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1) Critical thinking may be stored for use in future decision making. Examples of mechanisms used to “store” critical thinking for future programmed decisions include 
    A.
 
a Stakeholder Analysis
    B.
 
a Pareto Chart
    C.
 
a regression analysis
    D.
 
a troubleshooting decision tree 
    E.
 
a SWOT Analysis


2) Decision tools and techniques influence the use of critical thinking in decision making. According to the decision steps model, what is a proper response when an unstructured problem is presented?
    A.
 
Frame alternatives 
    B.
 
Implement a decision
    C.
 
Measure the impact of a decision
    D.
 
Frame the problem 
    E.
 
Make the decision


3) Bill Simmons is the manager of a small restaurant and must decide how much money he owes his suppliers. The best way for Bill to approach this as a critical thinker is to
    A.
 
weigh the consequences of this decision 
    B.
 
collect and analyze the evidence 
    C.
 
identify opportunities and obstacles
    D.
 
understand different perspectives on the issue


4) A critical thinker balances effectiveness and efficiency when deciding how to approach a problem. Depending upon the situation, a proper approach may be to do nothing, to use a ready-made solution, or to design a custom made solution. Choosing a ready-made solution, rather than designing a custom made solution, implies 
    A.
 
more time spent evaluating alternatives
    B.
 
increased costs 
    C.
 
greater specificity to the circumstances of the current problem
    D.
 
time savings 
    E.
 
gathering diverse perspectives 


5) Jane has a term paper due, a sick child who needs her attention, and a major project due at work. To save time, she decides to submit a paper for school that is less than her best, but will earn a passing grade. The best description of Jane’s approach is 
    A.
 
analyzing 
    B.
 
optimizing
    C.
 
satisficing 
    D.
 
creativity


6) When faced with a decision opportunity, a critical thinker must sort through a variety of readily apparent symptoms in order to focus on important considerations that may be hidden. Based on the decision steps model, when framing a problem a helpful step is to
    A.
 
develop a contingency plan
    B.
 
determine root causes
    C.
 
measure the decision
    D.
 
frame alternatives
    E.
 
evaluate effects of the problem 


7) Critical thought involves the consideration of diverse perspectives. Disadvantages of group decision making include
    A.
 
all of the above are disadvantages of group decision making
    B.
 
increased security of confidential information
    C.
 
a process that is more time consuming 
    D.
 
a decision that accounts for the interests of diverse stakeholders
    E.
 
a more autocratic environment


8) Tactics for increasing the diversity of opinion brought to bear on a decision include
    A.
 
following the chain of command
    B.
 
brainstorming 
    C.
 
reliance on precedent
    D.
 
an autocratic decision process
    E.
 
reference to the policy manual


9) One way for a leader to develop alternative perspectives for decision making is to 
    A.
 
rely on the intellectual component of stereotyping
    B.
 
apply past decision successes to current decision opportunities
    C.
 
increase the use of the logical thinking style 
    D.
 
increase the homogeneity of his or her team
    E.
 
assign the role of devil’s advocate for meetings 


10) Considerations when framing a problem include 
    A.
 
measuring the impacts of a decision
    B.
 
identification of stakeholders affected by the problem 
    C.
 
developing contingency plans
    D.
 
identifying causes of the problem
    E.
 
framing alternative courses of action


11) Conflict is a force of influence upon decision making, and may hamper decision implementation if not accounted for in the problem formulation and identification process. Conflict may stem from such factors as 
    A.
 
a lack of a devil’s advocate
    B.
 
routine programmed decisions
    C.
 
personal attributes 
    D.
 
groupthink
    E.
 
inspirational leadership


12) The outcome of the process of framing the problem includes
    A.
 
the measurements one will use to evaluate the decision
    B.
 
an assessment of resources needed to execute a decision
    C.
 
a list of potential alternative courses of action
    D.
 
a list of criteria, goals, and objectives for a decision 
    E.
 
a timeline for decision implementation


13) A form of critical thinking is fair-minded persuasive thinking. When engaging in problem formulation and identification with a group, the fair minded persuader would
    A.
 
emphasize data and reason over affective appeals
    B.
 
acknowledges the difficulty that his or her position creates for the audience 
    C.
 
communicate only that information which supports the desired decision
    D.
 
avoid all affective appeals
    E.
 
emphasizes affective appeals over data and reason


14) Survey data, combined with this thinking style, can be used to identify a problem through statistical analysis.
    A.
 
Inductive logical 
    B.
 
Creative
    C.
 
Deductive logical
    D.
 
Scientific


15) A deductive logical argument in proper form is said to be
    A.
 
functional
    B.
 
true
    C.
 
scientific
    D.
 
valid
    E.
 
sound


16) Problems may become apparent to stakeholders through the use of tools which compare actual results to expected results. An example of such a tool is a
    A.
 
Force Field Analysis
    B.
 
Financial Report 
    C.
 
Fishbone diagram
    D.
 
Pareto chart
    E.
 
SWOT analysis


17) An important step toward framing a problem in a manner that is sensitive to relevant stakeholder perspectives is to
    A.
 
be sure to remain situated in one’s personal context
    B.
 
do not allow public relations concerns to influence decision making
    C.
 
use projection when ascribing motivation to others
    D.
 
determine who is affected by a problem 
    E.
 
filter non-financial input from the process


18) An appropriate profit relative to funds invested would be a primary consideration of this stakeholder group.
    A.
 
Activist groups
    B.
 
Customers
    C.
 
Employees
    D.
 
Owners 


19) Identifying programmed decision opportunities—problems with objectively correct answers, solvable through the use of simple rules, policies, or numerical computations—promises this benefit in terms of decision making. 

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