Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory
Cognitive developmental theory
Social learning theory
A sensitive period
dynamic systems perspective
information processing theory
ecological systems theory
7 . According to Piaget’s cognitive developmental theory, thought becomes symbolic in the Correct Answer
concrete operational stage.
formal operational stage.
8 . An approach that emphasizes the role of modeling, or observational learning, in the development of behavior is known as Correct Answer
social learning theory.
drive reduction theory.
early experiences; environment
context; one course of development
stages; continuous change
12 . In Freud’s psychosexual theory, Correct Answer
the superego works to reconcile id impulses and ego demands.
children develop a sexual desire for the other-sex parent during the genital stage.
id impulses transfer to the genitals during the latency stage.
extreme orderliness and cleanliness in adulthood is often the result of conflicts about anal control during toddlerhood.
13 . Information processing and Piaget’s cognitive developmental theory differ MOST on which of the following issues? Correct Answer
one course of development versus many courses
stability versus change
nature versus nurture
continuous development versus discontinuous development
14 . Seventeenth-century philosopher John Locke Correct Answer
regarded children as miniature already-formed adults.
believed that children were naturally endowed with a sense of right and wrong.
recommended restrictive parenting practices as the most efficient means for taming children.
viewed children as a tabula rasa or “blank slate.”
15 . One problem with government-funded child and family programs in the United States is that Correct Answer
there are no special interest groups who act as advocates for children’s causes.
no federal dollars have been allocated to child care.
most are aimed at handling problems after they have occurred rather than preventing problems before they occur.
no new policy initiatives have been developed to improve that status of children.
16 . The field of child development Correct Answer
focuses on all aspects of development from birth until adolescence.
focuses mainly on research topics that are only of scientific interest.
deals mainly with child-rearing practices.
17 . The most rapid period of development is Correct Answer
infancy and toddlerhood.
the prenatal period.
18 . The normative approach to child study was developed by Correct Answer
Hall and Gesell.
Binet and Simon.
19 . The poor rankings of American children on many childhood social indicators is particularly disturbing because Correct Answer
the United States is a collectivist society.
child development researchers in the United States lack involvement in policy development.
the United States is among the wealthiest nations and has the broadest knowledge base for intervening effectively in children’s lives.
the United States provides all families with universal health care and free or inexpensive child care.
20 . Unlike Piaget, Vygotsky Correct Answer
emphasized the role of bidirectional influences in development.
viewed cognitive development as a socially mediated process.
emphasized discontinuous change.
focused on development throughout the lifespan.