Carbohydrates: Structure and Function
List the 4 classes of biomolecules and the class of monomers used as building blocks in the polymers of each class.
What 3 kinds of atoms does a carbohydrate contain?
What 2 characteristics of sugars make them members of the class of “carbohydrates” ?
Five of the six carbon atoms in a ____________ molecule are typically found bonded together with an oxygen atom in a ring structure.
Name 2 general classes or kinds of sugar molecules.
What is the function of glycogen?
Lipids: Structure and Function
Lipids are a class of molecules defined by their ____________ in water.
Other than for cooking French fries, list 3 biological functions of lipid molecules of various sorts.
The Wonderfully Functional Fat Molecule
The structure of a fat molecule (a polymer) consists of what 3 monomers covalently bonded to a glycerol molecule?
Unsaturated fats have a higher number of ____________ ____________ between carbon atoms in their structures.
Animal fats tend to be ____________ with hydrogen atoms.
The Amazing Phospholipid
In a phospholipid, what are the 3 (monomeric) parts that are attached to the glycerol molecule?
A phospholipid is a large polymeric molecule that is ____________ over most of its structure but very ____________ at one end.
What is the functional role of phospholipids in cells?
The structure of testosterone: four rings of ____________ atoms bonded together with ____________ atoms around the edges.
List 4 functional roles of the hormone testosterone in the human male.
Proteins: Structure and Function
A Glorious Structure Supports Myriads of Functions
What 4 structural groups surround the central carbon atom of an amino acid?
Polymers of amino acids that are linked in linear chains and that contain atoms of nitrogen are called ____________.
Crossing Biomolecular Class Lines
Glycoproteins are molecules that are partially simple ____________ and partially ____________.
Nucleic Acids: Structure and Function
Nucleotides: The Monomers
A nucleotide monomer could best be described as a five-carbon ____________ that is bonded to a nitrogen-containing ____________ and to either one, two or three ____________ groups.
The Polymers: DNA and RNA
List the 4 kinds of nitrogen-containing bases found in DNA molecules.
Which base is used in RNA but not DNA?
State the function of the sequence of bases in a long, polymeric DNA molecule.
Structurally, the monomers of RNA contain the sugar ____________ and the nitrogenous bases ____________, ____________, ____________, and ____________.
What polymer enables the cell’s information to flow from DNA out into the cell cytoplasm in a more expressible form?
Complexity III: The Glory of the Cell
What Is a Cell?
Why is it impossible to write a brief dictionary definition of life?
Criticize the text’s definition of a cell. What is a major difficulty with this definition?
List the 3 parts or elements of cell theory.
Generalizations: At Once Brilliant and Naïve
How do slime molds violate the first element of cell theory?
Cells are small because the ____________ rate of molecules will not support life over greater distances.
Living Cells Are Complex
What structure do prokaryotic cells always lack?
A major portion of prokaryotic cells go by the common name ____________.
Generally speaking, prokaryotic cells are ____________ and ____________ than eukaryotic cells.
Bacteria are typically very small, yet even the largest bacterium is still only a prokaryote. Why?
Describe 2 possible arrangements for membranes and wall in the boundary around a prokaryotic cell.
List 2 possible functions of the second outer membrane in some prokaryotic cells.
A prokaryotic cell is protected against osmotic swelling and rupture by its ____________.
Some bacteria always live in surroundings with the same concentration of dissolved substances as in their own cytoplasm. What structure do these bacteria not need?
List the names and roles of 5 specific classes of proteins found bound within a prokaryotic cell membrane.
List 2 broad classes of biomolecules found within the nucleoid of a prokaryotic organism.
Describe a microcompartment and state where they are found.
____________ house enzymes that trap carbon dioxide and bind it to larger substrate molecules.
In order for the unwanted bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes to adhere to your throat cells, attachment to your cells must be made. This is done using new proteins called ____________ and new cell structures called ____________.
Why is it difficult for human macrophages to detect and destroy strep cells?
The streptococcal cell structure that does the most direct damage to the human body is ____________ protein.
An important function of the eukaryotic cell ____________ is to maintain the high level of orderliness found within the cell.
The cell’s DNA, plus its scaffolding, are referred to as ____________. It contains the cell’s archive of ____________.
What do you call discrete, visible lengths of DNA sequence found in human cell nuclei?
What important activity occurs in the cell’s nucleolus?
Eukaryotic cells heavily responsible for making proteins have their ribosomes arranged within a network of channels known as the ____________ ____________.
What cell organelles have ribosomes in their membranes? (Ribosomes do protein synthesis.)
What is the role of the Golgi complex within the cell cytoplasm?
Which cell organelle would be useful in a cell that takes in and destroys viruses?
Describe how a lysosome is formed.
____________ are little molecular machines (eukaryotic cell structures) that move vesicles and organelles throughout the cytoplasm of the cell.
____________ and ____________ are structures that walk along microtubules in the eukaryotic cell, carrying vesicles from place to place.
A eukaryotic cell that needs to have a lot of ATP energy would have a lot of what kind of organelle?
What is the functional role of chloroplasts within plant cells?
In a eukaryotic cell, the reactions of ____________ convert energy into the form of ATP within a structure called the ____________.
Ribosomes in an acinar cell generate the amino acid sequence of the digestive enzyme ____________.
Within an acinar cell, the enzyme amylase reaches its final form within the ____________.
When the enzyme amylase from the pancreas is finally ready for use, where, within the cells, is it stored?
What stimulates the release of the enzyme amylase into the pancreatic duct so that it can break down starches?
The small intestine signals the ____________ cell that food (starch) is present; the signal is a ____________ that binds to ____________ on the cell.
What is the immediate effect of the binding of acetylcholine to an acinar cell surface receptor protein?