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Liberty University BUSI 303 quiz 4 complete solutions
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The key components in successful operations management are efficiency and effectiveness

External environmental factors that can affect the entry of new entrants in another country can be

____________ is the ratio of output as it relates to input—the conversion of inputs or resources into outputs of merchandise or services

A major Proactive motivation factor includes

The availability of tools, such as forecasting, distribution and inventory planning, and e-commerce allow many organizational processes to be integrated across supply chains

The key factors that influence the entry mode selection are

The three aspects which are especially important to international expansion are location, timing, and scope

It is important to remember that cost savings do not only result from looking for the cheapest method but also from looking for the most efficient method

Continuous improvement, sometimes referred to as __________, is a management technique that historically involves several incremental improvements to a process rather than a single overpowering improvement or change

The ABC Classification System is used to categorize inventory items and is also known as stock keeping units (SKU’s)

What market strategy is utilized when a corporate entity needs complete control over every detail of the structure within the host country

Just-in-time production or systems is a comprehensive set of doctrines and systems founded on the philosophy that businesses should hold a large  inventory above what is necessary for immediate production or distribution

Most firms typically choose to enter into global markets from a proactive stance, but some are forced to enter the global market in a reactive stance

Typical processes within an organization include which of the following areas requiring management

Population growth is a great reference, and is always the key indicator of a strong potential market

Joint ventures usually involve an alliance where two or more companies contribute assets, which results in the formation of a new legal entity

Successful global managers have an understanding of how to appraise and adjust to the requirements of doing business in a culture different from their own

The global strategic planning process is complex but does not entail as many factors, variables, challenges, and risks as domestic strategic planning

What are the two types of entry modes available into a market

The necessary conditions for expansion into global markets include all of the following except

Total amount of products that can be produced by the entire operation in a given amount of time

Means to enhance the effectiveness of the value chain

Customer Focus, Participation and Teamwork, Continuous Improvement and Learning

Decisions controlled by home office or in foreign location

Include experts in each technical area within an organization are at horizontal in nature

The slowest process in a multistep production process that limits total output

Total amount of products that can be produced by the entire operation in a given amount of time

Greater gain comes from identifying which parts of the process is a constraint to the whole

Manage noncritical process within an organization an can contribute to nearly all aspects of an organization

Comprises the inventory planning and ordering category of inventory control

When a firm incurs unanticipated costs from underestimating foreign regulations

Quest for profit, competitive advantage, market opportunities, economies of scale, tax benefits

Gaining access to resources , cutting cost, capitalizing on special feature location, expanding markets

Contributor to the positional advantage of the company and long-term, overall firm performance

Knack to acquire, interpret, and integrate information regarding the global competitive environment

Allows one party to use a property right in exchange for payment to the other party

Antitrust laws, tax programs, minimum wage, legislation, pollution and pricing policies

Tend to possess experiential/knowledge to many cultures

Commitment from management across the organization

Competitive pressure, excess capacity, overproduction, declining home market

 

 

 

Multiple choice and true/ false

  1. Foreign direct investment is an attractive option for firms looking to diversity their investment portfolios, creating opportunities or firms looking to enter emerging markets.
    1. True
  2. As globalization becomes more embedded in daily life, tolerance must continue to increase in order to avoid unnecessary polarization – again reinforcing the notion that globalization is not assimilation.
    1. True
  3. The global business manager must process a strong domestic (international) awareness and must understand the unique factors that contribute to the success of a global business, including vast working experience.
    1. True
    2. False
  4. Advocates for globalization believe that globalization promotes:
    1. Rapid economic growth
  5. The global business manager must resist any urge to instinctively trust line managers and instead apply his or her discipline and critical thinking capacity to formulate decisions that are most conductive to the international operating environment.
    1. True
  6. Which of the following is not true about globalization
    1. Began towards the end of the nineteenth century
    2. Is a new phenomenon
    3. Creates interdependence among nations
    4. Requires transparency
  7. International exchange is a recent concept.
    1. True
    2. False
  8. United States’ imports primarily came from which of the following countries?
    1. United Kingdom
    2. Russia
    3. Germany
    4. France
  9. Standardization (Globalization) requires that business people understand the (ideal goal of) seamless international marketplace.
    1. True
    2. False
  10.  The Pax Romana (Industrial Revolution) heralded the introduction of mass production, improved transportation, technological progress, and the industrial factory system.
    1. True
    2. False
  11.  The Industrial Revolution heralded the introduction of which of the following?
    1. Mass production
    2. Improved transportation
    3. Technological progress
    4. All of the above
  12. NAFTA facilitated the importation and exportation of goods and services between the United States, Mexico, and Canada.
    1. True
  13. Barriers to trade include all of the following except:
    1. Tariffs
    2. Quotas
    3. Embargoes
    4. FDI
  14. All of the following occurred during the Information Age except:
    1. Information was considered to be a scarce resource
    2. Radio and telephone networks were widespread in developed nations
    3. The launch of the Sputnik 1 satellite
    4. The personal desktop computer became a commonplace household fixture
  15. Economic health is considered positive when a country imports considerably more than it exports.
    1. True
    2. False
  16. Which of the following is NOT a driving force of Globalization?
    1. Reductions in barriers to trade
    2. Increased restriction on foreign investments
    3. Advances in communication and transportation technologies
    4. Rise of the multinational corporation
  17. Pax Americana, Latin for “American peace,” is the period of relative peace in the Western world since the end of World War II in 1945, coinciding with the dominant military and economic position of the U.S.
    1. True
  18.  Which of the following is a barrier to trade?
    1. Mergers and acquisitions
    2. Subsidies
    3. Sanctions
    4. None of the above
  19. Globalization has created what critics refer to as a melting pot or peaceful cooperation (Violent clash) of various cultural identities.
    1. True
    2. False
  20. ISO standards specify the requirements for state-of-the-art products, services, process, materials and systems, and for good conformity assessment, managerial and organizational practice.
    1. True
    2. False
  21. Which of the following is true regarding ISOs?
    1. Standard ISO cargo containers, known as isotopes, can be loaded and sealed intact onto container ships.
    2. ISO standards are designed to be implemented domestically
    3. ISO stands for the International Standards Organization
    4. ISO standards specify the restrictions for state-of-the-art products, services, processes, materials and labor
  22. Globalization has impacted the aspects of the international community
    1. Political
    2. Economic
    3. Social
    4. All of the above
  23. Which of the following is a type of political risk for global managers?
    1. Cultural
    2. Financial
    3. Transfer
    4. Organizational
  24. The World Trade Organization (WTO) was established in the early 1970s to help foster international trade and resolve disputes.
    1. True
    2. False
  25. KSA stands for __________, ____________, and ________________.
    1. Knowledge, skills, abilities
    2. Knowledge, standards, attributes
    3. Knowledge, skills, attitudes
    4. Knowledge, skills, attributes

