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Liberty University PSYC 101 quiz 14 complete Answers | Rated A+
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Liberty University PSYC 101 quiz 14 complete Answers | Rated A+

 

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Chapter 14

Question 1 Major tranquilizer is to _____ as minor tranquilizer is to ______.

Question 2 All but which of the following people are demonstrating an irrational belief, according to Ellis?

Question 3 In psychoanalysis, _____ describes blocking that occurs when the therapy touches upon anxietyevoking thoughts or feelings.

Question 4 Dr. Stevenson just began a job treating Hispanic Americans in a rural clinic. An important cultural consideration for Stevenson to consider is the tendency for Hispanic Americans to

Question 5 Dr. Melfi is a psychodynamic therapist. Therefore, we can predict she believes that restoring psychological health involves

Question 6 Psychotropic drugs are also known as _______ drugs.

Question 7 Aaron Beck is to ______ therapy as Albert Ellis is to ______ therapy.

Question 8 The first class of antipsychotics were the

Question 9 Pauline goes to a rational­emotive behavior therapist. Pauline should expect that her therapist will do all but which of the following during the course of therapy?

Question 10 In client­centered therapy, unconditional positive regard is

Question 11 Gloria has been diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder. She will most likely be treated with

Question 12 Which of the following does NOT belong?

Question 13 Learning desirable behavior by watching and imitating others is known as ______, and ______ pioneered the use of this technique to help people overcome phobias.

Question 14 Psychosurgery is sometimes used today to treat severe cases of

Question 15 Roger has been convicted of sexually assaulting several young children. In prison he undergoes aversion therapy. He is presented with pictures of young children while receiving unpleasant electric shocks. Eventually, pictures of young children become aversive stimuli. In this procedure, the electric shocks are described as

Question 16 In client­centered therapy, the therapist demonstrates empathy when s/he

Question 17 Regarding psychotropic drugs, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 18 According to Freud, the most important use of interpretation in psychoanalysis is

Question 19 Generalizing from research evidence, some forms of psychodynamic therapy are predicted to produce good results in treating which of the following?

Question 20 Regarding the use of psychotropic drugs, which of the following statements is FALSE?

 

Question 1 Therapies that are judged to have demonstrated effectiveness in scientifically based studies are called

Question 2 According to Ellis, negative emotions are

Question 3 Major tranquilizer is to _____ as minor tranquilizer is to ______.

Question 4 Regarding the use of psychotropic drugs, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 5 In psychoanalysis, transference is when

Question 6 Regarding client­centered therapy, which of the following DOES NOT belong?

Question 7 Callie is participating in a behavior therapy method in which her therapist first teaches her relaxation techniques. Based on this description, what is most likely to be Callie’s therapy of choice?

Question 8 Electroconvulsive shock therapy is effective in treating

Question 9 In behavioral therapy, another term for gradual exposure is

Question 10 Which of the following describes the primary purpose of the modern mental hospital?

Question 11 Computer technology has been used for a new form of exposure therapy called

Question 12 Associating objects that elicit an undesirable response with unpleasant or negative stimuli describes the key principle of

Question 13 According to Freud, the most important use of interpretation in psychoanalysis is

Question 14 Pauline goes to a rational­emotive behavior therapist. Pauline should expect that her therapist will do all but which of the following during the course of therapy?

Question 15 Dr. Thornton specializes in psychotherapy with a particular ethnic group. Compared to people from other ethnic groups, Thornton’s clients are more likely to keep their feelings to themselves. Thornton understands that this should not lead him to interpret his clients as being uncooperative or avoidant. In addition, Thornton recognizes that people with this cultural background are more likely to emphasize collective values than individualism. Dr. Thornton is most likely to be working with which ethnic group?

Question 16 Psychotropic drugs are also known as _______ drugs.

Question 17 Puge has just graduated from college as a clinical social worker. Which degree has Puge earned?

Question 18 The development of which class of drugs revolutionized the treatment of schizophrenia?

Question 19 Which of the following is NOT a key idea from client­centered therapy?

Question 20 Common side effects of antidepressants are

 

Question 1 All but which of the following people are demonstrating an irrational belief, according to Ellis?

Question 2 The idea that irrational beliefs lead to emotional distress is at the core of which approach to therapy?

Question 3 The first form of psychodynamic therapy to be developed was

Question 4 Which of the following is NOT a key idea from psychodynamic therapies?

Question 5 In psychoanalysis, Hannah seems to hesitate when talking about her relationship with her father. Hannah’s hesitation may describe

Question 6 Regarding prefrontal lobotomy, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 7 Regarding cognitive therapies, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 8 Psychotropic drugs are also known as _______ drugs.

Question 9 Psychosurgery is sometimes used today to treat severe cases of

Question 10 During which decade did the community health system begin to take shape in the United States?

