The ________ hypothesis regarding crime argues that as a country undergoes economic development, its crime rate increases
Generally, the police forces of any given country are much more likely to be dealing with ___________ crime and much less likely, if ever, to be dealing with _________ crime.
Offenses, whose inception, prevention, and/or direct or indirect effects involved more than one country is an example of:
The process used by criminals to convert funds acquired illegally into what appears to be legitimate income that can the used for legal purposes such as investment and purchase, is an example of:
The movement of mood altering substances from their points of origin to their points of consumption is an example of:
Although not in itself a crime, buying a legal business may be deemed ________, if it is used a means for laundering money that may have been acquired illegally.
_______ crimes call for a great deal of ingenuity and versatility on the part of law enforcement in terms of learning, investigation, and prevention.
Most victims of __________ theft are likely to be looking for recompense, and not criminal punishment, and therefore, not generally likely to involve police agencies.
____________ may be localized or may operate transnationally.
illegal arms sales
The illegal commandeering of ________ for the purpose of either demanding ransom payments or for making a political statement has been a feature of much of the late twentieth century.
__________ is an age-old offense, which is considered the first to result in multinational cooperative law enforcement efforts continues to exist in certain parts of the world, particularly in and around Central and South America, Southeast Asia, and West Africa.
___________ is defined as the procurement of illegal entry of a person into a state of which the latter person is not a national with the objective of making a profit.
Transnational ____________ crime is a fact of contemporary life.
Over the past 20 years, there has been a growing preoccupation with ____________ crime.
The most discussed and least understood international police organization in the world is:
The _________ by the police can be defined as occurring “any time the police attempt to have citizens act in a certain way.”
use of force
Incidents of police use of excessive force have included all except:
beating civil rights protesters
The philosophy of __________ police officers in which the police subculture becomes a way of life can thus lead to police misconduct.
brother and sister
us vs. them
we have the power
I am the law
In the twentieth century, the United States Supreme Court, to protect citizens from governmental abuses from the states and their agents, extended the Bill of Rights to be applicable to the _____.
The police __________ is an extreme version of a phenomenon that exists in many human groups.
thin blue line
code of silence
Many people, specifically _________, believe that the police are often engaged in excessive and unnecessary physical force.
Some forms of police brutality have also been referred to as _________.
the third degree
throwing the book at them
us vs. them
What made the King-beating incident significantly different from earlier alleged incidents of police brutality was that a private citizen __________ this incident.
helped officers in
helped King in
The police can trace their authority to use _______ back to the Common Law of England, which was developed during the Middle Ages.
less than lethal
In 1986, the U.S. Supreme Court struck down the fleeing felon rule, which allowed police officers to use deadly force, i.e., to shoot to kill a suspect escaping from the scene of a crime. This historical case is:
Brandenburg v. Ohio
Tennessee v. Gardner
Miranda v. Arizona
Mapp v. Ohio
Dysfunctional behavior such as police violence comes about when looking at police brutality from a ___________ perspective.
The __________ perspective takes a critical stance and believes that the police represent the group that has power, prestige, and wealth in a given society.
From a ____________ perspective, a lot of attention would be devoted to considering the nature and meanings of acts that are defined as police brutality or excessive use of force.
Based on a perceived increase in police violence, a ___________________ was established by the Israeli police in 1992.
civilian complaint board
commission of law enforcement abuse
zero tolerance policy
law prohibiting excessive force
One whose members, because of physical or cultural characteristics, are disadvantaged and subjected to unequal treatment by the dominant group and who regard themselves as objects of collective discrimination is the definition of a:
A __________ group is one that is advantaged and has superior resources and rights in a society.
__________ refers to an attitude that evaluates an individual member of a subordinate group negatively on the basis of certain negative characteristics that are associated with that group even if the individual does not conform to those expected characteristics.
One who harbors negative attitudes toward any particular subordinate group and will act negatively toward them can be referred to as a:
The most common pattern, based on perceived biological differences such as skin color, complexion, hair color, and or eye color is referred to as _________.
Prejudice and discrimination that is based on cultural differences among groups, sometimes even if they are of the same race is the definition of:
The pattern of prejudice and discrimination that negatively targets either the young or the elderly is known as:
__________ is defined as a fairly rigid, oversimplified view or image of a particular social group that is then applied to individuals who belong to that group.
A process by which members of subordinate groups are blamed for the problems and frustrations experienced by members of the dominant group is an example of:
Societies that are made up of more than one ethnic group are referred to as:
When women are treated less harshly than male suspects by the police and the criminal justice system given traditional gender expectations and notions of them being the “weaker sex”, we are defining:
Conduct which the people of a group are considered so dangerous or embarrassing or irritating that they bring special sanctions to bear against the persons who exhibit it is an example of:
use of force
_____________ is when individuals who happen to be in the police force engage in activities that violate departmental policies, laws, and social norms and misuse the powers of their office.
_____________ has been coined by sociologists to encompass serious situations occurring within entire organization. This behavior includes police brutality and corruption.
the slippery slope
___________ was a New York City police officer in the 1970s who fought against corruption.
The ________ requires that police officers look the other way when they observe their fellow officers involved in acts of deviance.
thin blue line
code of the streets
code of silence
___________ can be explained as receiving money or some monetary gain for not performing a legal duty or responsibility by a police officer.
the slippery slope
In the late 1990s, the ________________ experienced a corruption scandal that made national and international headlines.
New York PD
Los Angeles PD
____________ are payments in the form of money, goods, or services that a law enforcement agent receives for directing people, that he or she comes in contact with, toward a particular service provider.
In the approximately 160-year history of the NYPD a major corruption scandal seems to occur approximately every _____ years.
A grass eater is a officer who:
does not actively seek out gratuities
seeks out gratuities
takes complaints to internal affairs
refuses to accept gratuities