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Management refers to the process of attaining organizational
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1. Explain what is meant by ‘management’. In your answer discuss how the definitions of

‘management’ have changed over time.

Management refers to the process of attaining organizational goals by working with and through

people and other organizational resources.

On this note, the following three features of

management are : a process or series of continuing and related activities; involves and

concentrates on reaching organizational goals; and reaches these goals by working with and

through people and other organizational resources.

The concept of 'change management' involves planning, initiating, realizing, controlling, and

finally stabilizing change processes on both, corporate and personal levels. It may cover such

diverse problems, for example, strategic direction or personal development programs for staff.

Change is the continuous adoption of corporate strategies and structures to changing external

conditions. Today, change is not the exception but a steady ongoing process.

2. Describe the three ‘attitude orientations’ of organizational behavior and give an example

for each. In your answer discuss why it is helpful for managers to be aware of these


They include job involvement, organizational commitment and job satisfaction..

Job Involvement

involves Identifying with the job and actively participating in it, and

considering performance important to self-worth.

Organizational Commitment

entails identifying with a particular organization and its goals, and

wishing to maintain membership in the organization.

Job Satisfaction

is a collection of positive and/or negative feelings that an individual holds

toward his or her job.

To meet organizational objectives, managers must be aware of the above orientations. With such

knowledge, managers can induce motivational practices, training and change where necessary,

while focusing on achieving the overall objectives of the organization.

3. Describe the two approaches of perception and the categories in each approach. Discuss

why it is important for individuals to be aware of these approaches and the barriers to

accurate perception that can occur.





The behaviorist approach is concerned with how environmental factors (stimuli) affect

observable behavior (response). It involves two main processes: classical conditioning; and

operant/ scientific conditioning. Classical conditioning involves learning by association, and

operant conditioning involves learning from the consequences of behavior.


The cognitive approach is concerned with mental functions such as






. It involves encoding


where information is received and attended to), storage

(where the information is retained) and retrieval (where the information is recalled).

The importance o learning theses concepts for individuals is to enable them gain positive

behavior, which collectively can create a favorable organizational culture. Further, perception

influence individual performance, as behavior is controlled from mental functions.

4. Explain why it is important to understand the different communication styles when

communicating with people. In your answer discuss the barriers to communication that

managers need to be aware of when communicating with culturally diverse teams.

Understanding different styles of communicating will go a long way toward helping one to create

good and lasting impressions on others. By becoming more aware of how others perceive you,

one can adapt more readily to their styles of communicating.

The following barriers are major pitfalls for effective communication within teams in




When one is stressed or emotionally overwhelmed, he/ she is more likely to misread

other people, send confusing or off-putting nonverbal signals, and lapse into unhealthy knee-jerk

patterns of behavior. Take a moment to calm down before continuing a conversation.


Lack of focus:

You can’t communicate effectively when you’re multitasking.

If you’re

planning what you’re going to say next, daydreaming, checking text messages, or thinking about

something else,

you’re almost certain to miss nonverbal cues in the conversation. You need to

stay focused on the moment-to-moment experience.


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