Question 11 Gail suffers from bipolar disorder. Which drug is Gail’s doctor likely to prescribe to help stabilize her mood swings?

Question 12 Dr. Gomez is a Gestalt therapist. What would you expect to be the emphasis of his therapy sessions with clients?

Question 13 Cognitive therapists such as Aaron Beck refer to errors in thinking as

Question 14 Gloria has been diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder. She will most likely be treated with

Question 15 Critics of deinstitutionalization complain that contemporary public mental hospitals are like

Question 16 Behavior therapy focuses on

Question 17 Which of the following DOES NOT belong?

Question 18 Most of the antipsychotic drugs target which neurotransmitter?

Question 19 Aaron Beck is to ______ therapy as Albert Ellis is to ______ therapy.

Question 20 Dr. Melfi is a psychodynamic therapist. Therefore, we can predict she believes that restoring psychological health involves

 

Question 1 Gail suffers from bipolar disorder. Which drug is Gail’s doctor likely to prescribe to help stabilize her mood swings?

Question 2 Minor tranquilizer drugs are also called

Question 3 Which type of therapy focuses on helping families focus on changing disruptive patterns of communication and improving the ways in which members relate to each other?

Question 4 The development of which class of drugs revolutionized the treatment of schizophrenia?

Question 5 Jewel takes an antianxiety drug for the treatment of her panic disorder. She experiences a common side effect from her treatment. Which side effect is Jewel most likely to experience?

Question 6 Tricyclic antidepressants raise brain levels of neurotransmitters by

Question 7 Regarding cognitive therapies, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 8 In psychoanalysis, transference is when

Question 9 ______ is an empirically supported treatment for enuresis (bed­wetting).

Question 10 Marjorie receives treatment for depression. In her treatment, Marjorie receives jolts of electricity through her head. What is Marjorie’s treatment?

Question 11 Gestalt therapy frequently uses which of the following techniques?

Question 12 According to Carl Rogers, what are three important components of therapy?

Question 13 Callie is participating in a behavior therapy method in which her therapist first teaches her relaxation techniques. Based on this description, what is most likely to be Callie’s therapy of choice?

Question 14 Which of the following correctly describes the effects of deinstitutionalization?

Question 15 Regarding the use of antidepressants, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 16 Which type of drug typically acts on the neurotransmitter GABA?

Question 17 Taylor takes Ritalin to treat his ADHD. The drug’s effectiveness may be based on its ability to increase the activity of _____ in Taylor’s cerebral cortex.

Question 18 Dr. Lau is a couple therapist. What is the most typical problem she is likely to target in treatment?

Question 19 Common side effects of antidepressants are

Question 20 Which of the following describes the primary purpose of the modern mental hospital?

 

Question 1 According to Freud, the most important use of interpretation in psychoanalysis is

Question 2 Which of the following is NOT a key idea from psychodynamic therapies?

Question 3 Most of the antipsychotic drugs target which neurotransmitter?

Question 4 Hugo has major depression. He might be treated with any of the following EXCEPT

Question 5 During her clinical internship, psychology graduate student Veronica Wiza will conduct therapy sessions with African American clients. An important consideration for Wiza to consider when treating African Americans is their

Question 6 In behavioral therapy, another term for gradual exposure is

Question 7 Which type of therapy focuses on helping families focus on changing disruptive patterns of communication and improving the ways in which members relate to each other?

Question 8 Behavior therapy focuses on

Question 9 Lakeisha has a snake phobia and decides to see a behavioral therapist. Her therapist suggests systematic desensitization. What is the second step Lakeisha will take in her therapy?

Question 10 Phenothiazines would be used to treat which of the following people?

Question 11 Regarding the use of antidepressants, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 12 The first form of psychodynamic therapy to be developed was

Question 13 Which type of antidepressant has the lowest rate of severe side effects?

Question 14 Aaron Beck is to ______ therapy as Albert Ellis is to ______ therapy.

Question 15 Brooke goes to a Gestalt therapist. In her therapy, Brooke will probably be encouraged to

Question 16 Callie is participating in a behavior therapy method in which her therapist first teaches her relaxation techniques. Based on this description, what is most likely to be Callie’s therapy of choice?

Question 17 Which of the following correctly describes the effects of deinstitutionalization?

Question 18 In a study reported in the text, which orientation was most often reported by a group of clinical and counseling psychologists?

Question 19 There are ______ major types of antidepressants, and they are called _______.

Question 20 In Freudian terms, the goal of psychoanalysis is to shine the light of the _____ on the unconscious recesses of the ______.

 

Question 1 All but which of the following are reasons given in the text as to why racial and ethnic minorities have less access to mental health care than the majority group?

Question 2 Victor Van Dusen takes an antidepressant to cope with his depressive disorder. On which neurotransmitters is his antidepressant likely to work?

