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Liberty University PSYC 101 quiz 11 complete Answers | Rated A+
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Liberty University PSYC 101 quiz 11 complete Answers | Rated A+

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Chapter 11

Question 1 Who developed the 16PF personality test?

Question 2 Freud’s psychoanalytic theory posits that the preconscious consists of _____.

Question 3 Watson and Skinner believed that

Question 4 In the five­factor model of personality, the extent to which a person is sensitive, warm, and tolerant versus callous, cold, and hostile is captured in which personality factor?

Question 5 In Karen Horney’s theory of personality development, children may develop a deep form of resentment toward their parents. Horney labeled this

Question 6 Psychologist Walter Mischel emphasizes the importance of self­regulatory systems and plans, by which is meant _____.

Question 7 The U.S. Army’s slogan, “Be all that you can be” is most consistent with which concept from personality theory?

Question 8 Which type of learning did Bandura emphasize in his social­cognitive theory?

Question 9 Herschel believes that he will be able to perform the behaviors necessary for him to succeed at college. Bandura used the term ______ to describe Herschel’s beliefs.

Question 10 In applying the concept of building self­esteem in our personal lives, most of the skills valued in our society are

Question 11 Which neo­Freudian raised the idea that men may experience “womb envy”?

Question 12 Hans Eysenck thought that personality differences result from _____.

Question 13 According to Freud, most of the human mind resides in the ______, and primitive sexual and aggressive instincts lie in the ______.

Question 14 The most widely held view in contemporary psychology is that _____.

Question 15 Freud believed that personality consists of _____ structures, and they are called _____.

Question 16 Cathleen takes the 16PF test of personality. This test will measure Cathleen’s _____ traits.

Question 17 A culture in which the sense of self is tied to personal accomplishments s best described as

Question 18 Of the following suggestions for how we can build our self­esteem, which is most likely to have been made by Albert Ellis?

Question 19 The combination of psychological characteristics and behavior patterns that characterize the uniqueness of an individual and the ways in which the individual relates to the world and adapts to environmental demands is called

Question 20 Francis is passive, clingy, and dependent, with a pessimistic outlook on life. In which psychosexual stage might Francis be fixated?

 

Question 1 In psychoanalytic theory, ______ is to reality principle as ______ is to pleasure principle.

Question 2 Carl Rogers’ theory suggests that self­esteem is a function of how closely we come to matching our self­ideals, which are _____.

Question 3 Which part of the personality might be described as “the great compromiser”?

Question 4 Allport proposed ______ types of traits in the personality, and they are called _____.

Question 5 Abraham Maslow believed all but which of the following?

Question 6 For extra credit in her psychology class, Lucretia just took a 567­item self­report personality inventory administered by a graduate student in training. The graduate student told Lucretia that the test measures 10 clinical scales. Which test did Lucretia take?

Question 7 Stable and enduring personal characteristics are called

Question 8 In psychoanalytic theory, the personality structure that organizes ways to handle delays of gratification and represents “reason and good sense” is the

Question 9 In the five­factor models of personality, which two traits parallel two of Eysenck’s traits?

Question 10 Social­cognitive theorist Mischel’s most recent work focuses on

Question 11 The most widely adopted trait model of personality today is the

Question 12 Regarding self­efficacy, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 13 Shawn is more likely to smoke marijuana in situations where he believes it will make him relaxed than in situations where he feels he will make a fool of himself. Shawn’s ideas about smoking marijuana reflect his

Question 14 Cybill takes a personality test based on Eysenck’s theory and finds that her “type” is extraverted­stable. Which description most likely fits Cybill?

Question 15 Who are the two main contributors to the humanistic perspective?

Question 16 Which of the following has NOT been voiced as a criticism of trait theories?

Question 17 In the humanistic perspective, realization of one’s own potential is known as

Question 18 In comparison to psychodynamic and behaviorist explanations of human behavior and thought processes, humanistic theory

Question 19 Regression is

Question 20 A strategy that prevents awareness of unacceptable desires is a ______, and the ______ makes use of such strategies.

 

Question 1 From Freud’s perspective, a boy resolves his Oedipus complex by

Question 2 In the humanistic perspective, realization of one’s own potential is known as

Question 3 Mahatma Gandhi’s lifelong commitment to non­violent solutions to social problems would likely be considered an example of a(n) ______ trait.

Question 4 In Mischel’s theory, which person variable concerns the ability to plan courses of action to achieve goals and obtain rewards?

Question 5 Ingmar’s boss ridiculed him in front of the whole office. When Ingmar returns home, he yells at his wife and children and kicks his dog. This is an example of

Question 6 Gordon Allport thought that cardinal traits are _____.

Question 7 According to Freud, most of the human mind resides in the ______, and primitive sexual and aggressive instincts lie in the ______.

Question 8 All but which of the following are premises of Adler’s individual psychology?

Question 9 Rorschach developed a famous personality test that uses __________ as stimuli.

Question 10 Watson and Skinner believed that

Question 11 Which of the following students is demonstrating a positive expectancy about schoolwork?

