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Liberty University PSYC 101 quiz 13 complete Answers | Rated A+
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Liberty University PSYC 101 quiz 13 complete Answers | Rated A+

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Chapter 13

Question 1 Dissociative amnesia is

Question 2 The earliest major psychological model of abnormal behavior was the

Question 3 All but which of the following statements describes antisocial personality disorder?

Question 4 Persistent anxiety that is not tied to any particular object or situation is called

Question 5 As described in the text, psychological models of abnormal behavior based on classical conditioning were useful in developing explanations of

Question 6 Fear of heights is to ______ as fear of enclosed spaces is to ______.

Question 7 The patterns of behavior in personality disorders are, in many cases,

Question 8 After getting into an automobile accident while fighting with her fiancé, Chou reports that she cannot see. Examinations indicate no apparent medical condition. Based on this description, Chou may be suffering from

Question 9 All of the following are criticisms of the DSM except

Question 10 Although they have different symptoms and characteristics, dissociative disorders and somatic symptom disorders are often grouped together because they both involve _______ defenses against _____.

Question 11 Whenever Fritz leaves his house, he has a nagging thought that he is forgetting something. He goes back to check that he has turned off the water and stove and locked the door. Some days, it takes Fritz over an hour to actually leave the house. This sounds like a case of

Question 12 The basic explanation of dissociative identity disorder is that

Question 13 Steven has bipolar disorder. All of the following may occur during his manic episodes except

Question 14 Based on available evidence, which of the following brain regions appears to be the most affected in cases of schizophrenia?

Question 15 Felicia reports that she is hearing voices that continually demean and belittle her. By what criterion is her behavior considered abnormal?

Question 16 Ted has antisocial personality disorder. It is likely that Ted shows abnormal functioning in which part of his brain?

Question 17 Tatiana is a schizophrenia patient with delusional thinking. Based on this description, what is Tatiana mostlikely experiencing?

Question 18 Regarding major depressive disorder,

Question 19 In experiments with Little Albert, Watson demonstrated

Question 20 Perceptions are to _____ as beliefs are to ______.

 

Question 1 Twin and adoptee studies provide strong evidence for a __________ factor involved in anxiety disorders.

Question 2 A breakdown in the logical structure of thinking and speech, revealed in the form of a loosening of associations, best describes which psychological disorder?

Question 3 The type of psychological disorder that attracted Sigmund Freud to the study of psychological factors in abnormal behavior would now be called

Question 4 Which of the following is not one of the criteria used by psychologists to determine whether a behavior is abnormal?

Question 5 Behavior that violates established social norms or standards describes which of the following criteria for determining abnormal behavior?

Question 6 Regarding gender and suicide, which of the following statements is true?

Question 7 Gina believes that she is the secret love child of the late Princess Diana and singer Elton John. Since she really is not their child, Gina’s belief would be considered a(n)

Question 8 The cognitive model of panic disorder focuses on misinterpretations of

Question 9 Which theorist is associated with the study of learned helplessness?

Question 10 Ted has antisocial personality disorder. It is likely that Ted shows abnormal functioning in which part of his brain?

Question 11 Approximately what percentage of men could be classified as having antisocial personality disorder?

Question 12 In experiments with Little Albert, Watson demonstrated

Question 13 Tatiana is a schizophrenia patient with delusional thinking. Based on this description, what is Tatianamost likely experiencing?

Question 14 The irrational or excessive fear of enclosed spaces is called

Question 15 George was committed to a psychiatric hospital after he was caught happily shopping at the local supermarket without any clothes on. By what criterion is George’s behavior considered abnormal?

Question 16 Other factors being equal, which person is at highest risk for suicide?

Question 17 The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) uses the term _____ to describe abnormal patterns of behavior.

Question 18 Attempts to understand the biological basis of depression has linked it to imbalances in

Question 19 Whenever Fritz leaves his house, he has a nagging thought that he is forgetting something. He goes back to check that he has turned off the water and stove and locked the door. Some days, it takes Fritz over an hour to actually leave the house. This sounds like a case of

Question 20 Personality disorders are a cluster of psychological disorders

 

Question 1 Which theorist is associated with the study of learned helplessness?

Question 2 Approximately how many people are hospitalized for schizophrenia in a given year?

Question 3 Ceci has a depressive attributional style. This means that when she fails, she is likely to make which types of attributions?

Question 4 Regarding dissociative disorders, which of the following statements is false?

Question 5 A diathesis is a

Question 6 Angelique has not left her house for two years. She is completely terrified of going out. Based on this description, she is probably suffering from

Question 7 Phobias develop through associations of aversive stimuli with previously neutral stimuli. This expresses the ______ explanation of phobia development.

Question 8 A woman walks into a police station. She has no identification and reports that she was walking down the street with no sense of who she is or how she got there. She is referred to a neurologist who finds no physical explanation for her condition. This description sounds like a case of

Question 9 Felicia reports that she is hearing voices that continually demean and belittle her. By what criterion is her behavior considered abnormal?

