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Controlled conditions almost anywhere, yields and availability are increased
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Chapter 12 Review Questions Food, soil and Pest Management

Answer questions & fill in


Review the Key Questions and Concepts for this chapter on p. 278. Define organic agriculture and compare its

main components with those of conventional industrialized agriculture.

Organic agriculture is a type of sustainable agriculture that differs from conventional industrial agriculture

insofar as crops are grown without synthetic pesticides, synthetic inorganic pesticides and genetically

modified seeds.


Define food security and food insecurity. What is the root cause of food insecurity? Distinguish between

chronic undernutrition (hunger) and chronic malnutrition and describe their harmful effects. What is a famine?

Describe the effects of diet deficiencies in vitamin A, iron, and iodine. What is overnutrition, and what are its

harmful effects?


ood security

means having enough food to meet basic nutritional needs. Food insecurity not getting

enough to eat and—living with chronic hunger and poor nutrition.

Most agricultural experts agree that

the root cause of food insecurity is




People who cannot grow or buy enough food to meet their basic energy needs suffer from



, or


Many suffer from



Many of the world’s poor can afford only to live on a low-protein, high-carbohydrate, vegetarian diet

consisting mainly of grains such as wheat, rice, or corn causing




A famine is a severe food shortage that can result in mass starvation, deaths, and social disruption.

Lack of vitamin A can cause children younger than age 6 to go _____________each year and double

chances of dying within a year. Having too ________________________causes

anemia which results in

fatigue, makes infection more likely, and increases a woman’s chances of dying from hemorrhage in

childbirth. Chronic lack of___________________________________________, which produces hormones

that control the body’s rate of metabolism, and can cause stunted growth, mental retardation, and goiter—a

swollen thyroid gland that can lead to deafness.


occurs when food energy intake exceeds energy use and causes excess body fat. Too many

calories, too little exercise, or both can cause overnutrition. People who are underfed and underweight and

those who are overfed and overweight face similar health problems





What three systems supply most of the world’s food? Define irrigation. Distinguish among industrialized

agriculture (high-input agriculture), plantation agriculture, hydroponics, traditional subsistence agriculture,

traditional intensive agriculture, polyculture, and slash- and- burn agriculture. What are the major advantages and

disadvantages of raising food hydroponically in greenhouses? How does conventional agriculture violate the three

principles of sustainability? Define soil and describe its formation and the major layers in mature soils. What is a

green revolution? Describe industrialized food production in the United States.


produce mostly grains,




, and


produce meat, and




provide us with seafood.

Irrigation means supply water to crops __________________.

Industrialized agriculture

, or

high-input agriculture






Plantation agriculture

is a form of industrialized agriculture used primarily in tropical developing countries.

It involves growing

cash crops

such as bananas, soybeans (mostly to feed livestock), sugarcane (to produce

sugar and ethanol fuel), coffee, palm oil (used as a cooking oil and to produce biodiesel fuel), and

vegetables. Crops are grown on large monoculture plantations, mostly for export to developed countries.

Producing such monoculture crops in the tropics increases yields but decreases ____________________


involves growing plants by exposing their roots to a nutrient-rich water solution instead of

soil, usually inside of a greenhouse.

Traditional subsistence agriculture

supplements energy from the sun (for photosynthesis) with the labor of

humans and draft animals to produce enough crops for a farm family’s survival, with little left over to sell

or store as a reserve for hard times.


traditional intensive agriculture

, farmers increase their inputs of human and draft-animal labor, animal

manure for fertilizer, and water to obtain higher crop yields. If the weather cooperates, they produce enough

food to feed their families and have some left to sell for income. S

Many traditional farmers grow several crops on the same plot simultaneously, a practice known as


______________________________ agriculture is a type of polyculture. This type of subsistence

agriculture involves burning and clearing small plots in tropical forests, growing a variety of crops for a

few years until the soil is depleted of nutrients, and then shifting to other plots.

The advantages of ___________________________________ are that crops can be grown indoors under

controlled conditions almost anywhere, yields and availability are increased because crops are grown year

round, crops can be grown on rooftops, with artificial lighting, and on floating barges, thus requiring much

less land, fertilizer and water use are reduced, and the need for pesticides is diminished. The disadvantages

are the amount of capital required to start an operation, the fear of technical knowledge required, and the

opposition of well-established corporations that produce farm supplies and chemicals.

Modern industrialized agriculture violates the principles of sustainability because it relies heavily on

nonrenewable fossil fuels, does not rely on a diversity of crops as a form of ecological insurance, and

neglects the conservation and recycling of nutrients in topsoil.

Soil is a complex mixture of

. Soil formation begins when bedrock is slowly broken down into fragments and particles by physical,

chemical, and biological processes, called



Most soils that have developed over a long period of time, called


contain distinct

horizontal layers, or


. Most mature soils have at least _______________ of the possible horizons.

The roots of most plants and the majority of a soil’s organic matter are concentrated in a soil’s two upper

layers, the


of leaf litter and the

___________ horizon

of topsoil. Bacteria and other

decomposer microorganisms break down some of the soil’s complex organic compounds. The result is a

porous mixture of the partially decomposed bodies of dead plants and animals, called ______________



and inorganic materials such as clay, silt, and sand. The




) and the

_______________ horizon


parent material

) contain most of a soil’s inorganic matter, mostly broken-down

rock consisting of varying mixtures of sand, silt, clay, and gravel.

Since 1950, about ___________________ of the increase in global food production has come from using

high-input industrialized agriculture to increase yields in a process called __________________________.


Case Study: Industrialized Food Production in the United States.


Distinguish between crossbreeding through artificial selection and genetic engineering. Describe the second

gene revolution based on genetic engineering. Describe the growth of industrialized meat production. What is

a fishery? What is aquaculture? Summarize the use of energy in industrialized food production. Why does it

result in an energy loss?


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