preference of those who are acquainted with both.
The amount of happiness they produce on average.
We can’t, since there is no difference between pleasures.
12. What is the point of Regan’s discussion about Aunt Bea and utilitarianism’s respect for human life?
Utilitarianism feels that human life is paramount and not to be sacrificed under any circumstance
Utilitarianism would say that God’s law that “thou shalt not kill”will have very few exceptions
Utilitarianism says that human life has not much value at all, aperson can be killed for relatively minor reasons, like stealing their money
Because utilitarianism is aggregative, one individual’s right to life can be overridden in order to save many other people’s lives
13. According to chapter 2 of Understanding Philosophy, which of the following makes it difficult to calculate the utility of an act, raising a potential problem for utilitarianism?
disagreements about the meaning of pleasure or happiness
determining what constitutes the greatest good
all of the above
the time frame of the consequences
14. What is Tom Regan’s position about the use of animals in research and agriculture?
Animals should be used whenever it can be proven that the human benefits outweigh the harms caused to the animals
Animals should never be used for medical research or commercial agriculture
Animals should only be used for medical research shown to be beneficial to humanity, never for agriculture
Animals should be used in both medical research and agriculture but should be treated as humanely as possible
15. Which of the following describes how egg-laying hens are treated in factory farms, according to the video “Meet Your Meat”?
They are allowed to scratch through dirt and grass looking for seeds and bugs in the fresh open air.
They are given ample space to roam and to express their own natural behavior
They are kept in such tight confinement that they cannot lift their wings
All of the above
16. According to chapter 2 of Understanding Philosophy, utilitarianism is a form of what broader kind of ethical theory?
17. Which of the following does not describe the ways that chickens and turkeys are treated on factory farms, according to the video “Meet Your Meat”
They are raised in their own excrement among corpses of other birds
Some are so crippled from unnatural growth that they are unable to
Most are treated relatively humanely on today’s farms
They are often beaten with metal rods, which is considered legal by the industry
18. Which of the following statements is the strongest evidence that the person saying it is a utilitarian?
Ginny: “Violations of rights are very serious, from the moral point of view.”
Helen: “I agree. It is always immoral to violate someone's rights.”
Ginny: “Well, I wouldn’t say ‘always’. It’s o.k. to violate rights whenever the good you can produce by doing so outweighs the harm you do by violating the person’s rights.”
Kate: “I disagree with both of you. The notion of rights is just a mechanism for the lesser members of society to maintain control over those capable of greatness.”
19. Peter Singer’s “basic principle of equality” applied to animals means:
Animals should not be given the same moral consideration because they are do not have the same power to reason as humans.
Animals are not necessarily entitled to not all the same rights, but to an equal consideration of interests.
Animals should be given all the same rights as human beings.
Animals do not have rights unless they can demonstrate the same
20. In what way is Peter Singer’s argument in “All Animals are Equal” utilitarian?
It is based on an absolute prohibition on all forms of killing
It is based on the obligation to maximize happiness and minimize suffering, no matter who or what is experiencing it.
It is based on the inherent superiority of animals to humans.
It is based on the idea that animals were created to be useful to humans