corrupt; a few
The central government maintains all the power.
The first-order subdivisions maintain all the power.
Federal systems exist where there are no governments.
Federal systems have divided power between a central government and first-order governments.
proportional representative systems
Because elections are held in multimember districts
Because elections usually produce more than two viable candidates
Because elections are held in single-member districts with plurality winners
Because of the multiparty system in the United States
judicial restraint by judges
willingness to override legislatures
all citizens meet periodically to elect officials
all citizens meet periodically to elect officials and personally enact laws
popular accountability is common, but political competition is extremely limited
the wealthy almost always have greater influence than the poor
a leftist revolution
an Islamic fundamentalist movement
a libertarian revolution
To reveal the state as a genuine and open entity
To excuse the state’s invasive and/or violent political measures
To convey to the citizens a perception of only everyday order
To convey to visitors a perception of nearly perfect order