Question 10 Regarding major depressive disorder,

Question 11 Approximately what percentage of American adults has a diagnosable psychological disorder at some point in their life?

Question 12 According to Freud, abnormal behavior results from

Question 13 Dissociative identity disorder is commonly referred to as

Question 14 All but which of the following have been implicated in the development of borderline personality disorder?

Question 15 In experiments with Little Albert, Watson demonstrated

Question 16 Because the anxiety is not tied to any particular object in generalized anxiety disorder, this type of anxiety is often described as

Question 17 In explaining the development of schizophrenia, the diathesis-­stress model emphasizes

Question 18 Charmaine Coltraine is preoccupied with fears that she has a terrible health problem. Coltraine’s fears are characteristic of

Question 19 Which model of abnormal behavior is the most comprehensive?

Question 20 Bonnie has been feeling extremely sad for the last two months. She has difficulty getting out of bed to face the day and has lost interest in formerly pleasurable activities. Occasionally, she thinks about committing suicide. She sounds like she may be suffering from ________ disorder.

 

Question 1 Regarding genetic factors in schizophrenia, which of the following statements is false?

Question 2 Schizophrenia follows a _______ and typically develops _______.

Question 3 Which anxiety disorder has the highest lifetime prevalence in the population?

Question 4 Delusions of ______ describe the most common theme among schizophrenia patients.

Question 5 The secondary gain of conversion symptoms refers most closely to which of the following?

Question 6 All but which of the following have been implicated in the development of borderline personality disorder?

Question 7 Perhaps the earliest idea regarding abnormal behavior was that

Question 8 All but which of the following statements describes antisocial personality disorder?

Question 9 Eleanor is a quiet 41­year­old housewife. Occasionally, she seems to “become” a 14­ year­old male juvenile delinquent. Other times she “becomes” a 52­year­old, foulmouthed alcoholic. This sounds like a textbook case of

Question 10 According to Freud, psychological symptoms

Question 11 The patterns of behavior in personality disorders are, in many cases,

Question 12 Pablo has an intense fear of giving oral presentations in class. He also is very fearful of dating. Based on this description, he is probably suffering from

Question 13 Which of the following statements about schizophrenia is true?

Question 14 Jurgen has been diagnosed as having a phobia. This means that Jurgen experiences

Question 15 The cognitive model of panic disorder focuses on misinterpretations of

Question 16 A diathesis is a

Question 17 Bertram suffers from schizophrenia with symptoms of catatonia. Sometimes he seems to "freeze up" in an unusual body position for hours at a time. This particular symptom is called

Question 18 Phobias develop through associations of aversive stimuli with previously neutral stimuli. This expresses the ______ explanation of phobia development.

Question 19 Perceptions are to _____ as beliefs are to ______.

Question 20 Personality disorders are a cluster of psychological disorders

 

Question 1 Gina believes that she is the secret love child of the late Princess Diana and singer Elton John. Since she really is not their child, Gina’s belief would be considered a(n)

Question 2 Which of the following individuals exhibits behaviors that would be considered maladaptive?

Question 3 Approximately what percentage of men could be classified as having antisocial personality disorder?

Question 4 Regarding major depression, which of the following statements is false?

Question 5 Nagging, intrusive thoughts are called ______, and repetitive or ritual behaviors are called ______.

Question 6 Regarding the diathesis­stress model, which of the following statements is false?

Question 7 In the diathesis­stress model of explaining schizophrenia, which of the following factors would represent a psychosocial influence?

Question 8 Phobias develop through associations of aversive stimuli with previously neutral stimuli. This expresses the ______ explanation of phobia development.

Question 9 Fannie goes to a humanist therapist. When she talks about her frustrations with attempting to satisfy other people’s demands, her therapist may suggest that Fannie’s attempts could lead to

Question 10 All but which of the following statements describes antisocial personality disorder?

Question 11 The disorder that most resembles common notions of insanity, madness, or lunacy is

Question 12 Regarding gender and suicide, which of the following statements is true?

Question 13 The most common form of hallucinations in schizophrenia is

Question 14 Genetic studies demonstrate that the concordance rate for schizophrenia is

Question 15 Other factors being equal, which person is at highest risk for suicide?

Question 16 Perceptions are to _____ as beliefs are to ______.

Question 17 George was committed to a psychiatric hospital after he was caught happily shopping at the local supermarket without any clothes on. By what criterion is George’s behavior considered abnormal?

Question 18 Major support for the sociocultural model of abnormal behavior is provided by evidence that

Question 19 Which of the following describes a negative symptom of schizophrenia?

Question 20 Hallucinations are

 

Question 1 Exaggerating the importance of negative events or personal flaws describes which type of cognitive distortion?

Question 2 Other factors being equal, which person is at highest risk for suicide?

Question 3 Because the anxiety is not tied to any particular object in generalized anxiety disorder, this type of anxiety is often described as

Question 4 Regarding causes of suicide, which of the following statements is false?

