When companies are setting prices in different countries, the problem with setting a market-based price in each country is that ________.
it allows intermediaries in low-price countries to reship their products to high-price countries
the company would earn the same profits everywhere, regardless of the cost structure
this strategy might price the product out of the market in countries where costs are high
this strategy would make the price too high in poor countries and not high enough in rich countries
it prevents the company from differentiating its products
Dumping occurs when ________.
a company entering a foreign market charges either less than its costs or less than it charges at home
a company entering a foreign market charges more than the price in its home market
a company entering a foreign market charges prices that are lower than those charged by its competitors in this market
a company sets its price equal to its average cost of production
a company exports its products to a foreign country to increase its revenue in spite of excess demand in the home country
Forward invention is ________.
creating a new product to meet a need in another country
creating a new product to meet the need in the home country
inventing products that are superior to competing offerings
taking an existing product into a new market
inventing something that as yet has no "market"
Backward invention occurs when a firm ________.
creates a new product to meet a need in another country
reintroduces earlier product forms adapted to suit another country's needs
invents products that are similar to competing offerings
takes an existing product into a new market
produces its own raw materials
Many U.S. firms prefer to sell in Canada, England, and Australia-rather than in larger markets such as Germany and France-because they feel more comfortable with the languages, laws, and culture, which reflect the ________ between these countries and the United States.
________ is one of the world's largest single markets, with 25 member countries, a common currency, and more than 454 million consumers.
The European Union
When forces for global integration are low and forces for national responsiveness are high, a strategy that ________ makes sense.
treats the world as a single market
views the marketplace as completely homogeneous
treats the world as a portfolio of national opportunities
standardizes all elements of the marketing mix
facilitates a straight extension
According to Hofstede, cultures with low power distance are ________.
As a result of the ad campaigns depicting Brazil as a multicultural land of carnivals and beaches, any mention of the country makes people think of sun and sand. This is an example of ________.
target market impact
Regional economic integration is defined as the creation of trading agreements between ________.
a firm and its suppliers and distributors
firms targeting the same market
individual firms in an industry
blocs of countries
Zodiac Inc. is one of the leading producers of designer bags in its country. The company is considering shifting some of its production to India. Which of the following could have prompted this move?
People in India prefer imported designer bags.
Zodiac can target a niche market of high-profile consumers who have a high income.
Zodiac can improve its market share if it can offer better prices than its competitors.
People in the home country have an ethnocentric approach.
Market research indicates that Indian consumers have a low per-capita income.
A standardized marketing mix involves ________.
adopting the strategy that best fits a given target market
consistently using the communication and distribution channels that entail the lowest costs
adjusting the product to suit market preferences
changing the features of the product to accommodate the host country
changing only the communication message to suit the different target markets
If a company adapts or changes both the product and the communications, the company engages in a process called ________.
Companies can run the same marketing communications programs as used in the home market or change them for each local market, a process called ________.
In an adapted marketing mix, the company ________.
ensures that uniform practices are adopted across countries
focuses more on brand image than consumer preferences
ignores differences in the legal environment
ensures the lowest cost marketing program is adopted
tailors the marketing programs to each target market
Identify a benefit of using joint ventures to enter a foreign market.
It entails minimum risk.
It provides access to an established distribution network in the host country.
It yields the highest returns.
It retains full control of its investment in the host country.
It is the best strategy for countries with psychic proximity.
Which of the following modes of entry into a foreign market involves the maximum commitment and risk?
A2Z Inc. is a producer of a huge variety of consumer goods, from soaps to shower gels, and shampoos to detergents. It is a market leader in the United States and is planning to tap the immense potential in the emerging markets. Market research, however, indicates that the Brazilian culture and society are substantially different from their American counterparts. If the company wants to target the masses, which of the following options is most likely to succeed?
A2Z can use a price skimming strategy to increase market share.
The company's existing strategies in the U.S. will work just as well in Brazil.
A2Z can introduce smaller "sachets" of shampoos and detergents that are priced lower.
The company can introduce large family packs of shampoos and soaps even if they are priced higher than competitors.
A2Z can use a predatory pricing strategy to capture the market.
Your firm has decided to enter the international market with your product called "Trema," a new pocket organizer that can also be used as a cell phone. While discussing the marketing plans, your CMO decides that no changes will be necessary in either the marketing mix or the product for export. What form of marketing strategy is the CMO advocating?
distributive marketing mix
leveraged marketing mix
adapted marketing mix
engineering-driven marketing mix
standardized marketing mix
Which of the following causes a difference between marketing in the developed countries and marketing in the developing countries?
The cost of production varies substantially between the developed and the developing world.
The disparity between the rich and the poor in the developing world is reducing.
There are substantial cultural differences between the developed and the developing world.
Marketing in developing countries is far more expensive than in the developed world.
The developing countries have more trade barriers in place than the developed countries.