**STAT 200: Introduction to Statistics Final Examination | Complete Solution**

Answer all 25 questions. Make sure your answers are as complete as possible.

Show all of your work and reasoning. In particular, when there are

calculations involved, you must show how you come up with your answers with

critical work and/or necessary tables. Answers that come straight from

programs or software packages will not be accepted. If you need to use

software (for example, Excel) and /or online or hand-held calculators to aid in

your calculation, please cite the sources and explain how you get the results.

1.

True or False. Justify for full credit.

(a) If the variance of a data set is zero, then all the observations in this data set are zero. (b)

If P(A) = 0.4 , P(B) = 0.5, and A and B are disjoint, then P(A AND B) = 0.9.

(c) Assume X follows a continuous distribution which is symmetric about 0. If

, then

.

(d) A 95% confidence interval is wider than a 90% confidence interval of the same parameter.

(e) In a right-tailed test, the value of the test statistic is 1.5. If we know the test statistic

follows a Student’s t-distribution with P(T < 1.5) = 0.96, then we fail to reject the null

hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance .

Refer to the following frequency distribution for Questions 2, 3, 4, and 5. Show all work. Just the

answer, without supporting work, will receive no credit.

The frequency distribution below shows the distribution for checkout time (in minutes) in

UMUC MiniMart between 3:00 and 4:00 PM on a Friday afternoon.

Checkout Time (in minutes) Frequency

1.0 - 1.9

3

2.0 - 2.9

Relative Frequency

12

3.0 - 3.9

4.0 - 4.9

0.20

3

5.0 -5.9

Total

2.

3.

4.

25

Complete the frequency table with frequency and relative frequency. Express the relative

frequency to two decimal places.

What percentage of the checkout times was at least 3 minutes?

In what class interval must the median lie? Explain your answer.

5.

Does this distribution have positive skew or negative skew? Why?

Refer to the following information for Questions 6 and 7. Show all work. Just the answer, without

supporting work, will receive no credit.

Consider selecting one card at a time from a 52-card deck. (Note: There are 4 aces in a deck of

cards)

6.

If the card selection is without replacement, what is the probability that the first card is an ace and

the second card is also an ace? (Express the answer in simplest fraction form)

(5 pts)

7.

If the card selection is with replacement, what is the probability that the first card is an ace and

the second card is also an ace? (Express the answer in simplest fraction form)

Refer to the following situation for Questions 8, 9, and 10.

The five-number summary below shows the grade distribution of two STAT 200 quizzes for a

sample of 500 students.

Minimum

Q1

Median

Q3

Maximum

Quiz 1

15

45

55

85

100

Quiz 2

20

35

50

90

100

For each question, give your answer as one of the following: (a) Quiz 1; (b) Quiz 2; (c) Both quizzes

have the same value requested; (d) It is impossible to tell using only the given information. Then

explain your answer in each case.

8.

9.

10.

Which quiz has less interquartile range in grade distribution?

Which quiz has the greater percentage of students with grades 90 and over?

Which quiz has a greater percentage of students with grades less than 60?

Refer to the following information for Questions 11, 12, and 13. Show all work. Just the answer,

without supporting work, will receive no credit.

There are 1000 students in a high school. Among the 1000 students, 800 students have a laptop,

and 300 students have a tablet. 150 students have both devices.

11.

12.

What is the probability that a randomly selected student has neither device?

What is the probability that a randomly selected student has a laptop, given that he/she

has a tablet?

13.

Let event A be the selected student having a laptop, and event B be the selected student

having a tablet. Are A and B independent events? Why or why not?

14.

A combination lock uses three distinctive numbers between 0 and 49 inclusive. How many

different ways can a sequence of three numbers be selected? (Show work)

15.

Let random variable x represent the number of heads when a fair coin is tossed three times. Show

all work. Just the answer, without supporting work, will receive no credit.

(a)

(b)

Construct a table describing the probability distribution.

Determine the mean and standard deviation of x. (Round the answer to two decimal places)

16.

Mimi just started her tennis class three weeks ago. On average, she is able to return 20% of her

opponent’s serves. Assume her opponent serves 10 times.