Question 5 Schizophrenia follows a _______ and typically develops _______.

Question 6 All of the following are criticisms of the DSM except

Question 7 Perceptions are to _____ as beliefs are to ______.

Question 8 Personality disorders are a cluster of psychological disorders

Question 9 The sociocultural model explains abnormal behavior in terms of

Question 10 Regarding major depressive disorder,

Question 11 Which theorists are associated with the humanistic model of understanding behavior?

Question 12 What is the approximate prevalence of bipolar disorder in the adult U.S. population?

Question 13 Hallucinations are

Question 14 Regarding cross­cultural differences in schizophrenia, which of the following statements is true?

Question 15 In schizophrenia, behavioral excesses are to ______ as behavioral deficits are to ______.

Question 16 A stereotypical man with antisocial personality disorder is likely to have been raised in a home characterized by

Question 17 Attempts to understand the biological basis of depression has linked it to imbalances in

Question 18 Gina believes that she is the secret love child of the late Princess Diana and singer Elton John. Since she really is not their child, Gina’s belief would be considered a(n)

Question 19 Which of the following statements regarding criteria for determining abnormal behavior is false?

Question 20 A woman walks into a police station. She has no identification and reports that she was walking down the street with no sense of who she is or how she got there. She is referred to a neurologist who finds no physical explanation for her condition. This description sounds like a case of

 

Regarding panic disorder, which of the following statements is false

Phobias develop through associations of aversive stimuli with previously neutral stimuli. This expresses the ______ explanation of phobia development

Which statement would be made by someone supporting a cognitive explanation for somatic symptom and related disorders?

“La belle indifference” describes which feature of a psychological disorder?

Perhaps the earliest idea regarding abnormal behavior was that

All of the following are criticisms of the DSM except

A breakdown in the logical structure of thinking and speech, revealed in the form of a loosening of associations, best describes which psychological disorder?

The criterion of maladaptive behavior used in determining whether behavior is abnormal would likely to be applied to which of the following cases?

Genetic studies demonstrate that the concordance rate for schizophrenia is

Approximately what percentage of American adults has a diagnosable psychological disorder at some point in their life?

Regarding major depressive disorder,

Individuals with antisocial personality disorder demonstrate all of the following except

Dissociative amnesia is

Garth goes to a psychodynamic therapist for treatment of his anxiety. What will be the goal of Garth’s therapy?

In experiments with Little Albert, Watson demonstrated

Charmaine Coltraine is preoccupied with fears that she has a terrible health problem. Coltraine’s fears are characteristic of

Bertram suffers from schizophrenia with symptoms of catatonia. Sometimes he seems to "freeze up" in an unusual body position for hours at a time. This particular symptom is called

Hallucinations are

Major support for the sociocultural model of abnormal behavior is provided by evidence that

After getting into an automobile accident while fighting with her fiancé, Chou reports that she cannot see. Examinations indicate no apparent medical condition. Based on this description, Chou may be suffering from

 

1) The secondary gain of conversion symptoms refers most closely to which of the following?:a. The symptom prevent the individual from having to confront stressful or conflict-laden situationsb. The symptom symbolizes an underlying struggle between opposing motivesc. The symptom enhances the employment of defense mechanisms 

2) All but which of the following are myths about suicide?:a. people who commit suicide are usually suffering from a psychological disorder, but are not insaneb. people who threaten suicide are only trying to get attentionc. if someone threatens suicide, it is best to ignore it so as not to encourage repeated threatsd. talking about suicide with a depressed person may prompt her/him to attempt suicide

3) The sociocultural model explains abnormal behavior in terms of:a. disturbed learning processesb. failures of societyc. distorted thinkingd. the failure of certain cultures to promote self-actualizatione. social influences on underlying biological factors

4) Dr. Tomlin is a therapist working from the cognitive perspective. She is likely to describe abnormal behavior in terms of:a. the role of repressed thoughts and beliefsb. failure to achieve self-actualizationc. classical conditioningd. the combo of classical and operant conditioninge. irrational or distorted thinking

5) Hallucinations are:a. perceptions that occur without appropriate external stimulib. false beliefsc. long strings of disconnected wordsd. patterns of agitated, purposeless motione. a breakdown in the logical structure of thinking and speech

6) Perceptions are to ___ as beliefs are to ____:a. anxiety; depressionb. delusions; hallucinationsc. compulsions; obsessionsd. obsessions; compulsionse. hallucinations; delusions

7) Which theory would attribute a person's depression to faulty interpretations of events and distorted thinking patterns?:a. cognitiveb. humanisticc. psychodynamicd. behaviore. sociocultural

8) Other factors being equal, a person from which group is least at risk for committing suicide?:a. a caucasian- american maleb. a caucasian - american femalec. an african - american maled. an african - american femalee. a latino - american male

9) The criterion of maladaptive behavior used in determining whether behavior is abnormal would likely to be applied to which of the following cases?:a. Jonathan, who is hearing voicesb. Quincy, who is experiencing some symptoms of depression but it still functioning adequatelyc. Nate, who has developed a drug abuse problem that is affecting his healthd. Tricia, who behaves in ways other people consider deviant

