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PSY 380 Final Exam
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Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)


  1. Which of the following does not describe a trait?
    1. A person is given a numeric score to indicate how much of a trait the person possesses.
    2. There are many traits to describe everyone.
    3. Trait scores are discontinuous variables.
    4. A person can be described on every trait.
  2. Personality                     refers to motivation.
    1. description
    2. development
    3. dynamics
    4. measurement
  3. All of the following are dynamic issues addressed by personality theories except:
    1. adaptation and adjustment
    2. cognitive processes
    3. individual differences
    4. culture
  4. A                 is a conceptual tool for understanding certain specified phenomena.
    1. theory
    2. theoretical construct
    3. psychological test
    4. variable
  5. A hypothesis is tested by:
    1. logical reasoning
    2. reviewing the published literature
    3. conducting empirical research
    4. examining the results of several related studies
  6. Implicit theories of personality could be described by all but which of the following?
    1. They are generally held by ordinary people.
    2. They are unscientific.
    3. They are not necessarily incorrect.
    4. Their accuracy is guaranteed.
  7. In using the “known groups method” to determine whether a test is valid, a researcher needs to test:
    1. groups of people whom he or she knows personally
    2. subjects who agree to have their names known
    3. groups with published norms on a variety of personality tests
    4. groups which can be presumed to differ on the construct being measured
  8. Personality researchers use:
    1. self-report measures
    2. projective tests
    3. behavioral measures
    4. All of the above.
  9. In the analysis of Adolf Hitler, to what did the analysts attribute Hitler’s tyrannical rage?
    1. His underdeveloped id.
    2. His overactive superego.
    3. His failure as an artist.
    4. His weak/non-existent ego.
  10. The term “psychic determinism” refers to:
    1. the scientific method
    2. the influence of the unconscious
    3. extra-sensory perception
    4. will power
  11. Hypnosis is best described as a(n):
    1. separate state of consciousness
    2. fraudulent claim
    3. state of great suggestibility
    4. epileptic-like seizure
  12. The unconscious is least likely to be revealed through:
    1. the interpretation of dreams
    2. humor
    3. objective tests
    4. free association
  13. The aim of instincts is:
    1. mental health
    2. sublimation
    3. tension reduction
    4. unknown
  14. Which structure of personality corresponds to the “voice of conscience,” warning us to avoid evil?
    1. ego
    2. id
    3. superego
    4. hallucination
  15. Which of the defense mechanisms listed below is the most primitive?
    1. projection
    2. denial
    3. identification
    4. rationalization
  16. According to the text, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., spoke in symbolic terms of the future potentials of the world because he was:
    1. a minister
    2. an intuitive type
    3. black
    4. an extravert
  17. According to Jung, the relationship between the conscious and unconscious aspects of personality is best understood as:
    1. inflation
    2. conflict
    3. repression
    4. compensation
  18. Jung described the ego as the:
    1. gatekeeper to consciousness
    2. center of will
    3. most conscious aspect of personality
    4. All of the above.
  19. Men’s “inner woman” is described by Jung’s concept of the:
    1. anima
    2. animus
    3. shadow
    4. Great Mother




  1. The archetypes that are closest to consciousness are the:
    1. Great Mother and the Spiritual Father
    2. Hero and the Trickster
    3. Mandala and the Self
    4. Shadow and the Anima (or Animus)
  2. According to Bettelheim’s research, when children are exposed to fairy stories with all the monsters and witches removed, they:
    1. become less aggressive
    2. become more trusting of the world
    3. become more disruptive
    4. lose interest in the stories
  3. Adler’s theory is called:
    1. psychoanalysis
    2. social analysis
    3. individual psychology
    4. learning theory
  4. According to Adler, people are motivated to move from          to                    .
    1. a felt minus; a plus
    2. Europe; America
    3. rural areas; cities
    4. physical needs; psychological needs
  5. Organ inferiority, the aggressive drive, masculine protest, superiority striving, and perfection striving are:
    1. stages that occur, one after the other, in the development of normal personality
    2. stages that occur, one after the other, in the development of unhealthy personality
    3. processes in the development of Adler’s thinking about personality
    4. various diagnostic categories
  6. Which of these questions would Adler ask in order to understand a person?
    1. “At what age were you toilet trained?”
    2. “Do you dream in color or in black and white?”
    3. “What is your earliest memory?”
    4. “What does this inkblot look like?”
  7. According to Adler, a person’s style of life is determined by:
    1. parents
    2. the person’s own goals
    3. fate
    4. biological factors
  8. Oldest children are               by the arrival of later children, according to Adler.
    1. rewarded
    2. made higher in status
    3. deprived of their pacemaker
    4. dethroned
  9. The effects of birth order are:
    1. consistently found, by research, to confirm Adler’s predictions
    2. universal across cultures and socioeconomic levels
    3. significant for achievement, supporting Adler’s theory, but not for other aspects of personality
    4. often significant in research, but with varying effects in different studies
  10. People who score high in social interest are
    1. mentally healthy
    2. satisfied with their work
    3. healthier than those who score low
    4. All of the above.