(a)

(b)

Let X be the number of returns that Mimi gets. As we know, the distribution of X is a binomial

probability distribution. What is the number of trials (n), probability of successes (p) and

probability of failures (q), respectively?

Find the probability that that she returns at least 1 of the 10 serves from her opponent.

(Show work)

Refer to the following information for Questions 17, 18, and 19. Show all work. Just the answer,

without supporting work, will receive no credit.

The lengths of mature jalapeño fruits are normally distributed with a mean of 3 inches and a

standard deviation of 1 inch.

17.

18.

19.

20.

What is the probability that a randomly selected mature jalapeño fruit is between 1.5 and 4 inches

long?

(5 pts)

th

Find the 90 percentile of the jalapeño fruit length distribution.

If a random sample of 100 mature jalapeño fruits is selected, what is the standard deviation of the

sample mean?

A random sample of 100 light bulbs has a mean lifetime of 3000 hours. Assume that the

population standard deviation of the lifetime is 500 hours. Construct a 95% confidence interval

estimate of the mean lifetime. Show all work. Just the answer, without supporting work, will

receive no credit.

2 1.

Consider the hypothesis test given by

H0 : p 0.5

H1 : p 0.5

In a random sample of 100 subjects, the sample proportion is found to be pˆ 0.45.

(a) Determine the test statistic. Show all work; writing the correct test statistic, without

supporting work, will receive no credit.

(b) Determine the P-value for this test. Show all work; writing the correct P-value,

without supporting work, will receive no credit.

(c) Is there sufficient evidence to justify the rejection of H0 at the

0.01 level?

Explain.

22.

Consumption of large amounts of alcohol is known to increase reaction time. To investigate

the effects of small amounts of alcohol, reaction time was recorded for five individuals

before and after the consumption of 2 ounces of alcohol. Do the data below suggest that

consumption of 2 ounces of alcohol increases mean reaction time?

Subject

1

2

3

4

5

Reaction Time (seconds)

Before

After

6

7

8

8

4

6

7

8

9

8

Assume we want to use a 0.01 significance level to test the claim. (a)

Identify the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis.

(b) Determine the test statistic. Show all work; writing the correct test statistic, without

supporting work, will receive no credit.

(c) Determine the P-value. Show all work; writing the correct P-value, without

supporting work, will receive no credit.

(d) Is there sufficient evidence to support the claim that consumption of 2 ounces of

alcohol increases mean reaction time? Justify your conclusion.

23.

The UMUC MiniMart sells four different types of Halloween candy bags. The manager

reports that the four types are equally popular. Suppose that a sample of 500 purchases

yields observed counts 150, 110, 130, and 110 for types 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively.

Type

Number of Bags

1

150

2

110

3

130

4

110

Assume we want to use a 0.10 significance level to test the claim that the four types are equally

popular.

(a) Identify the null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis.

(b) Determine the test statistic. Show all work; writing the correct test statistic, without

supporting work, will receive no credit.

(c) Determine the P-value for the test. Show all work; writing the correct P-value,

without supporting work, will receive no credit.

(d) Is there sufficient evidence to support the manager’s claim that the four types are

equally popular? Justify your answer.

24.

A random sample of 4 professional athletes produced the following data where x is the

number of endorsements the player has and y is the amount of money made (in millions of dollars).

x

y

(a)

(b)

0

1

1

2

3

3

5

8

Find an equation of the least squares regression line. Show all work; writing the correct

equation, without supporting work, will receive no credit.

Based on the equation from part (a), what is the predicted value of y if x = 4? Show all

work and justify your answer.

25. A STAT 200 instructor is interested in whether there is any variation in the final exam grades between

her two classes Data collected from the two classes are as follows:

Her null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis are:

(a)

(b)

(c)

Determine the test statistic. Show all work; writing the correct test statistic, without

supporting work, will receive no credit.

Determine the P-value for this test. Show all work; writing the correct P-value, without

supporting work, will receive no credit.

Is there sufficient evidence to justify the rejection of H0 at the significance level of 0.05?

Explain.

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