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Bio 160 Complete Course Notes
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Chapter$1$ Topic&1:&&Introduction&to&Biology&and&the&Tree& of&Life a. The&common&characteristics&of&all&known&living&things. a. Biologists$do$not$have$a$simple$definition$of$life$but$they$have$ concluded$that$they$all$have$5$basic$characteristics$that$define$an$ organism$as$alive.' i. Energy ii. Have$Cells iii. Process$information$ iv. Replication$(Reproduction) v. Evolution$ b. The&general&concepts&of&Cell&Theory&and&Theory&of&Natural&Selection,& and&how&these&provide&a&framework&for&all&of&biology. c.&&the&details&of&Pasteur’s&key&experiment&elucidating&the&origin&of&cells.&& Know&the&two&hypotheses&being&tested,&the&experimental&manipulation,&the& predictions&that&derived&from&each&hypothesis,&the&resulting&observations,& and&how&the&data&were&interpreted&to&uphold&one&hypothesis&and&reject&the& other. HCell&Theory (Theory:&defined'by'an'explanation'for'a'very'general'class'of' phenomena'or'observations'that are'supported'by'a'wide'body'of'evidence): i. All organisms$are$made$of$cells… (Cell:'highly' compartmentalized'structure'that'is'bounded'by'a'thin,'flexible' structure'called'a'plasma'membrane'which'contains' concentrated'chemicals'in'an'aqueous'solution) 1. Robert$Hooke$created$a$30x$microscope a. Looked$at$cork$and$called$the$structures$“cells” 2. Anton$Van$Leeuwenhoek$developed$a$300x$microscope a. Inspected$samples$of$pond$water,$human$blood,$ sperm$cells,$and$named$the$single$celled$ organisms$“animalcules” ii. All$cells$come$from$preexisting$cells... 1. Original$theory$was$that$cells$spontaneously$arise$(midQ 1800s) 2. In$1858$German$scientist$Rudolph$Virchow$proposed$ that$all$cells$arise$from$preexisting$cells.$(A'hypothesis:$a' testable'statement'to'explain'a'phenomenon'or'a'set'of' observations) 3. Soon$after…$Louis$Pasteur$decided$to$test$Virchow’s$ hypothesis$with$the$nutrient$broth$experiment,$which$ eventually$proved$that$cells$only$arise$from$preexisting$ cells.$ a. Two$treatment$groups i. A$broth$that$was$exposed$to$preexisting cells 1. Straight$neck$flaskQexposed$to$ bacteria$and$fungi$clinging$to$dust$ in$the$air.$ *cells&were&present&after ii. A$broth$that$was$not$exposed$to$ preexisting$cells.$ 1. Swan$neck$flaskQ water$condensed$ in$the$crook$of$the$neck$after$being$ coiled,$trapping$any$dust$particles$ (cells)$from$entering.$ *no&cells&were&present&after iii. Cell&Theory:&All$organisms$are$made$of$cells,$all$cells$arise$ from$preexisting$cells.$ d.&&the difference&between&“evolution”&and&“natural&selection”,&and&the& conditions&that&must&be&met&for&natural&selection&to&occur.&&[Note&that&the& specific&mechanism&of&Darwinian&natural&selection&was&slightly&different&in& lecture&than&in&the&textbook,&but&the&general&concepts&are&the&same.] HTheory&of&Evolution(pattern:'phenomenon'observed'in'nature) by&Natural& Selection(process:'explains'a'pattern):& HEvolution:&(the$pattern) 1. Species$are$related$by$common$ancestry 2. Species$change$over$time$(decent'with'modification) HNatural&Selection:&(the$processQhow$evolution$occurs) 1.&Conditions$on$Natural$Selection$ a. Individuals$within$a$populationHa'group'of' individuals'of'the'same'species'living'in'the'same' area/same'timeQ vary$in$characteristics$that$are$ heritableBtraits'can'be'passed'onto'offspring.' b. The$heritable$traits$can$help$individuals$survive$ better$or$reproduce$more$than$other$versions.$ *Natural$SelectionQ acts$on$individuals *EvolutionQ acts$on$population$ • Fitness:&The$ability$of$an$individual$to$produce$viable$ offspring.$$High$Fitness=$Many$surviving$offspring$ • Adaptation:&(noun)$A$trait$that$increases$the$fitness$of$an$ individual.$ e.&&The&framework&for&organizing&life,&and&how&the&modern&framework&(“Tree& of&Life”)&relates&to&the&historic&framework&proposed&by&Carolus&Linnaeus.&& Know&Linnaeus’&2&key&contributions&toward&modern&taxonomy&(naming& organisms)&and&systematics&(organizing&organisms&into&groups). HTree&of&Life:&a$family$tree$of$organisms.$ 1. Creating$the$Tree$of$Life: a. Carl$Wose$studies$RNA$ i. Ribonucleotides$make$up$RNA,$and$the$sequence$ of$these$can$change$during$the$course$of$ evolution,$eventually$changing$the$traits$of$an$ organism.$ ii. Wose$predicted$that$if$the$theory$of$evolution$ was$correct$then$the$RNA$sequence$in$species$ that$are$closely$related$should$be$similar$while$ species$that$are$not$closely$related$will$not$be$ similar.$(AQUQAQUQCHGQAQG)! Land$Plants $$(AQUQAQUQGQGQAQG)!Green$Algae $$$$$vs$ $$(AQAQAQUQGQCQAQC)!Brown$Algae a. Wose’s$goal$was$to$produce$a$ phylogenetic&tree to$show$relatedness$ among$species$from$the$genetic$data.$ Q History&of&the&Tree&of&Life 1. Carolus$Linnaeus a. Believed$to$gain$insight$by$observing$organisms$ in$their$natural$habitat$ b. Two$major$contribution: i. Seperates$definition$of$a$species$from$its$ name.$ ii. Creates$a$nested$hierarchy$of$ organization$(2$kingdoms:$Animals$and$ Plants)$ Linnaeus$Taxonomic$Hierarchy 1. Kingdom! animalia 2. Phylum*! chordata 3. Class! mammalia 4. Order! primates 5. Family*! Hominidae 6. GenusQ! Homo " closely$related " not$closely$related 7. Species$! Homo$sapiens *Genus:$always$ CAPITALIZED *Species:$never$capitalized

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  • Bio 160 Complete Course Notes
    $20.00

    Chapter$1$ Topic&1:&&Introduction&to&Biology&and&the&Tree& of&Life a. The&common&characteristics&of&all&known&living&things. a. Biologists$do$not$have$a$simple$definition$of$life$but$they$have$ concluded$that$they$all$have$5$basic$characteristics$that$define

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