Question 3 Gloria has been diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder. She will most likely be treated with

Question 4 Minor tranquilizer drugs are also called

Question 5 Callie is participating in a behavior therapy method in which her therapist first teaches her relaxation techniques. Based on this description, what is most likely to be Callie’s therapy of choice?

Question 6 Which drug can produce mild impairments in memory and must be closely monitored because of its potentially toxic effects?

Question 7 Electroconvulsive shock therapy is effective in treating

Question 8 Dr. Lau is a couple therapist. What is the most typical problem she is likely to target in treatment?

Question 9 Meta­analyses of the effectiveness of psychotherapy suggest

Question 10 Caleb Burke is a hyperactive child with a poor attention span and disruptive behaviors. Caleb is likely to be treated with which type of drug?

Question 11 In a study reported in the text, which orientation was most often reported by a group of clinical and counseling psychologists?

Question 12 In psychoanalysis, Hannah seems to hesitate when talking about her relationship with her father. Hannah’s hesitation may describe

Question 13 Which of the following is NOT a feature of systematic desensitization?

Question 14 After Raymond described his dream to his therapist, efforts were made to figure out what the dream meant, or its

Question 15 Psychotropic drugs are also known as _______ drugs.

Question 16 Tricyclic antidepressants raise brain levels of neurotransmitters by

Question 17 All but which of the following are advantages of group therapy over individual therapy?

Question 18 Which of the following does NOT belong?

Question 19 Regarding electroconvulsive therapy, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 20 Regarding client­centered therapy, which of the following DOES NOT belong?

 

Question 1 After Raymond described his dream to his therapist, efforts were made to figure out what the dream meant, or its

Question 2 All but which of the following describes the practice of psychotherapy?

Question 3 Which of the following describes the primary purpose of the modern mental hospital?

Question 4 Puge has just graduated from college as a clinical social worker. Which degree has Puge earned?

Question 5 Gail suffers from bipolar disorder. Which drug is Gail’s doctor likely to prescribe to help stabilize her mood swings?

Question 6 Roger has been convicted of sexually assaulting several young children. In prison he undergoes aversion therapy. He is presented with pictures of young children while receiving unpleasant electric shocks. Eventually, pictures of young children become aversive stimuli. In this procedure, the electric shocks are described as

Question 7 Regarding the effectiveness of psychotherapy, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 8 Computer technology has been used for a new form of exposure therapy called

Question 9 Compared to traditional psychoanalysis, modern psychoanalysis includes all of the following EXCEPT

Question 10 Gestalt therapy frequently uses which of the following techniques?

Question 11 Of the following patients receiving treatment for depression, who is most likely to be a candidate for electroconvulsive therapy?

Question 12 Caleb Burke is a hyperactive child with a poor attention span and disruptive behaviors. Caleb is likely to be treated with which type of drug?

Question 13 A general term for any psychologically based form of treatment to help people better understand their problems is

Question 14 Phenothiazines would be used to treat which of the following people?

Question 15 Brooke goes to a Gestalt therapist. In her therapy, Brooke will probably be encouraged to

Question 16 Which of the following best describes the hope of the community­based care movement?

Question 17 Learning desirable behavior by watching and imitating others is known as ______, and ______ pioneered the use of this technique to help people overcome phobias.

Question 18 Generalizing from research evidence, some forms of psychodynamic therapy are predicted to produce good results in treating which of the following?

Question 19 Regarding psychotropic drugs, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 20 Which of the following correctly describes the effects of deinstitutionalization?

 

1. Pussin and Pinel were instrumental in the movement toward which form of therapy?

a) Genetic

b) Behavioral

c) Moral

d) Restraint

e) Community-based

2. A major shift in the history of mental illness was the rise of moral therapy, which occurred during the

a) Medieval period.

b) mid- and late seventeenth century.

c) late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.

d) early twentieth century.

e) 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s.

3. As a result of deinstitutionization, the state mental hospital population in the United States between 1955 and the late 1980s dropped from 550,000 to around

a) 1,000.

b) 3,000.

c) 13,000.

d) 31,000.

e) 130,000.

4. The first U.S. advocate of moral treatment for the mentally ill was

a) Dix.

b) Pinel.

c) Pussin.

d) Skinner.

e) Rogers.

5. Deinstitutionalization was the result of two major factors: the public outcry over the deplorable conditions in mental hospitals and

a) the budget woes of state legislatures in a downturn economy.

b) an acute shortage of trained personnel needed to staff these facilities.

c) the introduction of antipsychotic drugs.

d) the newly organized mental patients' rights movement.

e) a relentless campaign by the American Psychiatric Association.

6. What were the conditions of treatment for the mentally ill during the period after moral therapy fell out of favor?

a) Patients were warehoused in state hospitals, where they were mostly neglected and kept in deplorable conditions.

b) Patients were kept in state hospitals, where they were primarily treated with psychoanalysis.

c) Patients were locked in state hospitals, where they were primarily treated with drugs and electroconvulsive therapy.

d) Patients were moved into community-based health care centers.

e) Patients were deinstitutionalized because of lack of government funding for mental hospitals.

