• Secondary storage is nonvolatile.
• Writing is the process of saving information to secondary storage devices.
• Reading is the process of accessing information from secondary storage devices such as:
o Hard disk - Internal hard disk, hard-disk cartridges and hard-disk packs
o Optical disks - CD, DVD, and DataPlay are types of optical disks
o Specialized storage devices - solid-state storage, Internet hard drive, magnetic tape, microfilm and microfiche.