Chapter 2

 

Matching:

 

  1. Dimensions of Culture – Communication/ religion/ ethics/ values/ attitudes/ manners/ customs/ social/ organizations/ education
  2. Culture – Set of shared attitudes, values, goals, and practices; characterize a society or an organization
  3. Ethnocentric – One’s own culture is superior to all others; standard by which all other cultures should be measured
  4. Roles – Sets or rights, obligations, and expectations associated with a status
  5. Oral agreements – Implies strong commitments in high-context cultures
  6. Judaism – A monotheistic religion which believes that the world was created by a single divinity
  7. Siddhartha Guatama – Founded Buddhism
  8. Transparency International – Dedicated to fighting corruption worldwide
  9. Geocentric – Develop an integrated system with a worldwide approach
  10. Iranian upper class – Example of cultural attitude on social class
  11. Status – Position a person occupies within a social group
  12. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act – Enacted by Congress to halt bribery in the U.S. Business system
  13. Polycentric – Promotes openness towards other cultures, opinions, and ways of life
  14. Social structure – The manner in which society is organized
  15. Corruption – Major concern for those engaged in global business
  16. Values – Beliefs about what is right and wrong
  17. Ascribed Status – The status assigned by society to an individual based on uncontrollable factors
  18. Ethics – Study of morality and standards of conduct
  19. Individualism – Degree which society reinforces individual or collective achievement/interpersonal relationships
  20. Low context – Societies where people tend to have many connections but of shorter duration

 

Multiple Choice

 

  1. A form of verbal language includes
    1. Hand gestures
    2. Facial expressions
    3. A country’s dominant language
    4. Boy language
  2. Regardless of the managerial cultural paradigm in use, the business profession recognizes that an understanding of the major dimensions of culture is essential for success in doing business overseas.
    1. True
    2. False
  3. From 1967 to 1973, Fons Trompenaar (Geert Hofstede) applied the subset of cultural dimensions to the field of business management, segregating them into independent areas to be further divided in order to get a more precise understanding.
    1. True
    2. False
  4. Trompenaar believed that every culture distinguishes itself from others by the specific solutions it chooses to certain problems and dilemmas.
    1. True
    2. False
  5. The Premise of ____________ was that Leadership effectiveness is contextual and is embedded in the societal and organizational beliefs, norms, and values of the people being led.
    1. Cross Cultural Analysis Model
    2. The Globe Study
    3. Model of Culture Study
    4. 7 Dimensions of Culture
  6. Culture is the set of shared attitudes, values, ____________, and practices that characterize a society.
    1. Goals
    2. Dreams
    3. Education level
    4. Language
  7. Which of the following is NOT a cultural paradigm?
    1. Ethnocentric
    2. Polycentric
    3. Monocentric
    4. Geocentric
  8. Effective, cross-cultural communicators must know how to properly pronounce words, how to properly spell words, and how to use these words in proper grammatical form.
    1. True
    2. False
  9. __________, as the opposite of ___________, promotes openness towards other cultures, opinions, and ways of life.
    1. Polycentrism, monocentrism
    2. Geocentrism, ethnocentrism
    3. Ethnocentrism, monocentrism
    4. Polycentrism, ethnocentrism
  10. Polycentric (ethnocentric) managers think home-country nationals are more intelligent, reliable and trustworthy than foreign.
    1. True
    2. False.
  11.  The geocentric organization’s primary objective is to develop an integrated system with a(n) _____.
    1. Worldwide approach
    2. Centrally located approach
    3. International approach
    4. None of the above
  12. Which of the following is true regarding the use of words across languages?
    1. Differences in pronunciation and meaning can lead to misunderstandings
    2. Difference cultures and languages may not always present or interpret messages in the same context.
    3. Cross-cultural or cross-religion barriers exacerbate the misunderstandings that arise when trying to communicate a message
    4. Educational levels may cause a communication lapse within a country’s own language.
  13. Business ethics is the study of ethical dilemmas, values, and decision making in the world of business. Business ethics should not be considered a separate disciple from ethics.
    1. True
    2. False
  14. Which of the following is a characteristic of a high-context culture?
    1. Rule oriented
    2. More knowledge is codified, public, external, and accessible
    3. More interpersonal connections or shorter duration
    4. Knowledge is situational and relational.
  15. Congress enacted the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) to bring a halt to the bribery of foreign officials and to restore public confidence in the integrity of the U.S. business system.
    1. True
    2. False
  16. The anti-bribery provisions of the OECD make it unlawful for a U.S. Person, and certain foreign issuers of securities, to make a corrupt payment to a foreign official for the purpose of securing business with or directing business to any person.
    1. True
    2. False
  17. Three branches of Judaism include
    1. Orthodox, Reservists, Conformists
    2. Reform, Orthodox, Conservatives
    3. Conservatives, Reservists, Reform
    4. Reservists, Orthodox, Reform
  18. All of the following are part of the 5 pillars of the faith in the Muslim religion except
    1. Prayer must be done seven (five) times a day
    2. Give one-fortieth of their income to the needy
    3. During the holy month of Ramadan, faithful Muslims fast from sunrise to sunset each day
    4. Each Muslim is expected to make the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in his or her lifetime
  19. An ascribed status is one that society assigns to an individual on the basis of factors over which the individual has no control: gender, race, ethnic background, and socioeconomic status, into which one is born.
    1. True
    2. False
  20. Which of the following is a dimension in Fons Trompenaar’ss Model of Culture?
    1. Diffuse
    2. Power Distance
    3. Uncertainty Avoidance
    4. Masculinity
  21. In high (low)- context cultures, enforceable contracts will tend to be in writing, precisely worded, and highly legalistic.  high (low) context cultures value directness. Managers are expected to be explicit and precise in conveying intended meaning.
    1. True
    2. False
  22. Communication between two cultures can be awkward if professionals do not conduct proper research.
    1. True
    2. False
  23. People in a particularism culture see the ideal culture in terms of human friendship, extraordinary achievement and situations, and intimate relationships.
    1. True
    2. False
  24. In an ____________ culture, people place the individual before the community; individual happiness, fulfillment, and welfare set the pace.
    1. Individualistic
    2. Specific
    3. Particularism
    4. Internal
  25.  _______________ culture: time moves around in cycles; people tend to do several things at a time; time is flexible and intangible.
    1. Internalistic
    2. Diffuse
    3. Achievement
    4. Synchronic
  26.  People in a _____________ culture share the belief that general rules, codes, values, and standards take precedence over particular needs and claims of friends and relations.
    1. Universalism
    2. Individualist
    3. Particularism
    4. Internal
  27.  ____________________ status refers to what an individual does and has accomplished.
    1. Achievement
    2. Synchronic
    3. Ascription
    4. Independent
  28. Synchronic (Sequential) culture tend to do one thing at a time view time as a narrow line of distinct, consecutive, segments.
    1. True
    2. False
  29.  In a _________________ culture, people start with the whole and see each element in perspective of the total; the whole is more important that the sum of its elements. Individuals have a large private sphere and a small public one.
    1. Communitarian
    2. Diffuse
    3. Universalism
    4. Internal
  30. Internalistic cultures have a mechanistic view of nature; nature is a complex machine, and machines can be controlled if one has the right expertise; people do not believe in luck or predestination;
    1. True
    2. False

