1. Which of the following is a characteristic of a street gang, as opposed to a drug gang?
a. small structure
c. controlled competition
b. loose leadership
d. narrow age range
2. Which of the following may be an important indicator of satanic or cult activity?
a. the Book of Shadows
c. painted rocks
b. booby traps
d. all of these choices
3. What percentage of known offenders involved in hate crimes are White?
a. 62 percent
c. 93 percent
b. 45 percent
d. 11 percent
4. A flash mob is an example of
a. gang behavior that is atypical because it involves a large portion of the gang at the same time.
c. illegal gang activity.
d. all of these choices.
5. A special problem in investigating illegal activities of gangs is the multitude of suspects and the
a. fact that most are juveniles.
b. unreliability or fear of witnesses.
c. fact that courts have not upheld gang statutes.
d. fact that gangs are interracial.
6. The three-pronged approach to address the gang problem uses a balance of which three strategies?
a. intervention, motivation and suppression
b. prevention, intervention and suppression
c. intervention, transition and motivation
d. penetration, suppression and prevention
7. Which of the following is not an important type of record to keep in dealing with any gang problem?
a. gang vehicle file
b. gang member pointer file
c. gang member illegal activities file
d. gang member drug preferences file
8. Which of the following is one of the models used to explain the relationship between gangs and crime?
a. enhancement model
b. aggravation model
c. criminal model
d. professional model
9. A gang’s graffiti can provide all of the following pieces of information about the gang except one. Which one does it not reveal?
d. arrest records
10. Which of the following is not a sign that a youth may be in a gang?
a. admits to “hanging out” with kids in gangs
b. uses unusual hand signals to communicate with friends
c. has been in trouble with police
d. wears baggy jeans with underwear showing
11. OMGs have become a major distributor of ____________ in the United States.
12. Investigators dealing with youths they suspect may be engaging in cult-related activities should inquire into which of the following?
a. the music the youths listened to
b. whether the youths dabbled in astrology
c. whether the youths played with Ouija boards or tarot cards
d. all of these choices
13. One hypothesis to explain the relationship between gangs and crime is the facilitation model, which posits that
a. gang membership promotes drug involvement, which in turn facilitates violence.
b. gangs attract members who are already delinquent or criminally involved, and their antisocial behaviors facilitate their acceptance into the gang.
c. gangs attract those who are already delinquent or criminally involved, and membership further facilitates their preexisting antisocial behavior.
d. none of these choices.
14. What are the two most common defenses cited for gang members in court?
a. self-defense and following the orders of gang leadership
b. self-defense and being under the influence of alcohol/drugs
c. being under the influence of alcohol/drugs and racial discrimination on the part of the police
d. following the orders of gang leadership and racial discrimination on the part of the police
15. The majority of hate crimes are based on
a. social class.
d. sexual orientation.
16. The Crips are associated with
a. green and yellow shirts.
b. blue or purple bandannas.
c. red or green colors.
d. black and gold scarves or rags.
17. Which of the following is not a common purpose of graffiti as used by gangs?
a. marking a gang’s turf
b. disrespecting a rival gang or gang member
c. sending a message
d. informing the general public that they exist
18. Which of the following would not be one of the signs of a ritualistic homicide?
a. missing body parts such as heart, genitals, left hand, tongue, index finger
b. urine or human or animal feces smeared on body or found in body cavities
c. wax drippings, oils, incense or ritual powders on the body
d. missing clothing
19. Which group may be associated with mutilated animals, grave robbery and desecration of churches and human remains?
a. motorcycle gangs
b. stoner gangs
d. Aryan Brotherhood
20. What was the decision in the U.S. Supreme Court’s 2003 case, Virginia v. Black?
a. It upheld all hate crime legislation.
b. It upheld a Virginia law banning cross burning, saying the statute did not violate the First Amendment.
c. It struck down a Virginia law banning cross burning, saying the statute violated the First Amendment.
d. It ruled that any hate crime legislation would always be too “broad,” and thus unconstitutional.
21. One of the latest technological innovations to aid in the fight against gangs is
c. the LA-FI database.
22. Which of the following is not one of the common reasons that people join gangs?
a. the neighborhood they live in
b. the amount of money they have
c. the fact that family and friends are also involved in gangs
d. parent-child relationship problems
23. Which of the following statements is true?
a. Members of the military possess specialized skills that pose a unique threat to law enforcement personnel.
b. Service members, as well as dependents and relatives, have been identified as gang members.
c. Gangs have been identified on international military installations.
d. All of these choices.
24. The Southern Poverty Law Center is a
a. watchdog organization for bias and hate crimes.
b. law group that lobbies for hate crime legislation.
c. law group that lobbies to protect freedom of speech even for those who may be considered to have committed hate crimes.
d. an antipolice advocate.
25. Which of the following is not an example of a cult discussed in the text?
a. Hare Krishna
c. Branch Davidians