7. During which decade did the community health system begin to take shape in the United States?

a) 1940s

b) 1950s

c) 1960s

d) 1970s

e) 1980s

8. What was the hope of the community-based care movement?

a) That promising psychotropic drugs could help people deal more effectively with psychological disorders

b) That alternatives to long-term hospitalization could be provided

c) That mental hospitals would reflect the values of their community

d) That the treatment of the mentally ill would be humanized

e) That costs of caring for the mentally ill would be substantially reduced

9. The social policy of redirecting the care of people with severe mental disorders from state mental hospitals toward community-based treatment settings is known as

a) moral therapy.

b) systematic desensitization.

c) the Dhat Plan.

d) positive psychology.

e) deinstitutionalization.

10. Critics complain that contemporary public mental hospitals are like

a) country clubs, high in cost and providing too many amenities.

b) warehouses, storing patients away without helping them.

c) maximum-security jails, taking inmates in for life sentences.

d) revolving doors, repeatedly admitting patients and rapidly discharging them.

e) "human snakepits," keeping patients in conditions that are deplorable.

11. About what proportion of homeless adults in the United States suffers from a severe psychological disorder?

a) 1 in 3

b) 1 in 5

c) 1 in 10

d) 1 in 20

e) 1 in 40

12. Which of the following correctly describes the effects of deinstitutionalization?

a) Deinstitutionalization has been a resounding success, as almost all mental patients have now been reintegrated into the community.

b) Deinstitutionalization has been an unequivocal failure, as mental patients have not been helped at all.

c) Deinstitutionalization has been predominantly a failure due to its overly aggressive outreach programs.

d) Deinstitutionalization has been a mix of success and failure as many people have been helped but far too many have not.

e) Deinstitutionalization has been predominantly successful since the vast majority of mental patients are now receiving help in their community.

13. Summarize the history of treatment of the mentally ill.

14. A general term for any psychologically based form of treatment to help people better understand and/or resolve their problems is

a) psychoanalysis.

b) behavior modification.

c) psychotherapy.

d) humanistic therapy.

e) psychodynamic therapy.

15. Each year, approximately how many people in the United States receive psychotherapy?

a) 100,000

b) 500,000

c) 1,000,000

d) 5,000,000

e) 10,000,000

16. Robin is a clinical psychologist. Her friend Nancy is a psychologist trained as a psychoanalyst. How did Nancy's professional training differ from Robin's?

a) Only Robin must have graduated from medical school.

b) Only Nancy must have specialized training in administering psychological tests, diagnosing mental disorders, and practicing psychotherapy.

c) Only Nancy must have passed a licensing exam.

d) Only Nancy must have undergone psychoanalysis.

e) Only Robin can prescribe psychiatric drugs and use electroconvulsive therapy in treating patients.

17. As a clinical psychologist, Dr. Berne

a) must have graduated from medical school.

b) must work in a clinic setting.

c) must have earned a doctoral degree and passed a licensing exam.

d) must have undergone psychoanalysis as part of his or her training.

e) must have the ability to prescribe psychiatric drugs.

18. Which of the following statements is true about clinical psychologists' ability to prescribe psychiatric drugs in the United States?

a) Clinical psychologists do not have prescription privileges in the United States.

b) Psychiatrists have been supporting the movement to grant prescription privileges to clinical psychologists.

c) Only two states currently allow psychologists to prescribe medications, provided that they have completed a specialized training program.

d) About half of the states have granted limited prescription privileges to psychologists.

e) Clinical psychologists have the ability to prescribe psychiatric drugs in every one of the 50 states.

19. Puge has just graduated from college as a clinical social worker. Which degree has Puge earned?

a) R.N.

b) M.D.

c) Ed.D.

d) Ph.D.

e) M.S.W.

20. The first form of psychodynamic therapy to be developed was

a) cognitive.

b) behavioral.

c) humanistic.

d) psychoanalysis.

e) client-centered.

21. Which of the following is a key idea from psychodynamic therapies?

a) That psychological problems are rooted in conscious psychological conflicts

b) That psychological problems are mainly learned and can therefore be unlearned

c) That human beings possess free will and can make conscious choices to improve their lives

d) That therapy will help people develop their unique potentials

e) That to help a disturbed adult, it is necessary to explore his or her childhood

22. Dr. Melfi is a psychoanalyst. Therefore, we can assume she believes that restoring psychological health involves

a) increasing efforts toward self-actualization.

b) gaining insight into unconscious psychological conflicts.

c) focusing on changing behavior.

d) suppressing unacceptable motives and desires.

e) focusing on the client's experience in the here-and-now.