 

 

Chapter 3

 

Matching

 

  1. Ownership risk – Risk of a claim from a previously disposed owner and risk that the current owner will be disposed
  2. Developed Nation – Greatest wealth and resources; HDI of 0.8 or higher
  3. Mixed Economy – System that allows fro the simultaneous operation of public/private owned enterprises
  4. Common Law – Used as a means of compensating someone for wrongful acts known as torts
  5. WTO – Created to monitor trade around the world
  6. Centrally planned economy – Comprehensive control/regulation by a government in accordance with the plan of economic development
  7. Local content requirement – Governments block open trade within a country’s borders
  8. Civil Law – Is the predominant system of law in the world
  9. Human Development Index (HDI) – Assessment of nations based upon certain achievements
  10. Quotas – Quantitative restrictions
  11. Transfer Risk – Occurs when debtors in a country are unable to ensure timely payments
  12. Big Mac Index – Used as an example of PPP in that a product is the same wherever you are in the world
  13. Developing nation – Lowest economic status; HDI less that 0.5
  14. Administrative delay – Impose a waiting period between the determination of a product’s quality and when it can be sold
  15. Gross domestic product (GDP) – Total market value of goods/services produced within a nation in a year
  16. Buyer’s credit – Closely associated with long-term loans
  17. Theocratic law – Refers to laws which are derived from religion
  18. Protectionism – A nation reducing number of imports it receives
  19. Supplier’s credit – Load: exporter is covered; value of cover<contract value
  20. Industrial property – Patents and trademarks

 

Multiple-choice/ true false

 

  1. Nations that primarily functioned under the centrally planned economic system prior to the 1980s, such as China and Russia, have embraced the market economy.
    1. True
    2. False
  2. Global business risk is any worldwide factor- outside the laws of  supply and demand- that could impact the success or failure of any venture moving into the international areana.
    1. True
    2. False
  3. __________ imposes a waiting period between the determination of a product’s quality and the determination of when it can actually be sold in a market
    1. Local content requirements
    2. Tariff
    3. Currency controls
    4. Administrative delays
  4. Which type of risk do managers have some control over?
    1. Organizational
    2. Operational
    3. Transfer
    4. Ownership
  5. Operation (transfer) risk occurs when debtors in a country are unable to ensure timely payments of foreign currency debt service because of either transfer or exchange restrictions or a general lack of foreign currency.
    1. True
    2. False
  6. The WTO was designed to
    1. Stimulate economic opportunities for U.S. businesses and their employees
    2.  Monitor trade around the entire world
    3. To promote regional trade
    4. Develop international monetary standards
  7. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the World Trade Organization, the World Bank, and the International Monetary Fund have all indicated that unstable political systems (corruption is) are the greatest single barrier to economic development worldwide.
    1. True
    2. False
  8. Which of the following is an economic trade sanctions against targeted foreign countries, groups, organizations, and individuals, which can be politically, economically, or morally motivated?
    1. Tariffs
    2. Quotas
    3. Embargoes
    4. Foreign Trade Zones
  9. Any company considering moving into a foreign economic market must consider the powerful influence of the military and religious leadership.
    1. True
    2. False
  10. Political issues that significantly impact global business include
    1. Government prevention of trade
    2. Government control of trade
    3. Government restriction of trade
    4. None of the above
  11. Which of the following is NOT a way that Governments promote trade?
    1. Special government agencies
    2. Subsidies
    3. Import Financing
    4. Foreign Trade Zones
  12. __________ are special privileges offered by the government in order to attract business to a region or to provide them with the funding to operate successfully.
    1. Subsidies
    2. Bribes
    3. FTZs
    4. Tariffs
  13. Which of the following is designed to raise revenue for governments and provide a competitive advantage for domestic businesses?
    1. Tariffs
    2. Quotas
    3. Embargoes
    4. Foreign Trade Zones
  14. Cultures such as China, North Korea, and Cuba believe that an economic value system should be founded on cumulative efforts, controlled by greater entities or governments.
    1. True
    2. False
  15. Which of the following are designated areas in Customs Ports of Entry that allow commercial merchandise to receive the same customs treatment it would receive if it were outside the commerce of the United States.
    1. Tariffs
    2. Quotas
    3. Embargoes
    4. Foreign Trade Zones
  16. A market (centrally planned) economy most often refers to an economic system that is under comprehensive control and regulation by a government, in accordance with the plan of economic development.
    1. True
    2. False
  17. Supplier’s credit is
    1. Loan in which the exporter is covered, but the value of the cover will ber less than the value of the contract.
    2. Loan in which the importer is covered, but the value of the cover will be less than the value of the contract.
    3. Loan in which the exporter is covered, but the value of the cover will be more than the value of the contract.
    4. Loan in which the importer is covered, but the value of the cover will be more than the value of the contract.
  18. Quotas typically
    1. Decrease the price of imports, increase the volume of imports, and encourage demand for foreign made substitutes.
    2. Raise the price of imports, reduce the volume or imports, and encourage demand for domestically made substitutes.
    3. Raise the price of exports, reduce the volume of imports, and encourage demand for domestically made substitutes.
    4. Decrease the price of exports, reduce the volume of exports, and encourage demand for domestically made substitutes.
  19. Which of the following is NOT a purpose behind embargoes?
    1. Protecting the assets of allies from hostile actions
    2. Assuring that the assets of targets will be available to meet future claims
    3. Increasing resources or technology
    4. Punishing a country or group for unacceptable behavior
  20. The three types of global business risk include ownership, operational risk and transfer risk.
    1. True
    2. False
  21. Which of the following are types of risk companies are exposed to in International transactions?
    1. Violence and Conflict
    2. Terrorism and Kidnapping
    3. Confiscation and expropriation
    4. All of the above
  22. In 1975 (1995), as a business and policy makers’ alike saw the potential growth of global business, the World Trade Organization (WTO) was created by several counties in order to monitor trade around the entire world.
    1. True
    2. False
  23. Which of the following places power in the hands of customs officials?
    1. Tariffs
    2. Quotas
    3. Embargoes
    4. Foreign Trade Zones
  24. The U.S. Department of Commerce developed the International Trade Administration (ITA) in order to stimulate economic opportunities for U.S. businesses and their employees.
    1. True
    2. False
  25. The United States Department of the Treasury oversees and enforces all U.S. economic sanctions through the Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC).
    1. True
    2. False