10) Regarding major depressive disorder:a. men are more likely than women to be affectedb. men and women are equally likely to be affectedc. women are more likely than men to be affectedd. young women are more likely than young men to be affected and the patterns reverses in middle agee. young men are more likely than young women to be affected, and the patten reverses in middle age

11) After getting into an automobile accident while fighting with her fiance, Chou reports that she cannot see. Examinations indicate no apparent medical condition. Based on this description, Chou may be suffering from:a. dissociative identity disorderb. hypochondriasisc. dissociative amnesiad. functional neurological symptom disordere. bipolar disorder

12) The most common form of hallucinations in schizophrenia is:a. visualb. olfactoryc. auditoryd. tactilee. kinesthetic

13) Major support for the sociocultural model of abnormal behavior is provided by evidence that:a. intelligent people are more likely to suffer from severe forms of abnormalityc. wealthy people rarely suffer psychological disorders 
d. severe disorders such as schizophrenia and depression are more prevalent in impoverished and otherwise disadvantage groups

14) Regarding gender and suicide, which of the following statements is true?:b. when attempting suicide, women tend to choose more lethal methods 
c. when attempting suicide, men are more likely than women to choose pills or poisond. more men attempt suicide, but more women complete the suicide acte. more women attempt suicide, but more men complete the suicide act

15) The diagnostic and statistical manual (DSM) uses the term __ to describe abnormal patterns of behavior:a. mental illnessb. mental disorderc. psychological disorderd. psychological illnesse. personality disorder

16) Dissociative amnesia is:a. a loss of memory due to head traumab. another term for dissociative identity disorderc. another term for multiple personality disorderd. a loss of memory with no identifiable physical causee. a loss of memory due to a neurological condition 

17) A woman walks into a police station. She has no identification and reports that she was walking down the street with no sense of who she is or how she got there. She is referred to a neurologist who finds no physical explanation for her condition. This description sounds like a case of:a. dissociative amnesiab. dissociative identity disorderc. multiple personality disorderd. anterograde amnesia 

18) The earliest major psychological model of abnormal behavior was the:a. cognitive modelb. humanistic modelc. behavioral modeld. biopsychosocial modele. psychodynamic model

19) Regarding the diathesis-stress model, which of the following statements is false?:c. the stronger the diathesis, the less stress is needed to produce a disorder 
d. disorders may develop under benign life circumstancese. whether a person having a diathesis develops a particular disorder is primarily dependent on his or her cluster of personality traits

20) Edwina is constantly worried. She cannot really identify why she feels this way, and she finds it nearly impossible to relax. Edwina's therapist believes her symptoms best represent:a. obsessive-compulsiveb. generalized anxiety disorderc. panic disorderd. social anxiety disordere. dissociative identity disorder

21) As described in the text, the diathesis-stress model is an example of which model of abnormal behavior?:a. Humanisticb. Cognitivec. Psychodynamicd. Socioculturale. Biopsychosocial

22) In explaining the development of schizophrenia, the diathesis-stress model emphasizes:a. the role of brain abnormalitiesb. the interaction of genetic predispositions and stressc. the role stressful life experiences in creating a diathesisd. the role of psychosocial influences in creating a diathesise. biochemical imbalances

23) The American Psychiatric Association once considered homosexuality as a type of mental disorder, but no longer does today. This fact is an example of which way that culture influences ideas about abnormality?:a. the same behavior may be judged abnormal at some points in time, but not at othersc. the same behavior can be normal in one culture but abnormal in anotherd. abnormal behavior patterns may be expressed

24) Therapist Charlotte Maley is a behaviorist. She is most likely to suggests that depression is:a. due to unresolved unconscious conflictsb. the result of losses or shortfalls in reinforcement levelsc. a matter of how people interpret eventsd. genetic in origin but influenced by early traumae. the result of interruptions of one's sense of self-actualization

25) According to Freud, psychological symptoms:a. arise from disturbed brain chemistryb. are a conscious cry for attentionc. represent an outward expression of inner turmoild. are produced voluntarily to obtain sympathye. are learned through experience

26) Charmaine Coltraine is preoccupied with fears that she has a terrible health problem. Coltraine's fears are characteristic of:a. functional neurological symptom disorderb. somatic symptom disorderc. dissociative identity disorder d. dissociative amnesiae. hysteria

27) Humanistic theorists contend that abnormal behavior:a. is the result of unconscious processesb. is the result of conditioningc. develops from encountering obstacles on the road to personal growthd. involves distorted cognitions as well as learning influencese. results from the stress of coping with poverty and social disadvantage

28) Gina believes that she is the secret love child of the late Princess Diana and signer John Elton. Since she really is not their child, Gina's belief would be considered a(n):a. diathesisb. delusionc. hallucinationd. obsessione. compulsion