23. In Freudian terms, the goal of psychoanalysis is to shine the light of the ________ on the unconscious recesses of the ________.

a) ego; id

b) ego; superego

c) id; ego

d) superego; ego

e) id; superego

24. Psychoanalysts believe that anxiety results from

a) unacceptable impulses that threaten to leak into consciousness.

b) the id's desire to meet the demands of the ego.

c) the id's desire to meet the demands of the superego.

d) the superego's attempts to satisfy the ego.

e) learned behavior that can be "unlearned."

25. During a visit to his therapist, Ishmael was asked to begin talking about whatever was on his mind, even if it seemed trivial or irrelevant. This is an example of

a) transference.

b) interpretation.

c) latent content.

d) free association.

e) empathy.

26. Why do psychoanalysts typically sit off to the side, out of the client's direct view, and say little?

a) So the clients will not be reminded that they are being monitored

b) So that clients will not be intimidated by the professional in the room

c) So that clients will focus inwardly on their own thoughts

d) So that clients will not be able to see how the analysts react to what they are saying

e) Because, like Freud, psychoanalysts tend to be shy and inhibited

27. In psychoanalysis, the blocking that occurs when the therapy touches on anxiety-evoking thoughts or feelings is called

a) repression.

b) transference.

c) resistance.

d) interpretation.

e) insight.

28. Rachel's therapist asked her to talk about what she had dreamed the previous night. In this case, Rachel is being asked about

a) repressed content.

b) latent content.

c) transfer content.

d) manifest content.

e) subjective content.

29. After Raymond described his dream to his therapist, efforts were made to figure out what the dream meant, or its

a) repressed content.

b) manifest content.

c) latent content.

d) transfer content.

e) subjective content.

30. In psychoanalysis, when a client seems to hesitate when talking about a topic or suddenly changes the topic, it may be a sign of

a) insight.

b) resistance.

c) transference.

d) free association.

e) reaction formation.

31. In psychoanalysis, transference occurs when

a) the client talks freely about whatever comes to mind.

b) the therapist directs some of his or her anxiety toward the client.

c) the manifest content of dreams evolves into latent content.

d) the client begins acting toward the therapist in ways that mirror the client's conflict-ridden relationships with others.

e) the client transfers material from the unconscious mind to the conscious mind.

32. According to Freud, the most important use of interpretation in psychoanalysis is

a) developing strong client skills in free association.

b) helping clients understand the manifest content of their dreams.

c) analyzing the transference relationship.

d) exploring the countertransference.

e) helping clients understand the latent content of their dreams.

33. Iqbal's therapist has started to treat him as if Iqbal were his son. This is an example of

a) repression.

b) rationalization.

c) transference.

d) countertransference.

e) resistance.

34. Barry Leverson is a marriage and family therapist. With one of his male clients, Leverson has developed feelings of competition; he sees the client as a rival. Leverson has begun treating one of his female patients as a rejecting love interest. In psychoanalytic terms, what is Leverson experiencing?

a) Transference

b) Countertransference

c) Resistance with the male client and transference with the female client

d) Resistance

e) Insight

35. Compared to traditional psychoanalysis, modern psychoanalysis includes all of the following EXCEPT

a) more emphasis on sexual issues.

b) less emphasis on the distant past.

c) more emphasis on the client's present relationships.

d) a briefer therapy format.

e) more dialogue between analyst and client.

36. Humanistic therapists explain psychological distress in terms of

a) difficulties in pursuing one's unique potential.

b) maladaptive behavioral patterns due to reinforcements.

c) unconscious conflicts and defense mechanisms.

d) dysfunctional thinking patterns.

e) irrational beliefs.

37. Viewing psychological distress in terms of difficulties in pursuing self-actualization is a characteristic of which approach to psychotherapy?

a) Psychodynamic

b) Humanistic

c) Cognitive

d) Behavioral

e) Cognitive-behavioral

38. Carl Rogers is to ________ therapy as Fritz Perls is to ________ therapy.

a) behavioral; Gestalt

b) Ggestalt; client-centered

c) Gestalt; behavioral

d) client-centered; Gestalt

e) client-centered; behavioral

39. Which of the following is a key idea from client-centered therapy?

a) Children should be raised in ways that encourage them to please others.

b) Psychological problems develop from non-conformance.

c) Therapy should be a haven where clients can freely explore their feelings and be themselves.

d) The therapist should always have an active, direct role in the process of healing the client.

e) In therapy, the therapist always leads and the client follows.

40. According to Carl Rogers, the three important components of therapy are unconditional positive regard, empathy, and

a) insight.

b) rapport.

c) transference.

d) interpretation.

e) genuineness.

41. Client-centered therapy can be categorized as being

a) directive

b) confrontational.

c) detached.

d) challenging.

e) empathic.