  1. In contrast to Freud’s emphasis on sexuality, Erikson emphasized the         aspects of personality.
    1. work-oriented
    2. anal
    3. oral
    4. social
  2. In his epigenetic principle, Erikson compared development with:
    1. the motion of objects as described in physics
    2. the biological development of a fetus
    3. the spiritual development of a soul
    4. an actor or actress learning a script
  3. The task of infancy, in Erikson’s terminology, is to develop a sense of:
    1. autonomy
    2. the body
    3. trust
    4. attachment to the mother
  4. According to Erikson’s theory, a sense of inferiority is particularly likely to develop during the

                 stage of development.

  1. second
  2. third
  3. fourth
  4. fifth
  1. The crisis of                versus isolation occurs in early adulthood.
    1. generativity
    2. togetherness
    3. intimacy
    4. assertiveness
  2. Religion, according to Erikson, is most relevant to:


  1. initiative
  2. will
  3. hope
  4. fidelity
  1. Erikson’s theory implies that problems with technology are relevant to which stage of development?
    1. second
    2. fourth
    3. sixth
    4. seventh
  2. What social change had a major impact on Horney’s life?
    1. the rise of Nazi forces
    2. increasing religious conflict
    3. increasing opportunities for women
    4. the decline of agriculture
  3. A person who adopts the “self-effacing solution” is:
    1. mentally healthy
    2. “moving toward” type person
    3. “moving away” type person
    4. “moving against” type person
  4. A person who adopts the “resignation solution” is a(n):
    1. moving toward type person
    2. moving against type person
    3. moving away type person
    4. emotionally well balanced person
  5. The appeal of love is related to:
    1. the self-effacing solution
    2. the expansive solution
    3. resignation (solution)
    4. None of the above.
  6. The growth potential within a person belongs to the             self (in Horney’s theory).
    1. actual
    2. idealized
    3. social
    4. real
  7. According to Horney, the four major adjustment strategies:
    1. eliminate neurosis
    2. are signs of psychosis
    3. create the appearance of harmony without solving the neurotic problem
    4. are more commonly used by women than by men
  8. Jerry thinks of himself as cheerful, but typically responds to “How are you?” with some gloomy answer. He is using the secondary adjustment technique called:
    1. elusiveness
    2. blind spots
    3. compartmentalizing
    4. arbitrary rightness
  9. When Allport met Freud, what happened?
    1. Freud analyzed Allport’s dreams.
    2. Freud experienced a powerful countertransference.
    3. Allport thought that Freud misunderstood him.
    4. Allport proposed that he develop a test to measure Freudian defense mechanisms.
  10. According to Allport, heredity influences           aspects of personality.
    1. no
    2. a few
    3. many
    4. all
  11. Allport and Odbert identified 17,953 trait names by studying:
    1. college freshmen
    2. biographies of famous people
    3. letters from Jenny
    4. the dictionary
  12. Nearly everyone who knows Harry agrees that he is friendly. “Friendly” is probably a

                 trait for Harry.

  1. cardinal
  2. secondary
  3. central
  4. primary
  1. Which of the following is not listed by Allport as characteristic of a normal, mature adult?
    1. warm human interactions
    2. emotional security
    3. realistic perceptions
    4. financial success
  2. In adulthood, a person is in the stage of development that Allport called:
    1. ego-enhancement
    2. ego-extension
    3. the knower
    4. self-identity