29) Regarding major depression, which of the following statements is false?:b. many psychologists believe that the stressors faced by many women today contribute to their increased risk of depression 
c. when left untreated, episodes of major depression can last months, or a year or mored. researchers have found that women and men tend to cope with depression differently, with men more likely to ruminate

30) Exaggerating the importance of negative events or personal flaws describes which type of cognitive distortion?:a. all-or-nothing thinkingb. misfortune tellingc. catastrophizingd. dismissing the positivese. misplaced blame

31) Fannie goes to a humanist therapist. When she talks about her frustrations with attempting to satisfy other people's demands, her therapist may suggest that Fannie's attempts could lead to:a. a distorted self-imageb. an inability to learn from experiencec. an inflated egod. unconscious aggressive desirese. irrational and distorted thinking patterns

32) Angelique has not left her house for two years. She is completely terrified of going out. Based on this description she is probably suffering from:a. agoraphobiab. social anxiety disorderc. specific phobiad. panic disordere. post-traumatic stress disorder

33) The patterns of behavior in personality disorders are, in many cases,:a. highly resistant to changeb. somewhat resistant to changec. somewhat easy to changed. relatively easy to change with psychotherapye. relatively easy to change with drug treatment

34) Attempts to understand the biological basis of depression has linked it to imbalances in:a. serotonin and dopamineb. dopamine and norepinephrinec. serotonin and acetylcholined. serotonin and acetylcholinee. epinephrine and dopamine

35) In a manic episode of bipolar disorder, a person might be characterize by all but which of the following?:a. extreme euphoria and energyb. pressured speechc. inflated sense of self-worthd. difficultly committing to decisionse. poor judgement

36) All but which of the following statements describes antisocial personality disorder?:a. the majority of people with this disorder engage in criminal activitiesb. people with this disorder are sometimes called psychopaths or sociopathsc. some people with this disorder can be charmingd. this disorder affects men more often than womene. some people with this disorder have a high level of intelligence

37) Schizophrenia follows a ____ and typically develops ___:a. chronic but not lifelong course; in early adolescenceb. lifelong course; in early adolescencec. chronic but not lifelong course; in late adolescence or early adulthoodd. lifelong course; in late adolescence or early adulthoode. variable course; during the person's thirties

38) Different personalities in dissociative identity disorder may demonstrate all of the following except:a. different gendersb. different agesc. different traits and manners of speechd. different eye colorse. different memories

39) Which of the following individuals exhibits behaviors that would be considered maldaptive?:a. Michael, who wears women's clothing when no one is lookingb. Stanley, who battles depressionc. Gary, who believes that he is the son of George Washingtond. Irving, who hears voicese. Roy, who is continues to use drugs despite the effects on his health and functioning

40) Although they have different symptoms and characteristics, dissociative disorders and somatic symptom disorders are often grouped together because they both involve _____ defenses against ______:a. physical; anxietyb. physical; depressionc. psychological; maniad. psychological; depressione. psychological; anxiety

41) Individuals with antisocial personality disorder demonstrate all of the following except:a. disregard for rules of societyb. psychotic behaviorc. lack of remorse for misdeedsd. impulsivitye. irresponsible behavior

42) The cognitive model of panic disorder focuses on misinterpretations of:a. childhood experiencesb. social cuesc. bodily sensationsd. others' intentionse. irregular brain wave patterns 

43) Persistent anxiety that is not tied to any particular object or situation is called:a. generalized anxiety disorderb. obsessive-compulsive disorderc. agoraphobiad. social anxiety disordere. panic disorder

44) Behavior that violates established social norms or standards describes which of the following criteria for determining abnormal behavior?:a. dangerousnessb. social deviancec. maladaptive behaviord. unusualnesse. emotional distress

45) Physical complaints that cannot be explained medically are characteristic of:a. dissociative identity orderb. obsessive-compulsive disorderc. somatic symptoms and related disordersd. dissociative amnesiae. bipolar disorder 

46) Bipolar disorder was formerly called:a. manic-depressionb. hysteriac. illness anxiety disorderd. multiple personality disordere. schizophrenia 

47) Freudian theory contends that depression:a. represents the defense mechanism of displacementb. is genetically basedc. represents anger turned inwardd. is a form of attention-gettinge. results from a lack of reinforcement 

48) "La belle indifference" describes which feature of a psychological disorder?:a. tendency for people with functional neurological symptom disorder to be unconcerned about their symptomsb. tendency for people with dissociative identity disorder to have been highly imaginative as childrenc. tendency for people with depression to have a maladaptive attributional style 

49) Because the anxiety is not tied to any particular object in generalized anxiety disorder, this type of anxiety is often described as:a. obsessiveb. compulsivec. free-floatingd. neurotice. post-traumatic

50) Delusions of ____ describe the most common theme among schizophrenia patients:a. waxy flexibilityb. jealouslyc. la belle indifferenced. grandeure. persecution 

51) Regarding dissociative disorders, which of the following statements is false?:a. Dissociative disorders can involve amnesiab. dissociative disorders include cases of people with "multiple personalities."c. dissociative disorders are among the most mystifying of psychological disordersd. compared to other psychological disorders, dissociative disorders are relatively common 