42. In therapy, unconditional positive regard is

a) being completely accepting of the client.

b) accepting the client only when she or he behaves acceptably.

c) accepting the client only when she or he approaches self-actualization.

d) one of the pitfalls of humanistic therapy.

e) the ability to accurately mirror the client's feelings and experiences.

43. In client-centered therapy, what is empathy?

a) Complete acceptance of the client

b) Acceptance of the client only when therapeutic goals are attained

c) Accurately mirroring the client's experiences and feelings

d) Maintaining a direct, problem-solving focus

e) Demonstration of genuine feelings

44. In client-centered therapy, the therapist's expression of true feelings is the essence of

a) unconditional positive regard.

b) conditional positive regard.

c) self-actualization.

d) genuineness.

e) empathy.

45. Perls was disillusioned with which aspect of psychoanalysis?

a) Implied superiority of males over females

b) Emphasis on early childhood experiences

c) Neglect of clients' present subjective experiences

d) Emphasis on confrontation

e) The notion that psychological problems can simply be unlearned

46. The major goal of Gestalt therapy is

a) uncovering unconscious conflicts.

b) achieving self-actualization.

c) changing behavior.

d) creating a warm and accepting atmosphere for clients to share their feelings.

e) unifying conflicting aspects of personality.

47. Which of the following techniques is used primarily in Gestalt therapy?

a) Empty chair

b) Free association

c) Dream analysis

d) Reflecting back

e) Behavior modification

48. Wally's therapist is using the empty chair technique. He has just placed an empty chair in front of Wally. What will happen next?

a) Wally will sit in it and pretend that he is many years younger.

b) Wally will talk about a person who used to be in his life who is sorely missed.

c) Wally will make believe that the chair has feelings and will engage it in role play.

d) Wally will imagine someone from his past with whom he had a troubled relationship sitting in it.

e) The therapist will sit in it and tell Wally to address him as if he was a person from Wally's past.

49. Brooke goes to a Gestalt therapist. In her therapy, Brooke will probably be encouraged to

a) dwell on early childhood traumas.

b) focus on how she is feeling in the here-and-now.

c) suppress uncomfortable feelings.

d) accept other people unconditionally.

e) focus on her behavior, rather than on her feelings.

50. Behavior therapy has its origins in the work of

a) Freud.

b) Watson.

c) Rogers.

d) Perls.

e) Beck.

51. Which of the following statements is true of behavior therapy?

a) It focuses on changing the client's thoughts and feelings.

b) It focuses on exploring the client's feelings.

c) It helps clients see how their past conflicts affect their current behavior.

d) It is relatively brief, typically lasting only weeks or months.

e) It uses learning principles to help clients achieve a state of self-actualization.

52. Callie is participating in a behavior therapy method in which her therapist first teaches her deep muscle relaxation. What is Callie's therapy of choice?

a) Aversive conditioning

b) Empathic participation

c) Systematic desensitization

d) Client-centered therapy

e) Rational-emotive behavior therapy

53. In-vivo exposure involves self-relaxation training followed by

a) "talk therapy."

b) observing other fearful subjects interact with fearful stimuli.

c) actually interacting with fearful stimuli.

d) observing unafraid others interact with fearful stimuli.

e) imagining fearful stimuli.

54. Which of the following is a component of systematic desensitization?

a) Establishing a fear hierarchy

b) Modeling

c) Developing an aversive response to fear stimuli

d) Developing unconditional positive regard

e) Identifying and correcting irrational beliefs

55. Lakeisha has a snake phobia and decides to see a behavioral therapist. Her therapist suggests systematic desensitization. What is the second step Lakeisha will take in her therapy?

a) Touching a snake

b) Looking at pictures of a snake

c) Learning relaxation techniques

d) Being in the same room as a snake

e) Developing a fear hierarchy for snakes

56. Wanda's therapy involves directly confronting fearful stimuli, little by little, until her fear of the stimulus is reduced or eliminated. Which technique is Wanda's therapist utilizing?

a) Aversive conditioning

b) Transference

c) Modeling

d) Gradual exposure

e) Graduated reconditioning

57. In behavioral therapy, another term for gradual exposure is

a) fear hierarchy.

b) interpretative exposure.

c) in-vivo exposure.

d) transference.

e) virtual exposure.

58. Gradual exposure is used in treating

a) generalized anxiety disorder.

b) identity disorders.

c) neuroses.

d) phobias.

e) somatoform disorders.

59. The text mentions a virtual reality simulation called a virtual bar. What is its purported purpose?

a) To allow people to act as their own lawyers in a virtual trial

b) To promote assertiveness training.

c) To teach people the art of mixing alcoholic drinks

d) To help people overcome social phobia

e) To help people who are problem drinkers

60. Computer technology has been used for a new form of behavioral therapy called

a) eclectic therapy.

b) in-vivo exposure.

c) virtual reality therapy.

d) cybertherapy.

e) online therapy.