  1. Which of the following is not a description of Sonya Sotomayor by individuals that demonstrate the personality factors of Extraversion and Agreeableness?
    1. warm
    2. generous
    3. a team player
    4. ambitious
  2. Cattell defined personality as that which permits:
    1. prediction of what a person will do in a given situation
    2. evaluation of the level of adjustment of a person
    3. selection of an appropriate questionnaire
    4. optimal assignment of individuals to jobs
  3. Cattell classified projective tests, such as the Rorschach inkblot test, as:
    1. D-data
    2. L-data
    3. Q-data
    4. T-data
  4. The set of a person’s scores on all 16 factors of the 16PF:
    1. is called the “profile”
    2. must total 100
    3. is a measure of adjustment
    4. is a measure of intelligence
  5. Neurotics typically have low scores on:
    1. intelligence
    2. ego strength
    3. introversion
    4. All of the above.
  6. Researchers have found what kind of evidence against the inherited “innate ability” interpretation of the Culture Fair Intelligence Test?
    1. education does influence fluid intelligence scores
    2. zero correlations between parents and children on this measure
    3. failure of the measure to predict school performance
    4. high correlations between this test and measures of extraversion
  7. Imitating others is made possible biologically by:
    1. mirror neurons
    2. memory strategies
    3. evolved psychological mechanisms
    4. temperament
  8. Evolved psychological mechanisms include all of the following except:
    1. imitation
    2. sexual jealousy
    3. temperament
    4. sexual attraction based on physical appearance
  9. Studies of rats deprived of maternal contact showed that the rats developed permanent deficits in the hippocampus. Such deficits (in rats or humans) could make them more vulnerable to:
    1. aggression
    2. depression
    3. introversion
    4. sexual promiscuity
  10. According to the text, the communication of       make social living possible.
    1. social norms
    2. emotions
    3. altruism
    4. empathy
  11. Children who cried and clung to their mothers, in Kagan’s studies, were called:
    1. inhibited
    2. neurotic
    3. difficulty children
    4. uninhibited
  12. In Kagan’s model, children are more likely to develop an aggressive, antisocial personality if they have an:
    1. inhibited temperament and receive overprotection
    2. inhibited temperament and are encouraged to explore the environment
    3. uninhibited temperament and receive strict discipline
    4. uninhibited temperament and receive lax discipline
  13. Freud’s concept of “libido” corresponds to Dollard and Miller’s concept of:
    1. anxiety
    2. behavior gradients
    3. cue
    4. drive
  14. Undesirable responses can be eliminated by:
    1. extinction or punishment
    2. punishment or reward
    3. extinction or spontaneous recovery
    4. generalization or discrimination
  15. In addition to Freud’s first three psychosexual stages, Dollard and Miller described a fourth stage, concerned with conflict over:
    1. anger
    2. sex roles
    3. siblings
    4. playmates
  16. Charlie Brown wants to talk to the little red-headed girl, but he is afraid she will reject him. What type of conflict is this?
    1. approach-approach conflict
    2. avoidance-avoidance conflict
    3. approach-avoidance conflict
    4. double approach-avoidance conflict
  17. Dollard and Miller explained aggression with their          hypothesis.
    1. aggression formation
    2. anger-anxiety
    3. frustration-aggression
    4. libido
  18. Psychotherapy, as we know it today, involves:
    1. learning new labels for experience
    2. learning to express unwanted thoughts
    3. expressing feared material without reprimand
    4. All of the above.
  19. Because they both thought in terms of privacy and power, Nixon and Kissinger could relate well to one another, according to Kelly’s  Corollary.
    1. Choice
    2. Commonality
    3. Modulation
    4. Sociality
  20. Kelly called his philosophical assumption “             ”.
    1. logical positivism
    2. constructive alternativism
    3. physiological determinism
    4. humanistic science
  21. In Kelly’s theory, people are more likely to experiment with new constructs when they are:
    1. threatened
    2. in love
    3. not threatened
    4. angry
  22. According to Kelly, all constructs have           pole(s).
    1. 1
    2. 2
    3. 3
    4. many
  23. “Slot-movement” refers to:
    1. radical changes, such as from atheist to “born-again Christian”
    2. role changes, such as moving from being a student to being an employee
    3. gambling
    4. a method for scoring personality tests
  24. Kelly understood differences between individuals as due to:
    1. different early experience
    2. different personal constructs
    3. heredity
    4. misunderstandings by researchers
  25. The term consistency paradox refers to:
    1. the challenge of understanding how people can develop across a lifetime yet still remain consistent
    2. the discrepancy between research, which shows that people act differently in different situations, and common sense, which says they are consistent
    3. people’s efforts to seem consistent to other people
    4. the paradox that most personality theories seem to be saying the same thing, only in different words
  26. In Mischel’s terminology, the             of an extraverted person might include knowing how to begin a conversation with a stranger and thinking of things to say in a conversation.
    1. competencies
    2. expectancies
    3. person variables
    4. traits
  27. Adam doesn’t know whether he will be thanked or criticized if he helps cook dinner. He is uncertain about:
    1. self-efficacy expectancies
    2. competencies
    3. encoding strategies
    4. behavior-outcome  expectancies
  28. Mischel conducted research on the delay of gratification in:
    1. rats
    2. employees of large companies
    3. children
    4. twins