52) Which of the following statements about schizophrenia is true?:a. schizophrenia affects about 1% of the adult populationb. schizophrenia is somewhat more common in women than in menc. schizophrenia affects fewer than 500,000 people in U.S.d. schizophrenia typically develops in late childhood or early adolescence 

53) Ceci has a depressive attributional style. This means that when she fails, she is likely to make which types of attributions?:a. internal, global, and stableb. internal, specific, and stablec. internal, global, and unstabled. external, global, and stablee. external, specific, and unstable

54) Approximately what percentage of men could be classified as having antisocial personality disorder?:a. less than 1%b. 1 to 3%c. 3 to 6%d. 5 to 8%e. 7 to 10%

55) Perhaps the earliest idea regarding abnormal behavior was that:a. supernatural forces or demonic spirits were at workb. the brains of people displaying abnormal behavior were defectivec. it was the product of the inappropriate use of rewards and punishmentsd. it was the result of a moral weaknesse. irrational thoughts or distorted thinking lead to emotional problems

56) Personality disorders are a cluster of psychological disorders:a. involving extremely rigid patterns of behaviorb. in which mood disturbances are the primary symptomc. that all include psychotic symptomsd. involving extreme anxietye. in which cognitive distortions result in impaired functioning

57) Which of the following is not one of the criteria used by psychologists to determine whether a behavior is abnormal?:a. moralityb. social deviancec. dangerousnessd. unusualnesse. emotional distress

58) Twin and adoptee studies provide strong evidence for a ____ factor involved in anxiety disorders.:a. biochemicalb. geneticc. biopsychosociald. neurotransmittere. prenatal

59) A breakdown in the logical structure of thinking and speech, revealed in the form of a loosening of associations, best describes which psychological disorder?:a. antisocial personality disorderb. major depressive disorderc. obsessive-compulsive disorderd. dissociative identity disordere. schizophrenia

60) Which of the following statements regarding criteria for determining abnormal behavior is false?:a. psychologists use multiple criteria in determining whether behavior is abnormalb. the one determining feature of abnormal behavior is unusualnessc. most people feel anxious or depressed from time to timed. the same behavior may be judged normal under one circumstance and abnormal under another circumstance

61) Phobias develop through associations of aversive stimuli with previously neutral stimuli. This expresses the ____ explanation of phobia development:a. cognitive b. classical conditioningc. operant conditioningd. psychodynamice. sociocultural

62) Nagging, intrusive thoughts are called ___, and repetitive or ritual behaviors are called ____. a. diatheses; delusionsb. compulsions; obsessionsc. obsessions; compulsionsd. diatheses; conversionse. conversions; diatheses

63) Ella finds herself extremely frightened whenever she see a snake. This describes a form of:a. panic disorderb. specific phobiac. agoraphobia d. obsessive-compulsive disordere. social anxiety disorder

64) The disorder that most resembles common notions of insanity, madness, or lunacy is:a. major depressive disorderb. dissociative identity disorderc. generalized anxiety disorderd. schizophreniae. bipolar disorder

65) Fear of heights is to ___ as fear of enclosed spaces is to ___:a. claustrophobia; acrophobiab. acrophobia; claustrophobiac. agoraphobia; claustrophobiad. agoraphobia; acrophobia e. acrophobia; agoraphobia

66) In the disthesis-stress model of explaining schizophrenia, which of the following factors would represent a psychosocial influence:a. childhood brain damageb. prenatal brain traumac. failure in schoold. loss of a loved onee. being raised in an abusive family environment

67) All but which of the following have been implicated in the development of borderline personality disorder:a. abuse or neglect in childhoodb. failure to develop a cohesive self-concept in childhoodc. low levels of dopamine productiond. brain abnormalitiese. genetic factors

68) Schizophrenia may involve imbalances in nerve pathways that utilize which neurotransmitter:a. serotoninb. melatoninc. dopamined. norepinephrinee. epinephrine

69) In experiments with Little Albert, Watson demonstrated:a. the need to consider cognitive, as well as learning, influences in abnormal behavior b. the inability of young children to acquire phobiasc. the role of classical conditioning in the development of phobiasd. the ease with which instinctual fears are demonstrated in young childrene. the role of operant conditioning in fostering aggression

70) Critics of the concept of dissociative identity disorder suggest:a. it is really a form a schizophreniab. it represents a form of attention-seeking role playingc. there are underlying physical causes that are unidentifiedd. it is not really an abnormal conditione. it fails to provide secondary gain

71) Eleanor is a quite 41-year-old housewife. Occasionally, she seems to "become" a 14 year old male juvenile delinquent. Other times she "becomes" a 52 year old, foul mouthed alcoholic. This sounds like a textbook case of:a. schizophreniab. manic depressive disorderc. dissociative identity disorderd. conversion disordere. bipolar disorder