 

 

Chapter 4

 

Matching

 

  1. Factor conditions – Specialized or value-added factors that are developed because they do not naturally occurs
  2. Exports-Imports=Savings-Investments – Signifies the relationship between trade deficits and surpluses
  3. Eli Heckscher & Bertil Ohlin – Developed factor proportions theory
  4. Adam Smith – Developed the Theory of Absolute Advantage
  5. Opportunity Cost – The value of what had to be given up to consume or achieve the objective
  6. Capital Account – Net change in foreign ownership of domestic assets
  7. David Ricardo – Developed the Theory of Comparative Advantage
  8. Paul Krugman – Developed New Trade Theory
  9. Balance of Payments – Sum of all monies that flow in/out of a given country
  10. General Agreement on Tariffs & Trade – Precursor to the World Trade Organization
  11. Porter’s Diamond – The four determinants indicated the level of competitiveness of a national industry
  12. Capital account surplus – When foreign ownership of domestic assets increases faster than domestic ownership
  13. Mercantilism – Governments accumulate wealth in form of gold bullion
  14. Modern global system – Interdependent group acting as a unified whole, performing activities to achieve a common goal
  15. Michael Porter – Developed the Theory of Competitive Advantage of Nations
  16. Neoclassical theory – Determines the actions needed to be taken if the goal is to maximize world production
  17. Protectionism – Used as a means for controlling Foreign Direct Investment
  18. Current Account – Sum of a country’s net income from trade in goods and services
  19. Greenfield Investment – Development of a new operation in a foreign nation
  20. Raymond Vernon- Developed Factor Proportions Theory

 

Multiple choice/ true false

 

  1. Though the World Trade Organization (WTO) has officially existed since 1975 (1995), the foundation for the rules in this trading system originates in the GATT.
    1. True
    2. False
  2. In order to achieve economic advantage, a nation should specialize, produce, and export only products where the nation holds an absolute advantage.
    1. International Product Life Cycle Theory
    2. Absolute Advantage Theory
    3. Comparative Advantage Theory
    4. Factor Proportions Theory
    5. New Trade Theory
  3. If a nation’s ________________ far exceed its ____________, then the balance of payments is out of control, or more simply stated, out of balance.
    1. Imports, FDI
    2. Surpluses, imports
    3. Imports, deficits
    4. Surpluses, deficits
  4. As organizations become more involved in the global community, they may opt to purchase land or other resources in other nations. This activity known as foreign direct investment (FDI), is commonly used to purchase real estate and existing properties.
    1. True
    2. False
  5. Nations can benefit from trade even when one trading partner does not have an absolute advantage on any of the products being traded.
    1. International Product Life Cycle
    2. Absolute Advantage Theory
    3. Comparative Advantage Theory
    4. Factor Proportions Theory
    5. New Trade Theory
  6. The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) was singed on January 1, 1948.
    1. True
    2. False
  7. Keeping track of the activity surrounding international trade and investment is done by maintaining a record of all international transactions, otherwise known as the balance of payments (BOP).
    1. True
    2. False
  8. The activity, known as ________________ is when companies opt to purchase land or other resources in other nations.
    1. Foreign Direct Investment
    2. Foreign Direct Inventories
    3. Frequent Domestic Investment
    4. Frequent Direct Investment
  9. The equation represents the relationship between trade deficits and surpluses is expressed as: Exports – Investments = Savings – Imports
    1. True
    2. False
  10.  Operations of production are moved to a less-developed nation and the cycle is complete as highly-developed nations become importers of this product.
    1. International Product Life Cycle Theory
    2. Absolute Advantage Theory
    3. Comparative Advantage Theory
    4. Factor Proportions
    5. Theory
    6. New Trade Theory
  11. Government interventions may be used to decrease global competitiveness.
    1. True
    2. False
  12. Which of the following is NOT true regarding GATT?
    1. Originally created by the Bretton Woods Conference as part of a larger plan for economic recovery after World War II
    2. Its primary purpose was to reduce barriers to FDI
    3. Representatives from twenty nations accepted what would later be considered the precursor to the EU (WTO).
    4. The first attempt at setting international trade rules covered forty-five thousand tariffs and 20 percent of the world trade.
  13. The WTO encourages nations to practice the Golden Rule on a national level, pointing out that foreigners and foreign industries should be treated just like the locals and domestic industries
    1. True
    2. False
  14. The two ways companies can engage in FDI include
    1. Capital Investments and Joint ventures
    2. Mergers and foreclosures
    3. Greenfield investments and acquisitions
    4. None of the above
  15. Which of the following is NOT a strategic goal of FDI?
    1. Establishing a presence in a new geographic market
    2. Creating and maintaining global competitiveness
    3. Filling gaps in global product lines
    4. Reducing capital and labor costs. (Production and logistical costs).
  16. Socialism (Protectionism) is the economic policy of restraining trade between nations.
    1. True
    2. False
  17. The Balance of Payments
    1. Is the sum of all monies that flow in and out of a government run program
    2. Includes imports, goods, land, people, and financial investments
    3. Acts as a gauge to track the coming and going of international trade dollars
    4. Is usually calculated on a semi-annual basis
  18. All of the following are factors tha can affect the international BOP and either create or reduce surpluses and deficits except
    1. Prices of domestic goods
    2. Mergers and acquisitions
    3. Trade agreements
    4. Taxes and tariffs
  19. Government interventions may
    1. Be used to increase global competitiveness
    2. Intervene to keep the balance of payments under control
    3. Promote protectionism
    4. A and B only
    5. All of the above
  20. When considering FDI, the most important consideration facing a corporation is the type of ___________ and _______________ the investing corporation will have over the foreign entity.
    1. Ownership, control
    2. Partnership, political sway
    3. Ownership, authority
    4. Control, authority
  21. Equity capital is the value of MNC’s investment in shares of an enterprise in a foreign country
    1. True
    2. False
  22. Governments play a major role in support of technology by crafting industry-specific measures, such as tax credits for research and development of new technologies and trade policies that support essential technological sectors.
    1. International Product Life Cycle Theory
    2. Absolute Advantage Theory
    3. Comparative Advantage Theory
    4. Factor Proportions Theory
    5. New Trade Theory
  23. Ownership in foreign entities can be a complete or a controlling stake in the form of either a joint venture or through stock purchases and acquisitions of existing corporations. (Wholly-owned subsidiary or through mergers and acquisitions of existing corporations).
    1. True
    2. False
  24. Attempts to explain that nations will produce and export goods that use the highest proportions of those factors of production that are most abundant to the nation.
    1. International Product Life Cycle Theory
    2. Absolute Advantage Theory
    3. Comparative Advantage Theory
    4. Factor Proportions Theory
    5. New Trade Theory
  25. In mathematical terms the current account is expressed as
    1. Exports – Investments = Savings – Imports
    2. Exports – Imports = Savings – Investments
    3. Exports + Imports = Savings + Investments
    4. Exports – Imports = Savings + Investments

