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1. Explain what is meant by ‘management’. In your answer discuss how the definitions of
‘management’ have changed over time.
Management refers to the process of attaining organizational goals by working with and through
people and other organizational resources.
On this note, the following three features of
management are : a process or series of continuing and related activities; involves and
concentrates on reaching organizational goals; and reaches these goals by working with and
through people and other organizational resources.
The concept of 'change management' involves planning, initiating, realizing, controlling, and
finally stabilizing change processes on both, corporate and personal levels. It may cover such
diverse problems, for example, strategic direction or personal development programs for staff.
Change is the continuous adoption of corporate strategies and structures to changing external
conditions. Today, change is not the exception but a steady ongoing process.
2. Describe the three ‘attitude orientations’ of organizational behavior and give an example
for each. In your answer discuss why it is helpful for managers to be aware of these
They include job involvement, organizational commitment and job satisfaction..
involves Identifying with the job and actively participating in it, and
considering performance important to self-worth.
entails identifying with a particular organization and its goals, and
wishing to maintain membership in the organization.
is a collection of positive and/or negative feelings that an individual holds
toward his or her job.
To meet organizational objectives, managers must be aware of the above orientations. With such
knowledge, managers can induce motivational practices, training and change where necessary,
while focusing on achieving the overall objectives of the organization.
3. Describe the two approaches of perception and the categories in each approach. Discuss
why it is important for individuals to be aware of these approaches and the barriers to
accurate perception that can occur.
The behaviorist approach is concerned with how environmental factors (stimuli) affect
observable behavior (response). It involves two main processes: classical conditioning; and
operant/ scientific conditioning. Classical conditioning involves learning by association, and
operant conditioning involves learning from the consequences of behavior.
The cognitive approach is concerned with mental functions such as
. It involves encoding
where information is received and attended to), storage
(where the information is retained) and retrieval (where the information is recalled).
The importance o learning theses concepts for individuals is to enable them gain positive
behavior, which collectively can create a favorable organizational culture. Further, perception
influence individual performance, as behavior is controlled from mental functions.
4. Explain why it is important to understand the different communication styles when
communicating with people. In your answer discuss the barriers to communication that
managers need to be aware of when communicating with culturally diverse teams.
Understanding different styles of communicating will go a long way toward helping one to create
good and lasting impressions on others. By becoming more aware of how others perceive you,
one can adapt more readily to their styles of communicating.
The following barriers are major pitfalls for effective communication within teams in
When one is stressed or emotionally overwhelmed, he/ she is more likely to misread
other people, send confusing or off-putting nonverbal signals, and lapse into unhealthy knee-jerk
patterns of behavior. Take a moment to calm down before continuing a conversation.
Lack of focus:
You can’t communicate effectively when you’re multitasking.
planning what you’re going to say next, daydreaming, checking text messages, or thinking about
you’re almost certain to miss nonverbal cues in the conversation. You need to
stay focused on the moment-to-moment experience.