72) Which of the following people can be described as having features of obsessive compulsive disorder?a. Buckie, who locks and unlocks her door three times each time she enters and leaves her homeb. Scott, who has a low level state of anxiety that seems to travel with him wherever he goesc. Rick, who has an irrational fear of riding on escalatorsd. Mary Jo, who refuses to leave her house because going out in public makes her panic 

73) Which of the following describes a negative symptom of schizophrenia:a. hallucinationsb. delusionsc. thought disordersd. social isolatione. bizarre behaviors

74) Tatiana is a schizophrenia patient with delusional thinking. Based on this description, what is Tatiana most likely experiencing?a. perceptions that occur without appropriate external stimulib. false but firm beliefsc. violent, aggressive outburstsd. patterns of disorganized speeche. removal of inhibitions resulting in violent outbursts

75) Which ethnic groups have relatively higher rates of suicide:a. caucasian americans and african americansb. caucasian americans and hispanic americansc. caucasian americans and native americansd. african americans and hispanic americanse. african americans and native americans

76) Based on available evidence, which of the following brain regions appears to be the most affected in cases of schizophrenia:a. prefrontal cortex and limbic systemb. limbic system and hypothalamusc. hypothalamus and medullad. medulla and prefrontal cortexe. thalamus and medulla

77) What is the approximate prevalence of bipolar disorder in the adult U.S. population:a. 1%b. 4%c. 7%d. 10%e. 12%

78) Genetic studies demonstrate that the concordance rate for schizophrenia is:a. highest among family membersb. highest among monozygotic twinsc. highest among dyzygotic twinsd. highest among distant family memberse. similar across different groups

79) George was committed to a psychiatric hospital after he was caught happily shopping at the local supermarket without any cloths on. By what criterion is George's behavior considered abnormal?a. dangerousnessb. maladaptive behaviorc. social devianced. emotional distresse. faulty perceptions or interpretations of realtiy

80) Whenever Fritz leaves his house, he has a nagging thought that he is forgetting something. He goes back to check that he has turned off the water and stove and locked the door. Some days, it takes Fritz over an hour to actually leave the house. This sounds like a case of:a. somatoform disorderb. obsessive compulsive disorderc. agoraphobiad. panic disorder 

81) Steven has bipolar disorder. All of the following may occur during his manic episodes except:a. flight of ideasb. pressured speechc. waxy flexibility d. grandiositye. restlessness

82) Dissociative identity disorder is commonly referred to as:a. multiple personality disorderb. neurosisc. schizophrenia d. generalized anxiety disordere. antisocial personality disorder

83) Regarding causes of suicide, which of the following statements is false:a. suicide may be linked to irregularities in serotonin functioning in the brain that leads to a disinhibition effectb. suicide is closely linked to mood disorders.c. adolescents who have a friend who attempted suicide are less likely than their peers to attempt suicide themselvesd. suicidal people may have fewer coping responses

84) Which of the following statements best captures the cognitive distortion of "mistaken responsibility":a. my partner is going to have an accident when they go skiingc. I have to get an A in that class 
d. I didn't get the grade I wanted in that class; I'm so stupide. My partner is angry today. I must have done something wrong.

85) Which theorists are associated with the humanistic model of understanding behavior:a. Sigmund Freud and Anna Freudb. Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslowc. John B. Watson and Ivan Pavlovd. Albert Ellis and Aaron Becke. Erik Erikson and Carl Jung

86) Regarding panic disorder, which of the following statements is false?b. panic disorder is characterized by intense physical symptoms 
c. some people with this disorder mistake their symptoms for a heart attackd. agoraphobia sometimes develops in people with panic disordere. panic attacks initially begin because of their association with a specific situation

87) All but which of the following have been implicated in antisocial personality disorder:a. familial environment characterized by neglect and harsh punishment b. underlying brain abnormalities c. low levels of dopamine productiond. geneticse. need for high levels of stimulation to maintain optimal level of arousal

88) Diana had borderline personality disorder. Which of the following best describes the major symptoms of her disorder:a. tendency toward mood swings and stormy relationships with othersb. extreme suspiciousness or mistrust of othersc. pattern of avoiding social relationships out of fear of rejectiond. excessive need for orderliness and attention to detaile. odd or eccentric, but not psychotic, behaviors

89) Which statement would be made by someone supporting a cognitive explanation for somatic symptom and related disorders?a. people with these disorders are reinforced by others for adopting a " sick role" by drawing sympathy and supportc. conversion symptoms provide secondary gain 
e. like people with panic disorder, people with hypochondriasis tend to misinterpret bodily sensations as signs of catastrophic causes 

90) A loss of physical function that has no organic cause is the primary symptom of:a. hypochondriasisb. dissociative identity disorderc. functional neurological symptom disorderd. schizophreniae. dissociative amnesia

91) As described in the text, psychological models of abnormal behavior based on classical conditioning were useful in developing explanations of:a. personality disordersb. phobiasc. schizophrenia d. depressione. self-actualization 

