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PHI 208 Final Exam (New 2016)
$ 35.00

1. According to Jeremy Bentham (as described by Singer) what should determine whether a being’s interests should be taken into account? 

Whether they have the faculty of discourse

Whether they can reason

Whether they can suffer

Whether they are capable of love

2. In the video “Drones Are Not Ethical and Effective,” Jeremy Waldron argues that drones are not ethical because their use involves

total transparency and accountability

the assurance that only combatants will be targeted

the maintenance of a secret death list by government authorities

all of the above

3. Rachels claims that: 

there is no moral difference between active and passive euthanasia, considered in themselves.

there is always a moral difference between the consequences of active and passive euthanasia.

both a and b.

neither a nor b

4. The conventional doctrine is endorsed by: 

Rachels.

the American Medical Association.

both a and b.

neither a nor b

5. Which answer best describes Noddings’s statements about how mothers frequently to feel about losing their children in war? 

Mothers rest assured that the deaths of their children was fully justified by the good they did in the war

Mothers often allow their desire to demonstrate patriotism to override their natural opposition to war and the death of their children

Mothers universally oppose war and the death of children that it inevitably brings

Mothers are generally more enthusiastic for war than anyone else because they know it will make the world safer for future generations

6. According to Rachels, the “conventional doctrine” maintains that: 

active euthanasia is sometimes permissible, but passive euthanasia never is.

passive euthanasia is sometimes permissible, but active euthanasia never is.

both active and passive euthanasia are sometimes permissible.

neither active nor passive euthanasia are ever permissible

7. In the article “War and Massacre,” Thomas Nagel argues that moral absolutism 

is consistent with the principles of utilitarianism

can be used to justify genocide

is primarily concerned with what a person is doing

is primarily concerned with the outcome of a person’s actions

8. According to Midgley, moral isolationism 

Is a “perverse indulgence of the self-righteous.”

Is based on skeptical diagnosis.

Stems from concern about hypocrisy.

Justifies immorality.

9. How do we determine the difference between higher and lower pleasures, according to Mill? 

The relative duration and intensity.

The preference of those who are acquainted with both.

The amount of happiness they produce on average.

We can’t, since there is no difference between pleasures.

10. Gilligan claims that females tend to see relationships as these 

Hierarchies

Webs

Rules

Duties

11. In the video “Sexism in the News Media 2012” some newscasters blame military women for this 

being killed in combat

being raped

not being able to have children

being war heroes

12. According to Kant, the moral worth of an action: 3

lies in its conformity to the moral law.

lies in the value of the expected result.

lies in its conformity to God’s commands.

lies in its usefulness to society.

13. Which of the following are questions in the Bechdel test? 

Is there more than one female character?

Do they speak to each other?

When they speak to each other, do they talk about something other than a man?

all of the above

14. In Kant Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals, the maxim of an act is: 

the policy or principle that you would be following if you did it.

the expected overall utility resulting from the action.

the moral rule that an act either respects or violates .

all of the above

15. According to Rachels, the case of Smith and Jones shows that: 

killing is intrinsically worse than letting die.

there is no intrinsic moral difference between killing and letting die.

letting die is morally worse than killing.

it is never permissible either to let someone die or to kill them

16. According to Aristotle, we should begin ethical inquiry by specifying: 

which things are intrinsically valuable.

the ultimate aim of all that we do.

what our fundamental duties are.

what constraints on behavior it would be reasonable to agree to

17. According to Thomas Hill’s account of environmental ethics, a person might show a lack of virtue when they: 

fail to realize that human needs and interests are worthless and unimportant.

fail find any aesthetic value in nature.

fail to recognize the rights of non sentient beings.

All of the above

18. Reason is a faculty that we have that: 

is only good if it succeeds in satisfying our desires.

is the driving principle of a good will.

is the fundamental ground of human dignity.

both B and C

19. Aristotle states that if we ask what the highest good of human action is: 

there is no agreement about the answer.

most people agree that it is pleasure.

nearly everyone agrees that it is happiness.

there is no objective answer to this question

20. Kant explains that respect for a person is: 

the recognition of the worth of the person’s potential contribution tosociety.

dependent upon whether the person respects others.

both A and B

none of the above

21. According to Leon Kass, the drive to legalize euthanasia can be largely attributed to 

the rise in a largely technical approach to healing.

an increase in our sympathy.

an increased respect for human dignity.

the secularization of modern society

22. According to Rachels, active euthanasia is currently: 

forbidden by law, and conventionally considered immoral.

forbidden by law, but conventionally considered permissible.

permitted by law, but conventionally considered immoral.

permitted by law, and conventionally considered permissible

23. Kant claims that a good will is: 

the only thing that can be called good with qualification.

the only thing that can be called good without qualification.

the indispensable condition for happiness.

both B and C

24. Aristotle claims that the function of human life is: 

survival and reproduction.

service to the gods.  

rational activity.  

to pursue pleasure

25. Aristotle conceives of a virtue as: 

a rule that tells you what the right action is.

a state of character that enables practically wise choices.

a positive self-image.

a way to gain as much pleasure as possible

26. According to the scene from The Bridge on the River Kwai, what is the ultimate reason Colonel Nicholson (Alec Guinness) insists that the soldiers work hard to build the best bridge possible: 

Because even in captivity, they know that God is watching them.  

So that the British forces will be able to fight the Japanese more effectively.  

Because the better the bridge, the more benefit they will receive and less punishment they will endure from their captors.  

Because it is an expression of the strength and dignity of a soldier even in captivity

27. Why is it hard for physicians to understand palliative care? 

They do not care about their patients enough.

