1) A work-related accident left Bob with a paralyzed left arm and an inability to recognize the left side of his visual field. Bob's condition is called:
2) When people are walking, raising their hands in class, or smelling a flower, they are using the:
skeletal nervous system.
central nervous system.
autonomic nervous system.
somatic nervous system.
3) Unlike other glands, such as salivary or sweat glands, endocrine glands:
do not have any effect on metabolism.
do not have any effect on the body's growth.
secrete chemicals directly into the bloodstream.
secrete hormones onto the body's tissues through ducts.
4) According to the textbook, scientists are investigating the use of stem cells to:
repair damaged or diseased brain tissue.
cure birth defects.
5) The venom of a black widow spider is an example of a(n) __________, which mimics or enhances the effects of neurotransmitters.
6) Casey, a baseball player, tugs at his batting glove and stretches his neck in the same way every time he comes up to bat. This habit is stored in the:
7) Sebastian is being evaluated for the presence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and is undergoing neuroimaging tests as part of this assessment. If he is found to suffer from this condition, it will involve several different brain structures. Which of the following would NOT be one of them?
reticular activating system
8) Which of the following diagnostic tools involve injecting a person with radioactive glucose to map brain function?
9) A functional MRI (fMRI) and a PET scan both:
produce black and white scans of the brain’s structures.
provide a way to measure the functioning and activity of the brain.
create selective injuries that allow researchers to study brain function.
provide detailed computerized interpretations of brain dysfunctions.
10) Which of the following is TRUE about deep lesioning?
It takes an X-ray of the brain.
It is routinely done on humans.
It is only done on animals.
It is the best way to study the human brain.
11) Why is the cortex so wrinkled?
Its peculiar shape is vital to its function.
Its various parts need to overlap with each other.
The wrinkles allow for better blood circulation.
The wrinkles allow it to fit inside the skull.
12) Dorothy has spinocerebellar degeneration, a condition that is likely to cause her to have difficulty with:
calculating and reasoning.
hearing and seeing.
reading and writing.
walking, speaking, and/or standing.
13) Which area of the brain influences sleep and dreaming?
14) Melissa is walking around barefoot and steps on a sharp nail. She feels the pain and immediately pulls her foot off the ground away from the nail. Which neurons were involved in her response?
interneurons and motor neurons only
sensory and motor neurons only
sensory neurons, motor neurons, and interneurons
15) The job of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system is to:
get the body ready to deal with stress.
provide feelings such as empathy and sympathy.
stabilize emotions such as happiness and sadness.
control voluntary muscles.
16) The part of the autonomic nervous system known as the “eat-drink-and-rest” system is the:
17) The ____ is a network of cells that carries information to and from all parts of the body.
18) The spinal cord's outer section is made up of _______ and the inner section is made up of _______.
bone; synaptic vesicles
somatic cells; dendrites
bone; axons and nerves
myelinated axons and nerves; the cell bodies of neurons
19) When the action potential gets to the end of the axon:
the cell does not return to its resting state.
the message gets transmitted to another cell.
the cell dies.
the message is received by the brain.
20) What is a biological reason for why heroin is addictive?
The bodies of heroin users do not produce endorphins, so withdrawal is very painful.
Heroin bonds with serotonin, producing mental confusion in users.
Neurotransmitters are damaged and continue sending stimulating messages to cells.
It produces an excess of dopamine in the brain.
21) Special types of glial cells generate a protective fatty substance called:
22) The brain is primarily comprised of two different kinds of cells. They are neurons and:
23) The ______ is the cell body, which contains the nucleus.
24) The first identified neurotransmitter was:
25) Neurons fire:
partially when there is a strong stimulus.
partially when there is a weak stimulus.
stronger when there is a strong stimulus.
either full strength or not at all.
26) The sac-like structures that are found at the end of a neuron's axon and that contain neurotransmitters are called:
27) What is the primary role of the adrenal glands?
regulating sexual behavior
28) The "master gland" that controls or influences all of the other endocrine glands is the:
29) The adrenal glands are located right on top of:
30) ________ provides energy for the brain during stress.