92) Tako occasionally finds himself in a state of sheer terror. The sensation lasts for several minutes, and he often believes he is "going crazy." His symptoms most closely describe:a. agoraphobiab. post-traumatic stress disorderc. obsessive-compulsive disorderd. panic disordere. generalized anxiety disorder

93) Schizophrenia is best described as a type of _____ disorder:a. anxietyb. moodc. personalityd. psychotice. dissociative

94) Which of the following involves the removal of normal restraints that serve to keep impulsive behaviors in check:a. an exit eventb. a cognitive distortionc. a negative symptomd. waxy flexibilitye. the disinhibition

95) A diathesis is a:a. severely traumatic incidentb. gene linked to a psychological disorderc. predisposition or vulnerability to a disorderd. learned pattern of abnormal behaviore. disturbance of mood, perception, or behavior

96) All but which of the following people have a specific phobia:a. Joe, who is afraid of spidersb. Pat, who is afraid of heightsc. Nichole, who is afraid of venturing out into open placesd. Michael, who is afraid of venturing out into open placese. Meghan, who is afraid of flying in airplanes

97) Pablo has an intense fear of giving oral presentations in class. He also is very fearful of dating. Based on this description, he is probably suffering from:a. agoraphobiab. specific phobiac. social anxiety disorderd. generalized anxiety disorder 

98) Jurgen has been diagnosed as having a phobia. This means that Jurgen experiences:a. sudden episodes of sheer terror with no apparent causeb. persistent anxiety without a specific focusc. nagging, intrusive thoughtsd. an irrational or excessive fear of somethinge. a loss of a physical function that defies explanation

99) Which model of abnormal behavior is the most comprehensive:a. medicalb. sociocultural c. psychodynamicd. biopsychosociale. humanistic

100) Felicia reports that she is hearing voices that continually demean and belittle her. By what criterion is her behavior considered abnormal:a. dangerousnessb. maladaptive behaviorc. social devianced. emotional distresse. faulty perceptions or interpretations of reality 

101) Which theorist is associated with the study of learned helplessness:a. Aaron Beckb. Albert Ellisc. Albert Bandurad. Carl Rogerse. Martin Seligman

102) Bertram suffers from schizophrenia with symptoms of catatonia. Sometimes he seem s to "freeze up" in an unusual body position for hours at a time. This particular symptom is called.a. hysterical neurosisb. disorganized thinkingc. waxy flexibilityd. psychotic frenzye. la belle indifferece

103) Which anxiety disorder has the highest lifetime prevalence in the population:a. agoraphobiab. social anxiety disorderc. panic disorderd. generalized anxiety disordere. specific phobia

104) Ted has antisocial personality disorder. It is likely that Ted shows abnormal functioning in which part of his brain:a. hippocampus b. amygdalac. prefrontal cortexd. temporal lobese. corpus callosum 

105) In schizophrenia, behavioral excesses are to ____ as behavioral deficits are to _____:a. psychotic disorder, thought disorderb. thought disorder; psychotic disorderc. disorganization; paranoiad. positive symptoms; negative symptomse. negative symptoms; positive symptoms

106) Reduction of anxiety that occurs when feared objects are avoided is the basis of which explanation of phobic avoidance?:a. biological b. classical conditioningc. operant conditioningd. cognitivee. humanistic

107) Regarding cross-cultural differences in schizophrenia, which of the following statements are true:d. schizophrenia occurs about as frequently in other cultures as in the U.S., and its symptoms are similar across cultures 
e. schizophrenia occurs about as frequently in other cultures as in the U.S., but particular symptoms vary from culture to culture

108) Within the medical model, distinctive patterns of abnormal behavior are described as:a. psychological odditiesb. biological disordersc. mental disorders or mental illnessd. diathesese. attributional styles

109) Bonnie has been feeling extremely sad for the last 2 months. She has difficulty getting out of bed to face the day and has lost interest in formerly pleasurable activities. Occasionally, she thinks about committing suicide. She is suffering from () disorder:a. manicb. antisocial personalityc. bipolard. major depressive 

110) Approximately what percentage of American adults has a diagnosable psychological disorder at some point in their life:a. 20%b. 35%c. 50%d. 60%e. 75%

111) A stereotypical man with antisocial personality disorder is likely to have been raised in a home characterized by:a. permissiveness and a general lack of rulesb. spoiling and excessive indulgencec. neglect, abuse, and lack of warmthd. excessive stimulation and constant excitemente. moderate, authoritative discipline

112) A class of psychological disorders involving changes in consciousness, memory, or self-identity is known as:a. personality disordersb. phobiasc. somatic symptom disordersd. mood disorderse. dissociative disorders

113) The irrational or excessive fear of enclosed spaces is called:a. acrophobiab. social phobiac. claustrophobiad. obsessive-compulsive disordere. agoraphobia 

114) Which of the following biological factors is most likely to be considered in the cognitive explanation of anxiety disorders:a. g

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    Question 1 Dissociative amnesia is Question 2 The earliest major psychological model of abnormal behavior was the

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