 

 

 

Chapter 5

 

Matching

 

  1. International Monetary Fund (IMF) – Maintain order in the global monetary system
  2. Speculation – Traders take risks as they buy/sell currencies based on predicted rise/fall in the price of given currency
  3. FX swap – Simultaneous purchase and sale of a currency for different delivery dates
  4. Future positions – Require a margin deposit to be posted & maintained daily
  5. Currency board – Monetary authority for a country/operative like a central bank
  6. Forward Exchange – Rate at which currency can be purchased in the future
  7. Direct quotation – American: value of foreign currency in domestic currency
  8. Indirect quotation – European: value of domestic currency in foreign currency
  9. Variable interest rate loan – Where the borrower and lender share the interest rate risks
  10. Forward discount – The difference between a spot rate and a forward rate
  11. Convertible currencies – Currencies that can easily be exchanged for other currencies
  12. Revaluation – Upward change in the currency’s value
  13. Law of one price – Similar goods in different countries should remain at the same price after conversion of currencies
  14. Floating exchange rate – Freely determined by the interaction of supply and demand
  15. Spot rates – Exchange rate of one currency in units of another currency immediately
  16. Arbitrage – Buying a commodity when its price is low and then reselling it after prices rise in order to make a profit
  17. Fixed exchange rates – Government/Central Bank ties the official exchange rate to another country’s currency or price of gold
  18. Foreign exchange market – Currency of one country is exchanged to currency of another country
  19. OTC Market – Decentralized market of securities not listed on an exchange market
  20. Hedging – Measures taken to protect from loss that may occur due to exchange rate or currency fluctuation

 

Multiple chose/ True false

 

