Information and Its Expression in the Cell
The Expression of Biological Information
A Context for Understanding Gene Expression
When the organism expresses a set of genes, the result is the characteristics of that organism. These characteristics are called its ___________.
The term “transcription” means the process of reading a base sequence in ____________ to generate a complementary base sequence in ____________.
Why is the word “translation” used for protein production?
Information from DNA is transcribed into mRNA, which is then transported to ribosomes. This phrase describes the role of ____________ in ____________ expression.
Describe 2 major problems that transcription solves for the cell.
Transcription: Using Some Genes Now and Some Not at All
In the process of transcription, the base sequence in the molecule ____________ is read by the molecule ____________, an enzyme that makes RNA molecules.
Which RNA product helps the ribosome to recognize how and where to begin working?
Following the transcription event, list 4 separate parts of the overall processing of mRNA in the cell’s nucleus.
In the cell nucleus, a pre-mRNA has its introns removed by ____________ enzymes.
Translation: Making Proteins
In the translation process, tRNA molecules are also called “adapter” molecules. Why? What is their function?
There are more than four kinds of amino acids in proteins. Each kind of amino acid must be coded for in mRNA. Thus, a short sequence of mRNA bases called a(n) ____________ is used to code for each amino acid in the translation process.
What is a general name for a three-dimensional, folded molecule shaped like an “L,” with an anticodon at one end and an amino acid attachment site at the other end?
Transferring correct amino acids to the ribosome during elongation is a good description of the role of ____________ in the cell cytoplasm.
What is the role of tRNA synthetase in the cell’s cytoplasm?
Peptide bonds are formed during the ____________ stage of translation.
The role of the ribosome or its subunits: creating a channel for ____________ to enter and exit.
The role of the ribosome or its subunits: helping tRNA ____________-codons to bind to mRNA ____________.
The role of the ribosome or its subunits: comparing ____________ anti-codons against corresponding ____________ codons.
The role of the ribosome or its subunits: binding ____________ ____________ together to form a polypeptide chain.
This sequence best represents the overall flow of ____________ in a cell: transcription, pre-mRNA processing, translation, protein processing, export
List all of the organelles involved in the flow of information from archival DNA to its expression as a resulting glycoprotein.
In order to elongate mRNA, RNA polymerase must unwind and open double-stranded ____________.
In order to elongate mRNA, RNA polymerase must sense correct ____________ and incorporate them into the new RNA strand.
In order to elongate mRNA, RNA polymerase must dislodge the ____________ strand from its temporary pairing with DNA.
In order to elongate mRNA, RNA polymerase must ____________ the RNA strand to remove and replace copying errors.
The Genetic Code
The ____________ is often represented as a chart in which a specific sequence of bases in mRNA (a codon) is used to represent each amino acid building block found in the world of proteins.
The genetic code is said to be degenerate. What does this mean?
Informational Continuity in Cells
A Thin Skin of Life Chasing Death
What are the 3 essential resources that a daughter cell must get from a parent cell or from nature in order to succeed in living life?
Life perpetuates itself at the ____________ level by acquiring monomers and energy sources at the microscopic level and by carrying out absorption, processing and growing “for” the organism.
Cell Division: A Requirement for Life
When DNA is replicated, the two strands are first separated through breakage of ____________; each strand then becomes a ____________ against which two new strands are made.
Cell Division Is Part of a Cycle: The Cell Cycle
List the 4 symbols/names for the 4 stages of the cell cycle.
The “S” phase of the cell cycle represents the activity of DNA ____________.
Moving ahead with cell division is controlled by the interaction of hormones with cell surface __________ proteins, interaction of receptor proteins with ____________ intermediates, interaction of cyclins with ____________ proteins, and interaction of kinase proteins with inactive ____________ proteins.
List in order the stages of mitosis.
The nuclear membrane of the cell disintegrates during which mitotic period of the cell cycle?
The mitotic stage of metaphase is most clearly defined by what organelle activity with what result?
The de-condensation of visible chromosomes back into chromatin fibers is a defining feature of which phase of the cell cycle?
Cancer: Mutation Threatening Design
The Unifying Basis of Cancer
List the 2 principle characteristics of the disease cancer.
A ____________ is a mutated form of a gene that normally directs the activation of regulatory pathways moving a cell toward division.
What would you call genes that normally direct the inhibition of cell division regulatory pathways?
A Tale of Two Cancer Genes
In healthy cells, what is the normal function of the activated ras protein?
Complexity IV: From Cell to Organism
Development: Decoding a Master Plan
What Can Be Done with a Fertilized Egg?
Information for developing an animal comes from within the animal. This is a major difference between animal development and ____________ development.
Getting from One Cell to You or to a Tree
List the recognized organ systems to be found within the human body.
Summarize the structure and function of the endocrine system.
Development of a Human Being
A sequence of human cell divisions accompanied by some growth and cell differentiation convert an early, solid ball of cells called a ____________ into a hollow ball of cells called a ____________.
Embryonic Differentiation of Organ Systems
List and distinguish all the terms that would be used to describe aspects of the three-dimensional adult form.
In the three-dimensional form of the adult Dalmatian dog, what would the “front” end of the animal be named?
Your primordial (early) ____________ began as a fusion of two endocardial tubes near your midline.
Organogenesis of the Brain
List the 5 pre-specialized (early) regions of the brain found in a 7-week-old human embryo.
Successful differentiation of early brain regions requires that cells destined to form these regions have surface receptors for both the ____________ and ____________ signal proteins.
What is the role of the adult cerebrum?
Heart rate and respiratory inhalation rate functions in the mature human adult are controlled by the ____________ ____________.
Which part of the mature adult brain exerts a dominant control over the endocrine system?
The brain most directly interacts with and controls the ____________ ____________ and the peripheral ____________.