They are well-educated in palliative care.

They did not pay attention in medical school.

They are focused on healing rather than helping die

28. According to Tom Regan, what is fundamentally wrong with our current system? 

It mistreats animals in captivity

It does not adequately reduce the number of experiments to only what is medically necessary

It treats animals as resources; as though they exist for us

That it doesn’t utilize animals enough for beneficial purposes

29. Glaukon thinks that deep in our hearts we all believe that 

Injustice is more profitable than justice.

We will have a clearer conscience if we always stick to the laws of justice.

To be unjust is to be a fool.

Both B and C

30. According to Midgely, moral isolationism leads to 

Is a “perverse indulgence of the self-righteous.”

Is based on skeptical diagnosis.

Stems from concern about hypocrisy.

Justifies immorality

31. Peter Singer’s “basic principles of equality” applied to animals means: 

Animals should be given all the same rights as human beings.

Animals are not entitled to not all the same rights but to an equal consideration of interests.

Animals should not be given the same moral consideration because they are do not have the same power to reason as humans.

Animals do not have rights unless they can demonstrate the same abilities as humans

32. The Ring of Gyges gave the shepherd who found it 

Intelligence

Invincibility

Invisibility

Wisdom

33. What moral theory does Jeremy Bentham (with whom Singer seems to agree) endorse? 

Moral relativism

Anarchism

Utilitarianism

Social Contract Theory

34. According to Kant, suicide is: 

Moral if and only if one’s life becomes too burdensome.

Moral if and only if it relieves other people’s burdens.

Immoral because it involves treating one’s autonomous will merely as a means to the relief of suffering.

Immoral because it condemns one to eternal damnation.

35. If the Ring of Gyges really existed, 

Just people would use it for justice.   

Just people would not use it at all.   

Unjust people would use it differently than just people.   

Everyone would use it the same.

36. Kenneth Anderson argues that the fact that drones make the resort to force easier 

means that enemies will always be too afraid to attack us

does not mean that drones make the resort to force too easy

means that we should instead favor cruise missiles

all of the above

37. Which of the following does not describe how egg-laying hens are treated in factory farms? 

They tend to have it much better than meat hens

They are kept in such tight confinement that they cannot lift their wings   

They are starved into a period of ‘forced molting’   

They have their beaks painfully seared off

38. What is Tom Regan’s position about the use of animals in research and agriculture? 

Animals should be used whenever it can be proven that the human benefits outweigh the harms caused to the animals

Animals should never be used for medical research or commercial agriculture

Animals should only be used for medical research shown to be beneficial to humanity, never for agriculture

Animals should be used in both medical research and agriculture but should be treated as humanely as possible

39. In Hill’s example, what did the wealthy eccentric man do to his yard after he bought a new house? 

cut down an avocado tree

covered the yard with asphalt

remodeled the kitchen

1 and 2

40. Which of the following makes it difficult to calculate the utility of an act 

the time frame of the consequences

disagreements about the meaning of pleasure or happiness

determining what constitutes the greatest good

all of the above

41. Rachels concludes that: 

active euthanasia is always worse than passive euthanasia.

passive euthanasia is always worse than active euthanasia.

active euthanasia is always morally permissible.

none of the above

42. According to the video “Religion, War, and Violence,” Just War Theory asserts that military intervention 

can be seen as an act of altruism

must always have an altruistic component

must be primarily an act of altruism

must never have an altruistic component

43. Hill would claim that a lack of aesthetic perception 

might indicate an inability to appreciate the true value of things in general.  

might indicate that the person simply has a different set of subjective tastes.  

might indicate that one lacks a precise philosophical account of the beautiful.  

might indicate an inability to express proper self-deception

44. Midgley analyzes the position that each society is a separate culture with its own values. This position is known as 

Moral relativism

Moral isolationism

Moral structuralism

Moral voluntarism

45. Robinson argues that honor 

Encourages restraint in warfare`

Encourages heroism in warfare

Encourages the waging of war

Encourages abuse in warfare

All of the above

46. Robinson describes magnanimity and integrity as both primarily concerned with what? 

Honor

Wealth

Courage

Generosity

47. Thomas Nagel argues that all rules of engagement should be governed by the utilitarian principle that 

any means can be justified if it leads to a worthy end

the greatest good can justify targeting noncombatants

we are always justified in attacking the tyranny of the majority

none of the above

48. According to Held, the following have been aligned with femininity in the history of Western thought 

emotion   

weakness   

passion   

all of the above

49. Feminist ethics is based around which of the following ideas 

That abstract universal principles can be applied to most situations to find the best action.

That maximizing something like happiness or pleasure is the best way to guide action.

That emotions can be cultivated and ought to be taken into account in ethical theory.

That all humans are autonomous individuals who battle for resources

50. According to Colin Stokes, in this film all the heroic, wise, and villainous characters are female. 

The Little Mermaid   

Star Wars   

The Wizard of Oz  

Les Miserables

 

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  • PHI 208 Final Exam (New 2016)
    $35.00

    1. According to Jeremy Bentham (as described by Singer) what should determine whether a being’s interests should be taken into account? Whether they have the faculty of discourse Whether they can reason Whether they can suffer Whether they are capable of love 2. In the video “Drones Are Not Ethical and Effective,” Jeremy Waldron argues that drones are not ethical because their use involves total transparency and accountability the assurance that only combatants will be targeted the maintenance of a secret death list by government authorities all of the above 3. Rachels claims that: there is no moral difference between active and pass

    Submitted on: 05 Jan, 2017 05:05:34 This tutorial has not been purchased yet .