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The Internally Integrated Human Animal

The Integrated Human

List the names of 10 body systems and the principle role of each in serving the rest of the body.


As a student runs up the stairs, which 2 body systems would be most immediate in their support of the muscular system in this activity?

As a student runs up the stairs, her ____________ system serves her by providing moisture for evaporation to moderate her body temperature.

The Muscular System

Muscle Structural Organization

A muscle is composed of thousands of muscle cells (fibers) bound into groups of 100 or more fibers called ____________, each of which is surrounded by ____________ tissue called perimysium.

What is the name of a contractile unit of a muscle?

Muscle Contraction

During muscle contraction, ____________ filaments use protein heads to attach sequentially to sites on actin filaments.

Control of Contraction: Ions, Gradients, and Membrane Potentials

While waiting for a signal to contract, a muscle cell membrane maintains a slightly higher positive charge on the ____________ of the membrane only because ____________ pumps are available to generate this difference.

Contraction of Cardiac and Smooth Muscle

Which of the 3 general types of muscle tissue helps to keep both your blood pressure regulated and your digestive processes effective?

Name the calcium-binding proteins in smooth muscle and those in skeletal muscle.

The Cardiovascular System

Blood: A Medium of Exchange

What is the most common molecule found in blood?

Blood Vessels: The Body’s Avenue of Life

In which type of vessels do the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide and of nutrients and cell wastes occur (principally)?



The Heart: The Dynamo of Human Life



Systolic blood pressure is the ____________ number of a blood pressure reading. It is recorded when the left ____________ contracts.

Trace the route of blood flow through the human heart.(PG 299)

Basic Concepts of Immunity

List 3 general lines of defense in the human immune system.(PG 300)

Your First Line of Defense

The ____________ lining your bronchial passages entrain microbes, carrying them away to your acid-laden stomach where they will die.

Your Second Line of Defense

Name the contrasting sites in the body where macrophages and neutrophils patrol for foreign objects.

List 4 basic signs and symptoms of inflammation.

Your Third Line of Defense

List 4 fundamental characteristics of the Adaptive Immune Response.

Neither B lymphocytes nor T lymphocytes are able by themselves to respond to foreign antigen. They must at some point be induced to proliferate (divide) by interaction with what type of cells?

Preparing Your Immunity System: The Preemptive Strike

When a vaccine is given to a person with a healthy immune system, what is the long-term result?

Vaccination works because your immune system ____________ the same foreign entity if you are re-infected with it.

The Human Digestive System

For these 5 digestive system organs—stomach, liver, pancreas, small intestine, and large intestine—list their principle function(s).



The role of the hepatic portal system is to help the ____________ to control nutrient levels in your circulatory system.

The hepatic portal vein forms from capillary beds in  INTESTINES_________ and leads to a second set of capillary beds in _LIVER____.

The Human Urinary System

What is the principle function of the ureter?

What is the principle function of the urethra? The urinary bladder?


List 3 separate, related functions of the kidney.

Neurons at Work

Neuron Structure and Function

List 3 structural regions of a neuron.

Which structural feature of a human neuron uniquely and perfectly fits it for its signal-carrying role?

Which type of neuron receives a stimulus and transmits it to the central nervous system?

Nervous Reflexes

List in the correct order the separate structures through which a signal moves in a “simple” reflex arc.

What major nervous system organ is not directly involved in a simple reflex arc?

The Human Nervous System

What are the 2 main sections of the human nervous system?

The efferent or motor branch of the peripheral nervous system is subdivided into the ____________ (voluntary) and ____________ (involuntary) nervous systems.

The Central Nervous System

For the following brain regions, list each one’s principle functional role: cerebrum, cerebellum, medulla, hypothalamus, Thalamus-COORDINATES SIGNALS FROM PNS TO CNS


Which structure within the brain has the role of generating emotions?

The Peripheral Nervous System

Cranial and spinal nerves of the peripheral nervous system serve both ____________ and ____________ functions carrying impulses to and from the body parts.

Distinguish, in general terms, the roles of the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the ANS.

The Nervous System Is Internally Integrated

Which systems of the body interact with the peripheral nervous system?

The nervous system interacts with the ____________ system to coordinate the internal integration of all the other body systems together.

Drugs and the Nervous System

Caffeine: Catalyst of the Technological Revolution

Caffeine affects synapses by binding to ____________ receptors without activating them.

Fluoxetine Hydrochloride: Chemical Joy

Fluoxetine hydrochloride affects synapses by inhibiting ____________ re-uptake by its transporter proteins.

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