61. Generalizing from research presented in the text, what percentage of clients using virtual reality therapy to treat fear of flying are predicted to have success?

a) Less than 10 percent

b) 20 to 30 percent

c) 40 to 60 percent

d) 70 to 80 percent

e) More than 90 percent

62. Regarding the use of virtual reality therapy, which of the following statements is FALSE?

a) Therapists are experimenting with the use of virtual bars and crack houses to help substance abusers resist using drugs.

b) In virtual reality therapy, the therapist controls the intensity and range of stimuli used during virtual exposure sessions.

c) With advances in technology, today's virtual reality environment is convincing enough to evoke intense anxiety in fearful people.

d) Therapists envision a time when this therapy could be used to help clients work through unresolved conflicts with significant others by confronting these others virtually.

e) Studies indicate that virtual reality exposure is just as effective as real-life exposure in treating phobias.

63. "Virtual Iraq" is a virtual reality simulation used to help

a) veterans of the Iraqi war who have PTSD.

b) individuals with a fear of flying in airplanes or helicopters.

c) Iraqi children who experienced psychological trauma.

d) individuals with a fear of loud noises.

e) military trainees learn about Arabic culture before they are sent to Iraq.

64. Associating objects that elicit an undesirable response with negative stimuli is the key principle of

a) systematic desensitization.

b) aversive conditioning.

c) modeling.

d) exposure therapy.

e) virtual therapy.

65. Roger has been convicted of sexually assaulting several young children. In prison he undergoes aversion therapy. He is presented with pictures of young children while receiving unpleasant electric shocks. Eventually, pictures of young children become aversive stimuli. In this procedure, the electric shocks are the

a) unconditioned stimulus.

b) conditioned stimulus.

c) conditioned response.

d) unconditioned response.

e) neutral stimulus.

66. Juan is an alcoholic who has not responded to other types of treatment. Juan's therapist suggests aversive conditioning in which Juan will take a nausea-inducing drug at the same time he sniffs beer. In this treatment strategy, the beer is the ________ during conditioning and the ________ after conditioning.

a) unconditioned stimulus; neutral stimulus

b) unconditioned stimulus; conditioned stimulus

c) conditioned stimulus; neutral stimulus

d) neutral stimulus; unconditioned stimulus

e) neutral stimulus; conditioned stimulus

67. Which of the following is an example of aversive conditioning in behavioral therapy?

a) Dr. Angelino instructs teachers to use time-out as punishment when children with ADHD misbehave.

b) Dr. Barbarino teaches Bob and Judy to use a reward system when their daughter behaves in a desirable way.

c) Dr. Chang develops a token economy for use with residents of a mental hospital.

d) Dr. Dorian uses a nausea-inducing drug with his client Winston, who suffers from alcoholism.

e) Dr. Eggleston teaches Edwina to withdraw attention when her child misbehaves.

68. When two-year-old Tommy started screaming that he wanted the toy that the birthday boy just unwrapped, his mother picked him up and carried him away from the partying children to the empty kitchen where she made him stay until he stopped crying. What operant conditioning technique was Tommy's mother using?

a) Token economy

b) Time-out

c) Aversive conditioning

d) Modeling

e) Systematic desensitization

69. Susie, the new aide on the ward, has a chart listing the names of the eight residents under her charge. She tells each one that whenever he or she does what they are expected to, in the way of taking care of themselves or relating to others, a star will be placed next to his or her name. Then, when a patient has ten stars, Susie will let her or him choose a very special prize, such as a DVD, a music CD, or a box of chocolate. Susie is using which operant conditioning technique to shape her patients' behavior?

a) Aversive conditioning

b) Negative reinforcement

c) Chip economy

d) Token economy

e) Time-out

70. The statement in Hamlet, "There is nothing either good or bad, but thinking makes it so," expresses the rationale behind which contemporary form of therapy?

a) Behavior modification

b) Cognitive-behavioral therapy

c) Virtual reality therapy

d) Cognitive therapy

e) Eclectic therapy

71. Which approach to therapy combines techniques such as gradual exposure and modeling with efforts to challenge and correct faulty thinking patterns?

a) Humanistic

b) Psychodynamic

c) Cognitive-behavioral

d) Gestalt

e) Gestalt-behavioral

72. Aaron Beck is to ________ therapy as Albert Ellis is to ________ therapy.

a) rational-emotive behavior; cognitive

b) cognitive; Gestalt

c) operant-based behavioral; classical-based behavioral

d) Gestalt; cognitive

e) cognitive; rational-emotive behavior

73. The goal of the cognitive therapist is to help clients

a) discover unconscious conflicts and bring them to the light of awareness.

b) strengthen desirable behavior or weaken undesirable behavior through principles of classical and operant conditioning.

c) blend conflicting parts of their personalities into an integrated whole.

d) recognize and develop their unique potentials.

e) challenge maladaptive thoughts and beliefs and replace them with more adaptive ways of thinking and behaving.