  1. On August 15, 1971 President _____________ announced that the U.S. would no longer redeem currency for gold.
    1. Franklin D. Roosevelt
    2. Bill Clinton
    3. John F. Kennedy
    4. Richard Nixon
  2. The OTC FX Market has gradually evolved into the largest, fastest, and most flexible currency trading market in the world.
    1. True
    2. False
  3. The ___________ of the word have become highly interdependent because of improvements in __________ and transportation technologies and the lowering of barriers to trade.
    1. Societies, education
    2. Economies, communication
    3. Cultures, living standards
    4. Nations, religious acceptance
  4. Currency arbitrage means buying a currency in one market at a low price and reselling moments (months) later in another market at a higher price.
    1. True
    2. False
  5. Select the two reasons that global financial markets are important to borrowers.
    1. Expanding the supply of money and expanding lending opportunities
    2. Expanding lending opportunities and reduce the cost of money
    3. Reduce the cost of money and expand the supply of money
    4. Reducing risk and expanding lending opportunities
  6. In the United States, the Federal Reserve Bank is responsible for regulating the growth of the economy, which is accomplished by the increase or decrease of money supply
    1. True
    2. False
  7. Participation is voluntary, but before qualifying to adopt the Euro, a country must participate in the _______________ as one of the convergence criteria for entry
    1. ERM
    2. EMU
    3. ERM II
    4. EEC
    5. ERM I
  8. With 11 6 beginning members in 1952, the European Union has now grown to a total of 28 members.
    1. True
    2. False
  9. The Foreign Exchange Market is a physical and virtual institutionalized structure whereby currency of one country is exchanged to currency of another country.
    1. True
    2. False
  10. The 1922 Fordney-McCumber Act (Smoot-Hawley Tariff Act of June 1930) raised U.S. tariffs to historically high levels.
    1. True
    2. False
  11. All of the following are EU Member countries except
    1. Portugal
    2. Peru
    3. Malta
    4. Lithuania
  12. The role of the IMF is to supervise the exchange rate practices of member countries and to encourage the free convertibility of any national money into the monies of other countries
    1. True
    2. False
  13. Primary guardians of national currencies and usually responsible for setting monetary policy and exchange rate policy.
    1. Commercial Banks and Investments Banks
    2. Corporations
    3. Central Banks and Governments
    4. Investment Firms
  14. The membership requirements for the European Monetary Union (EMU) are based on the 5 convergent criterion: Price Stability, Sound public Finance, Sustainable Public Finances, Commodity (the word “commodity” shouldn’t be included), Durability Convergence and Exchange Rate Stability:
    1. True
    2. False
  15. Which of the following is not an industrial product exchanged within the global financial market?
    1. Foods
    2. Shares of Stock
    3. National currencies
    4. Child labor
  16. The law of PPP (one price) states that similar goods or commodities in different countries should remain at the same price after conversion of currencies according to current exchange rates.
    1. True
    2. False
  17. Use the FX market to facilitate international business activites
    1. Commercial Banks and Investment Banks
    2. Corporations
    3. Central Banks and Governments
    4. Investment Firms
  18. The most prominent major financial markets are located
    1. New York City, Tokyo, and London
    2. Atlanta, Shanghai, London
    3. New York, Shanghai, Switzerland
    4. Chicago, Tokyo, London
  19. The end result of global competition is ___________ products and _____________ for consumers.
    1. Lower quality, lower prices
    2. Higher quality, higher prices
    3. Lower quality, higher prices
    4. Higher quality, lower prices
  20. Two most popular products traded on the security exchange markets are stocks and bonds (futures).
    1. True
    2. False
  21. In the United States, the __________ is responsible for regulating the growth of the economy.
    1. The FX Market
    2. NYSE
    3. Federal Reserve
    4. The President
  22. A pegged (floating) exchange rate is an exchange rate that is freely determined by the interaction of supply and demand.
    1. True
    2. False
  23. If a currency price is expected to rise in the future, what is the higher price a buyer pays?
    1. Forward Exchange
    2. Forward Discount
    3. Forward Neutral
    4. Forward Premium
  24. The European Community established its Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) in 1979 and formed the initial steps for the creation of as single European currency.
    1. True
    2. False
  25. Reasons that global financial markets are important to lenders
    1. Expand the supply of money and reduce the cost of money
    2. Reducing risk and reducing the cost of money
    3. Expanding lending opportunities and reducing risk
    4. Reduce the cost of money and regulate the supply of money
  26. Which of the following is NOT a typical way lenders expand lending opportunities to borrowers?
    1. Fixed Interest Rate Loans
    2. Secured Loan
    3. Up-Front Cash
    4. Short-Term Loan
  27. The majority of transactions on the FX include operations with the Euro (US Dollar), where one party sells or buys dollars using other world currencies.
    1. True
    2. False
  28. Generally the market makers on the foreign exchange
    1. Commercial Banks and Investment Banks
    2. Corporations
    3. Central Banks and Governments
    4. Hedge Funds
  29. The _______________ Market has gradually evolved into the largest, fastest, and most flexible curreny trading market in the world.
    1. NYSE
    2. NASDAQ
    3. FX
    4. Derivatives
  30. Which of the following is true concerning the IMF?
    1. The IMF was created to maintain order in the global monetary system
    2. It assists nations in their development through capital loans to developed nations
    3. It was one of the results of the Geneva Convention
    4. The purpose was to achieve economically stable standards of living among its citizens.

 

 

 

 

Chapter 6

 

  1. Preferential Trade Areas - Africa, Pacific, Caribbean Pack; Lome Convention
  2. ACP – A Preferential Trade Area that includes Africa, the Pacific, and the Caribbean
  3. Mercosur – Established in 1991 to promote free trade and the fluid movement of goods, people, and currency
  4. Trading bloc – Committed to officiate and develop trade activities for signatory nations
  5. NAFTA – Was signed by the presidents of Mexico, United States, and Canada in 1992
  6. Free trade area – U.S.-Chile Agreement of 2003
  7. ASEAN – A regional agreement that includes countries of Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Laos, Philippines, and Thailand
  8. Four Tigers – South Korea, Hong Kong, Singapore, and Taiwan
  9. CACM – United external tariffs, removed duties on products, increased trade between Central American countries
  10. The Schengen agreement – Abolished passport and border controls within the European Union
  11. Regional economic integration – Country reduce/remove tariff/non-tariff barriers to trade between members; decide own barriers for non-members
  12. Economic Union - European Union
  13. ECJ – Decides on claims brought by the European Commission regarding noncompliance with EU laws
  14. Custom Union – Mercosur
  15.  Common market – Includes all elements of a Customs Union and freedom of movement of the 4 factors of production
  16. Customs delay – Bureaucratic formalities; slow down imported product from entering the domestic market
  17. European central bank – Is responsible fro monetary policy of the Euro
  18. Council of Europe – Passes EU law of on the recommendations of the European Commission and the European Parliament
  19. Political Union – Most advanced form of regional economic integration
  20. OPEC – Helps member countries coordinate oil production to stabilize the oil market

 

True/ False and Multiple choice

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a problem ECOWAS faces?
    1. Attempting to unite the region
    2. Hunger
    3. Updating the current electrical grid to create more reliable energy
    4. The strict use of passports as the means of travel between the countries
  2. Regional integration (free trade area) is the process whereby countries remove barriers to trade between themselves, but each country determines its own barriers against nonmembers.
    1. True
    2. False
  3. Eighteen of the European union nations have formed a single currency area called ___________.
    1. The Euro currency zone
    2. The Eurozone
    3. The European finance area
    4. The Economic zone of Europe
  4. Approximately 50 percent of all world trade is conducted through regional trade agreements.
    1. True
    2. False
  5. The goals of the Lome Convention (Cotonou Agreement) are threefold: (1) the reduction and eventual eradication of poverty in Signatory Island and land-locked nations, (2) sustainable economic development in Signatory Island and land-locked nations, and (3) the gradual integration of signatory countries into the world economy.
    1. True
    2. False
  6. A Common Market includes all of the elements of a Customs Union and freedom of movement of the four factors of production: goods, services, capital, and labor.
    1. True
    2. False
  7. Which of the following countries is NOT a founding member of APEC? (Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation)
    1. New Zealand
    2. China
    3. Singapore
    4. Indonesia
  8. In 1979 (1989), Mexican President Carlos Salinas invited United States President Bill Clinton (George Bush) to organize a trade agreement that would increase investment and decrease tariffs between the U.S. and Mexico.
    1. True
    2. False
  9. Mercosur was established in 1991 with the intent of increasing the competiveness of its five member nations’ economies through the use of research on economic development. Full-member nations include Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay, and Venezuela.
    1. True
    2. False
  10. Trading blocs provide protection from global competitiveness.
    1. True
    2. False
  11. ANCOM was established in 1990  (1969) with the Agreement of Cartagena, or Andean Pact, between Bolivia, Peru.
    1. True
    2. False
  12. OPEC was founded in 1960 in Baghdad.
    1. True
    2. False
  13. CACM was established in 1960 between
    1. Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua
    2. Guatemala, Puerto Rico, Honduras, and Nicaragua
    3. Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, and Costa Rica
    4. Brazil, El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua
  14. Which of the following is not a member of OECD?
    1. Greenland
    2. Korea
    3. Israel
    4. Greece
  15. A study conducted by the OECD reported the students who had the highest level of reading proficiency include
    1. Finland, Canada, Norway
    2. United States, Denmark, Luxembourg
    3. Shanghai-China, Korea, Finland
    4. Japan, Korea, Finland
  16.  The participation in a trading bloc leads to the minimization nof duplication, thin spreading of resources, and wasteful competition.
    1. True
    2. False
  17. Which of the following is the order of the stages of regional economic integration?
    1. FTA, EU, CM, CU, PU
    2. EU, CM, FTA, PU, CU
    3. FTA, CU, CM, EU, PU
    4. CM, PU, CU, EU, FTA
  18. Preferential (Free) Trade Areas are suitable in cases where economic structures in signatory nations complement one another and trade in products that do not compete with each other.
    1. True
    2. False
  19. Which of the following countries is NOT a member of Mercosur?
    1. Brazil
    2. Argentina
    3. Uruguay
    4. Costa Rica
  20. All of the following are important EU institutions except
    1. Eurozone
    2. Council of the European Union
    3. European Commission
    4. European Court of Justice

