1) _ is learning new behavior by watching a model perform that behavior.
Partial reinforcement effect
2) Which psychologist is best known for working with children and a Bobo doll to study whether aggressive behavior is learned by watching others be aggressive?
B. F. Skinner
3) Which of the following is one of Bandura’s elements of observational learning?
4) _________ is the disappearance or weakening of a learned response following the removal or absence of the unconditioned stimulus (in classical conditioning) or the removal of a reinforcer (in operant conditioning).
5) Birds, who find their food by sight, will avoid any object or insect that simply looks like the one that made them sick. This is a result of:
6) The cognitive perspective of classical conditioning involves:
the mental activity of consciously expecting something else to occur.
the ability of animals to learn new information.
the mental activity of analyzing another's behavior and making a choice to copy that behavior.
7) Pavlov initially set out to study his dogs’ ___________.
8) In his classical conditioning experiment, Pavlov's dogs were conditioned to salivate when they:
smelled their food.
saw their trainers.
heard the sound of the metronome.
saw their food bowl.
9) A naturally occurring stimulus that leads to an involuntary (reflex) response is a/an:
10) Whenever Vernon comes home too late on a Saturday night, his parents refuse to give him his weekly allowance. Vernon's parents are using what technique to modify his behavior?
punishment by removal
punishment by application
11) Carla was bitten by a dog when she was a toddler. She's older now, but still backs up in fear whenever a dog approaches her. This is an example of:
conditioned emotional response.
12) In a later modification of the classic Bobo doll experiment, the children who had seena model beat up the doll and then get rewarded showed aggression toward the doll. Another group had seen the model get punished rather than rewarded. Which of the following statements is true about these other children?
They did not beat up the doll until offered a reward to demonstrate what the model had done.
They refused to beat up the doll under any circumstances.
They beat up the doll but denied doing so when asked about it.
Half of them beat up the doll and half did not.
13) A teacher has decided to give “caught being good” tickets to her students when they behave according to class rules. This teacher also rewards students with gold stars each time they improve their math speed. This teacher is using:
punishment and classical conditioning.
14) After having many cavities fixed as a child, Kyle now has an active dislike of the dentist's drill. His tendency to become anxious when hearing a similar-sounding noise is termed:
15) In a(n) ________, the occurrence of reinforcement is more predictable and therefore the individual being reinforced is more likely to adjust his response to the timing of the reinforcement.
fixed interval schedule of reinforcement
variable interval schedule of reinforcement
16) Small steps in behavior that are reinforced, one after the other, to create a particular goal behavior are known as:
17) It is believed that animals revert eventually to instinctual behaviors when the new tasks they are learning have a strong association with:
caring for their young.
18) The law of effect states if an action is followed by a pleasurable consequence, the action is likely to:
become a cognitive expectation.
19) What are the two kinds of behavior that all organisms are capable of?
reckless and controlled
involuntary and voluntary
actions and basic survival instincts
pleasant and unpleasant
20) Changes such as an increase in height or the size of the brain are called:
21) In Seligman's study on dogs, the dogs that were not conditioned to fear the tone:
showed distress when the tone sounded.
jumped over the fence when the tone sounded.
jumped over the fence when the shock started.
refused to move even after the shock started.
22) Learning that remains hidden until its application becomes useful is called:
a learning curve.
23) In Köhler's experiment, Sultan the chimp first used just one stick that was lying in his cage to rake the banana into the cage, and then he learned to fit two sticks together to reach a banana placed farther away. This was an example of:
24) Further studies that followed Köhler’s work with chimpanzees:
have found support for the concept of animal insight.
have shown that chimpanzees are the only animals that have insight.
have found no support for the concept of animal insight.
25) In his study of rats in mazes, Tolman concluded that the rats in the group that did not receive reinforcement for solving the maze had:
been more motivated by the variable interval schedule of reinforcement.
learned to expect reinforcement every tenth day.
more interest in the reinforcement than did the other groups.
learned the maze by wandering around in it and forming a cognitive map.