74. Which of the following statements about cognitive therapies is true?

a) Cognitive therapy techniques are based on the view that misfortunes are easy to bear.

b) Cognitive therapies are relatively long forms of treatment.

c) Cognitive therapies focus more on what happened in the past than on what is happening in the present.

d) Clients are given "homework assignments" in cognitive therapy.

e) Cognitive therapists believe that emotional problems are caused by external events.

75. The idea that irrational beliefs lead to emotional distress is at the core of which approach to therapy?

a) Behavior therapy

b) Rational-emotive behavior therapy

c) Humanistic therapy

d) Gestalt therapy

e) Biomedical therapy

76. According to Ellis, all EXCEPT which of the following are IRRATIONAL beliefs?

a) One must always have the approval of virtually all the important people in one's life.

b) It is awful and catastrophic when life does not go the way one wants it to go.

c) One's past must continue to affect one and determine one's behavior.

d) People must treat each other fairly, and it is horrible when they do not.

e) Life's problems don't typically have clear and quick solutions.

77. According to Ellis, negative emotions are

a) inevitable consequences of negative events.

b) automatic reactions of the central nervous system.

c) produced directly by life events.

d) the result of irrational beliefs about life events.

e) logical results of evaluating one's life situation.

78. Diane broke up with Sheldon, so Sheldon told himself that he's a loser and that no other girl will ever come along who will be half as good as Diane. Then he got very depressed and went to see a REBT therapist. Using the "ABC" approach, the therapist showed Sheldon that

a) B alone caused A.

b) A alone caused C.

c) B alone caused C.

d) C alone caused A.

e) C and B caused A.

79. Paul was not given a promotion. He feels upset and disappointed because he considers himself a failure. In this scenario, Paul's view of himself as a failure is the

a) activating event.

b) irrational belief.

c) self-defeating behavior.

d) consequence.

e) outcome.

80. Twenty-five-year-old Lloyd goes to a rational-emotive behavior therapist. He complains that ever since a girl laughed at him when he asked her for a date, in ninth grade, he's been afraid to ask out another girl. The therapist, using the ABCD model, might teach him to correctly identify

a) A as the fact that he was afraid of asking out another girl.

b) B as the girl laughing at him.

c) C as his belief that every subsequent girl will behave in the same way as that first one.

d) D as challenging the belief that every subsequent girl will behave in the same way as that first one.

e) B as the fact that he was afraid of asking out another girl.

81. Beck refers to errors in thinking as

a) cognitive appraisals.

b) faulty attributions.

c) cognitive distortions.

d) activating events.

e) irrational beliefs.

82. Shannon goes to a cognitive therapist, who gives her the following assignment: "Next time you have a negative thought, investigate it to determine whether it is valid." Which therapeutic technique is Shannon's therapist using?

a) Reality testing

b) Empathy

c) Validity training

d) Gradual exposure

e) Interpretation

83. Which of the following statements is true with respect to rational-emotive behavior therapy and cognitive therapy?

a) Only cognitive therapy focuses on helping people identify dysfunctional thoughts and beliefs.

b) Only Beck was originally trained as a psychoanalyst; Ellis was not.

c) Cognitive therapy involves the use of homework assignments, whereas REBT does not.

d) Cognitive therapy usually adopts a more confrontational approach in dealing with clients' irrational beliefs than does REBT.

e) Both types of therapy focus on helping people replace maladaptive thoughts with adaptive, rational ones.

84. Which of the following statements is true of eclectic therapists?

a) They do not believe in any form of therapy.

b) They generally adhere to behavioral principles.

c) They are most often humanistic therapists.

d) They are more often psychiatrists than psychologists.

e) They integrate approaches from many different perspectives.

85. In a study reported in the text, which orientation is the most widely endorsed among clinical and counseling psychologists?

a) Eclectic/integrative

b) Cognitive

c) Behavioral

d) Psychoanalytic

e) Rogerian/humanistic

86. Which type of therapy focuses on helping families change disruptive patterns of communication and improve the ways in which members relate to each other?

a) Group therapy

b) Marital therapy

c) Couples therapy

d) Family therapy

e) Conjoint therapy

87. All of the following are advantages of group therapy over individual therapy EXCEPT:

a) Group therapy allows the client to see how others have coped with similar problems.

b) Group therapy is especially helpful for people experiencing problems such as loneliness and shyness.

c) Those in group therapy have the extra benefit of social support from the group.

d) Clients feel safer expressing their feelings in a group setting.

e) Group therapy is usually less costly than individual therapy.

88. Which of the following statements regarding group therapy is true?

a) Effective therapists encourage group members to take turns in dominating the discussion.

b) Group therapy is more costly than individual therapy.

c) Group therapy is not beneficial for people who have interpersonal problems such as shyness and low self-esteem.

d) Information disclosed by group&

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