  1. Delay of gratification is easier if the:
    1. rewards are visible
    2. child thinks about how good the reward is
    3. child sees models who delay their own gratification
    4. All of the above.
  2. According to Mischel and his colleagues, the effect of traits on behavior depends upon the:
    1. person
    2. time of day
    3. situation
    4. observer
  3. “If I ask Jane to go to the movies, will she go, or reject me?” This is a question of:
    1. reciprocal determinism
    2. stimulus-outcome expectancies
    3. behavior-outcome  expectancies
    4. self-efficacy expectancies
  4. Bandura recommends that self-efficacy should be measured:
    1. globally
    2. separately for each area of behavior
    3. by projective tests
    4. by an interview
  5. Research shows that we are more likely to strive toward goals if:
    1. we concentrate on the distant goal, not immediate short-term goals
    2. no one else has succeeded
    3. we are working alone
    4. we expect to be able to reach them
  6. “Attentional processes” refers to what we:
    1. observe or pay attention to
    2. remember
    3. are motivated to do
    4. are able to do
  7. Bandura expanded learning theory by his work on the importance of:
    1. extinction
    2. generalization
    3. modeling
    4. punishment
  8. Bandura and colleagues demonstrated that children can learn           through modeling.
    1. aggression
    2. performance standards
    3. arbitrary playful behaviors
    4. All of the above.
  9. According to Bandura’s research, children who have observed aggressive models may not behave aggressively, even if they have learned to do so, if they lack:
    1. incentives
    2. courage
    3. an audience
    4. toys
  10. Rogers regarded the fundamental motivation to be:
    1. the actualizing tendency
    2. the need for security
    3. interpersonal needs
    4. sexual needs
  11. The best guide to healthy growth, according to Rogers, is:
    1. a professional psychotherapist
    2. a religious philosophy of life
    3. the organismic valuing process
    4. careful reasoning
  12. Rogers recommended that psychologists should investigate subjective experience when it was


  1. spiritual
  2. value based
  3. mystical
  4. All of the above.
  1. “Me? Angry? Never!” says Lou. This statement illustrates          .
    1. self-actualization
    2. incongruence
    3. the formative process
    4. empathic understanding
  2. Conditional positive regard causes a person to lose touch with the           self.
    1. ideal
    2. real
    3. social
    4. All of the above.
  3. Adolescents who are creative are likely to have had parents who:
    1. encouraged their children’s curiosity in early life
    2. encouraged their children to control their emotions
    3. were critical of them
    4. helped their children with their work
  4. Maslow’s theory is sometimes called:
    1. individual psychology
    2. person-centered theory
    3. third force psychology
    4. behavioral psychology
  5. In order of their emergence, the needs in Maslow’s hierarchy are:
    1. physiological, safety, esteem, love, self-actualization
    2. physiological, esteem, safety, love, self-actualization
    3. physiological, safety, love, esteem, self-actualization
    4. safety, physiological, love, esteem, self-actualization
  6. After safety and physiological needs are adequately met, the next level to motivate people is:
    1. sex
    2. esteem
    3. love and belongingness
    4. self-actualization
  7. Which of the following illustrates B-motivation?
    1. jealousy
    2. beauty, truth, and justice
    3. focused attention
    4. business
  8. Which hypothesis is predicted by Maslow’s theory?
    1. People would rather starve than eat food forbidden by their religion.
    2. Great soldiers would rather die than act cowardly.
    3. Starving artists and musicians produce the best works of art.
    4. None of the above.
  9. Which of the following is characteristic of self-actualized people, according to Maslow?
    1. firm belief in the values of their society
    2. a sense that life is highly predictable
    3. rejection of sexual needs
    4. spontaneity
  10. Which of the following is NOT one of the Four Noble Truths of Buddhism?
    1. suffering
    2. attachment
    3. detachment
    4. retachment
  11. Buddhism traces its roots back about                 years.










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  • PSY 380 Final Exam

    Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet) 1. Which of the following does not describe a trait? a. A person is given a numeric score to indicate how much of a trait the person possesses. b. There are many traits to describe everyone. c. Trait scores are discontinuous variables. d. A person can be described on every trait. 2. Personality refers to motivation. a. description b. development c. dynamics d. measurement 3. All of the following are dynamic issues addressed by personality theories except: a. adaptation and adjustment b. cognitive processes c. individual differences d. culture 4. A is a conceptual tool for understanding certain specified phenomena. a. theory b. theoretical construct c. psychological test d. variable 5. A hypothesis is tested by: a. logical reasoning b. reviewing the published literature c. conducting empirical research d. examining the results of several

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