 

 

Chapter 7 and 8

 

Chapter 7

 

Matching

 

  1. National regulations – When a firm incurs unanticipated costs from underestimating foreign regulations
  2. Proactive – Quest for profit, competitive advantage, market opportunities, economies of scale
  3. Expanding into the global marketplace – Gaining access to resources, cuttings cost, capitalizing on special feature location, expanding markets
  4. Market orientation – Contributor to the positional advantage of the company and long-term, overall firm performance
  5. Competitor knowledge competence – Knack to acquire, interpret, and integrate information regarding the global competitive environment
  6. License – Allows one party to use a property right in exchange for payment to the other party
  7. Political constraints – Antitrust laws, tax programs, minimum wage, legislation, pollution and pricing policies
  8. Global managers – Tend to possess experiential/knowledge to many cultures
  9. Successful international expansion – Commitment from management across the organization
  10.  Reactive – Competitive pressure, excess capacity, overproduction, declining home market
  11.  Strategic alliance – Voluntary arrangement between companies
  12.  Low-intensity entry – There is no investment into the new market
  13. Market Dynamism – The rate of change of the customer preferences, market segments, and demand patterns
  14.  Intermediaries – Act as facilitator for a potential supplier and consumer
  15. Small Business Administration (SBA) – Provide corporate services including financing, trade counseling, commodity brokerage for small business
  16.  Turnkey projects – Common when developing with infrastructure projects or other complex subcontracting
  17.  Wholly owned subsidiaries – Corporate entity needs complete control over every detail of the structure in the host country
  18.  Public sector facilitator – United States Department of Commerce
  19.  Joint Venture – New firm created, owned by the alliance partners
  20.  High intensity entry – Financial, marketing, distribution, and possible executive investment

 

True/false and Multiple choice

 

  1. Most firms typically choose to enter into global markets from a proactive stance, but some are forced to enter the global market in a reactive stance
    1. True
    2. False
  2. Which of the following is NOT an area of competition for business in a global market?
    1. Quality and price
    2. Counterattacks
    3. Economies of Scope
    4. Realization of additional profits
  3. Population growth is a great reference, and (it) is (not) always the key indicator of a strong potential market
    1. True
    2. False
  4. Successful global managers have an understanding of how to appraise and adjust to the requirement of doing business in a culture different from their own.
    1. True
    2. False
  5. The necessary conditions for expansion into global markets include all of the following except:
    1. Expanding markets
    2. Obtaining government authorization
    3. Cutting costs
    4. Capitalizing on special features of location
  6. The global strategic planning process is complex but does not entail as many factors, variable, challenges, and risks as domestic strategic planning.
    1. True
    2. False
  7. Organizations must ensure that they do not plan hurriedly or rush into foreign markets to jump on an opportunity for quick cash.
    1. True
    2. False
  8. The three aspects which are especially important to international expansion are location, timing, and scope (scale).
    1. True
    2. False
  9. What are the two types of entry modes available into a market?
    1. Low intensity: No investment into the new market; high intensity: Significant amounts of investment in the market
    2. Exporting: sending of goods abroad; importing: bringing of goods from abroad
    3. Low intensity: significant amounts of investment in the market; high intensity: no investment into the new market
    4. Exporting: bringing of goods from abroad; importing: sending of goods abroad
  10.  A major Proactive motivation factor includes:
    1. Competitive pressure
    2. Excess capacity
    3. Over production
    4. Economies of scale
  11.  The expectation of standardized goods and services with a corresponding level of consistency in service, quality, and performance across nations and regions signifies the trend towards global commerce.
    1. True
    2. False
  12.  One of the most important questions to answer when entering the global market is that of
    1. Current market share
    2. Labor restrictions
    3. Location
    4. None of the above
  13.  Direct market accession offers a firm low risk, gives them a simple way to initiate the process of entering a global market, and helps the firm meet demands and challenges.
    1. True
    2. False
  14. Businesses must carefully consider the benefits, advantages, challenges, and risks involved to compete within an international market.
    1. True
    2. False
  15.  The key factors that influence the entry mode selection are
    1. International experience of the firm
    2. Size of the market
    3. Production and labor costs
    4. A and B only
    5. None of the above
  16. In most cases, exporting and importing requires a maximum (minimum) initial investment and may allow a business to develop key relationships with export/import firms (intermediaries) that will aid in ensuring success into the new market.
    1. True
    2. False
  17.  ___________________ is a significant contributor to the positional advantage of the company and is related to the long-term, overall firm performance.           
    1. Facility location
    2. Market segmentation
    3. Market orientation
    4. Managerial experience
  18.  External environment factors that can affect the entry of new entrants in another country can be
    1. Economic, social, political
    2. Cultural, legal, religious
    3. Economical, legal, technological
    4. None of the above
  19.  Which is not a vital consideration for determining managerial commitment to expanding globally?
    1. Commitment of top management to go global
    2. Managements timeframe/timeliness for the international operations to pay off
    3. The international experience the firm possesses internally
    4. Low-level management’s time allocation on the company’s global efforts
    5. The organization structure required for success
  20.  Joint ventures usually involve an alliance where two or more companies contribute assets, which results in the formation of a new legal entity.
    1. True
    2. False
  21.  _________________ are utilized to prove expertise to inexperienced exporters as they enter overseas markets.
    1. Facilitators
    2. Brokers
    3. Export intermediaries
    4. Export management companies
  22.  A franchise (license) is an agreement that allows one party to use a property right in exchange for payment to the other party.
    1. True
    2. False
  23.  ­­___________________ represent situations where a company with experience in specific business areas or industrial sectors makes personnel available to perform general or specialized management functions for another company.
    1. Joint venture
    2. License
    3. Turnkey projects
    4. Managerial contracts
  24.  The greatest reactive (proactive) motivation for global expansion is the prospect of global sales.
    1. True
    2. False
  25. What market strategy is utilized when a corporate entity needs complete control over every detail of the structure within the host country?    
    1. Turnkey project
    2. Wholly Owned Subsidiaries
    3. Managerial contract
    4. Joint venture

 

 

 

Chapter 8

 

Matching

 

  1. ISO 9000 – Set of guidelines for quality management and standards
  2. Decentralized organizational structure – Allows decision making authority to occur where the decision are to be made
  3. Configuration –Various versions of products manufactured and distributed by a company
  4. Supply chain management – Constraint management, concurrent planning, global insight, advance warning, built-in business optimization
  5. Operations level decision – Demand forecasting, inventory management, production, procurement, transportation, warehousing
  6. Network level decision – Degree of centralization/decentralization, hierarchy, and number of echelons
  7. Just-in-time productions or systems – Business should hold slight or zero inventory outside what is necessary for immediate production/distribution
  8. Product layout – Groups machines according to their roles in the production process
  9. The value chain – The acquisition of raw material, finished goods manufacturing, and distribution channels
  10. Productivity – Ratio of output as it relates to input
  11. Total quality management – Tool used in managing of the total production process that limites total output
  12. Global outsourcing/ KANBAN clusters – Means to enhance the effectiveness of the value chain
  13. Principles of total quality – Customer Focus, Participation and Teamwork, Continuous Improvement and Learning
  14. Locus of decisions – Decisions controlled by home office or in a foreign location
  15. Cross functional teams – Include experts in each technical area within an organization are at horizontal in nature
  16. Operational bottleneck – The slowest process in a multistep production process that limits total output
  17. Capacity – Total amount of products that can be produced by the entire operation in a given amount of time
  18. Theory of constraints – Greater gain comes from identifying which parts of the process is a constraint to the whole
  19.  3PLs – Manage noncritical process within an organization and can contribute to nearly all aspects of an organization
  20. MRP – Comprises the inventory planning and ordering category of inventory control

 

True/False and Multiple choice

 

  1. Which of the following is a strategic capability to necessitate the development of a global operations strategy?
    1. Global-scale efficiency and competitiveness
    2. National-level responsiveness and flexibility
    3. Cross-market capacity to leverage on a worldwide basis
    4. All of the above
  2. The key components in successful operations management are efficiency and effectiveness.
    1. True
    2. False
  3. All of the following are capacity issues except
    1. Facilities location
    2. Location economies
    3. Organizational structure
    4. Production requirements
  4. Typical processes within an organization include which of the following areas requiring management:
    1. Inventory, Human Resources, and product pricing
    2. Logistics and transportation, procurement, quality
    3. Quality, product and service, configuration
    4. Financial resources, human resources, facilities
  5. Capacity, in terms of production-oriented firms, refers to the total amount of products that can be produced by the entire operation in a given amount of time.
    1. True
    2. False
  6. The Theory of Constraints (TOC) suggests that the greater gain will come from identifying which part of the process is a constraint to the whole, rather than focusing on increased output from an entire process.
    1. True
    2. False
  7. A disadvantage of M&A is:
    1. Damage employee loyalty and morale
    2. Tendency to dwindle natural resources and raw materials
    3. They tend to crowd out locally owned operations
    4. They can become targets for reverse takeovers
  8. Kaizen (Total Quality Management), utilized from the executive levels of the firm to the line workers, is a tool used in the managing of the total production process to generate an exceptional product or service
    1. True
    2. False
  9. ________________ is the ratio of output as it relates to input- the conversion of inputs or resources into outputs of merchandise or services
    1. Optimal production output
    2. Optimal capacity level
    3. Productivity
    4. None of the above
  10.  Just-in-time production or systems is comprehensive set of doctrines and systems founded on the philosophy that businesses should hold a large (slight or zero) inventory above (beyond) what is necessary for immediate production or distribution
    1. True
    2. False
  11.  The ABC Classification System is used to categorize inventory items and is also known as stock keeping units (SKUs).
    1. True
    2. False
  12. The term logistics refers to the movement of finished products, semi-finished products, components, and material between various locations.
    1. True
    2. False
  13. Continuous improvement, sometimes referred to as ____________, is a management technique that historically involves several incremental improvements to a process rather than a single overpowering improvement or change.
    1. TQM
    2. Six Sigma
    3. Kaizen
    4. JIT
  14.  Strategic planning level decisions are the highest level of logistics decisions.
    1. True
    2. False
  15.  Which of the following is NOT a type of observable production-oriented waste?
    1. Product defects
    2. Process waste
    3. Inventory
    4. Underproduction
  16.  It is important to remember that cost saving do not only result from looking for the cheapest method but also from looking for the most efficient method
    1. True
    2. False
  17. All of the following are key issues of global logistics except
    1. Movement of product
    2. Movement of information
    3. Time/service
    4. Cost
    5. Obtaining scarce resources
  18.  The availability of tools, such as forecasting, distribution and inventory planning, and e-commerce allow many organizational processes to be integrated across supply chains
    1. True
    2. False
  19.  ___________________ issues include performance objectives, the degree of vertical integration, outsourcing within the supply chain, what will be measured, and how to accomplish the measurement.
    1. The strategic planning level
    2. The network level
    3. The operations level
    4. The organizational level
  20.  What are the three types of demand forecasting models?
    1. Judgmental, intrinsic, extrinsic
    2. Intrinsic, extrinsic, historical
    3. Extrinsic, judgmental, progressive
    4. External, internal, historical

 

 

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