Question 12 In _____, people are presented with a set of ambiguous stimuli that produce responses that must be interpreted by the examiner.

Question 13 Cybill takes a personality test based on Eysenck’s theory and finds that her “type” is extraverted­stable. Which description most likely fits Cybill?

Question 14 The most widely adopted trait model of personality today is the

Question 15 In Freudian theory, the failure to acknowledge a threatening impulse or desire is called

Question 16 Paul forgets to call his mother­in­law on her birthday. He says it just slipped his mind. In the Freudian view, this type of forgetting may represent the defense mechanism of

Question 17 The psychoanalytic perspective suggests that too much or too little gratification at a psychosexual stage may result in

Question 18 Jacob and his friends like to lie around on summer days, stare up at the clouds, and tell each other what they see in the clouds. Their activity is most like which test of personality?

Question 19 Who developed the 16PF personality test?

Question 20 Raymond Cattell thought that surface traits are _____.

 

Question 1 Which of the following best describes Bandura’s ideas about the relationship between behavior, cognition, and environment?

Question 2 Emilio’s therapist says that Emilio’s personality is fixated at the earliest stage of development. In layman’s terms, the therapist means that Emilio’s personality is ______ at the earlier stage.

Question 3 In comparison to psychodynamic and behaviorist explanations of human behavior and thought processes, humanistic theory

Question 4 When taken to extremes, individualistic values might lead to undesirable consequences, such as _____.

Question 5 Cybill takes a personality test based on Eysenck’s theory and finds that her “type” is extraverted-­stable. Which description most likely fits Cybill?

Question 6 Freud’s psychoanalytic theory posits that the pleasure principle is _____.

Question 7 Rogers used the term ______ to describe acceptance of a person’s basic worth under any circumstance.

Question 8 Frank says, “My conscience is bothering me.” Using Freud’s terminology, Frank is referring to his

Question 9 Which of the following is most likely in Freud’s phallic stage of development?

Question 10 In psychoanalytic theory, the personality structure that organizes ways to handle delays of gratification and represents “reason and good sense” is the

Question 11 Karen Horney’s feminine psychology emphasized the importance of our basic anxiety, which is _____.

Question 12 According to humanists, personality is

Question 13 In social-­cognitive theory, expectancies are

Question 14 The social-­cognitive perspective of personality development is associated with which approach to therapy?

Question 15 An extension of behaviorism that includes roles for internal mental processes and the influences of other people on our behavior is called

Question 16 Who are the two main contributors to the humanistic perspective?

Question 17 In the five-factor models of personality, which two traits parallel two of Eysenck’s traits?

Question 18 Which part of the personality might be described as “the great compromiser”?

Question 19 In social-l­cognitive theory, all but which of the following play a role in explaining personality?

Question 20 In humanistic theory of Rogers and Maslow, personality is best described as

 

Question 1 In comparison to psychodynamic and behaviorist explanations of human behavior and thought processes, humanistic theory

Question 2 Amy is from a collectivistic culture. Compared to her cousin Andre, who is from an individualistic culture, Amy is MORE likely to value which of the following?

Question 3 According to humanists, personality is

Question 4 The idea of reciprocal determinism was developed by

Question 5 Herschel believes that he will be able to perform the behaviors necessary for him to succeed at college. Bandura used the term ______ to describe Herschel’s beliefs.

Question 6 In personality testing, self­report personality inventories are also known as

Question 7 Which neo­Freudian raised the idea that men may experience “womb envy”?

Question 8 On the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, the number of items scored in the same direction as the diagnostic group are converted into

Question 9 Which type of learning did Bandura emphasize in his social­cognitive theory?

Question 10 Emilio’s therapist says that Emilio’s personality is fixated at the earliest stage of development. In layman’s terms, the therapist means that Emilio’s personality is ______ at the earlier stage.

Question 11 The combination of psychological characteristics and behavior patterns that characterize the uniqueness of an individual and the ways in which the individual relates to the world and adapts to environmental demands is called

Question 12 Emma’s sense of who or what she should be is her

Question 13 In applying the concept of building self­esteem in our personal lives, most of the skills valued in our society are

Question 14 According to the text, Parvati can enhance her self­esteem by doing all but which of the following?

Question 15 Which of the following best describes Bandura’s ideas about the relationship between behavior, cognition, and environment?

Question 16 In humanistic theory of Rogers and Maslow, personality is best described as

Question 17 According to Adler, because of their small size and limited abilities, all children harbor feelings of

Question 18 Which of the following is most likely in Freud’s phallic stage of development?

Question 19 ________ consists of 567 true­false items that produce scores on 10 clinical scales and additional scales measuring other personality dimensions and response tendencies.

Question 20 In Freudian theory, different parts of the body associated with sexual pleasure are referred to as

 

Question 1 In Freudian theory, the failure to acknowledge a threatening impulse or desire is called

Question 2 Allport proposed ______ types of traits in the personality, and they are called _____.

Question 3 In _____, people are presented with a set of ambiguous stimuli that produce responses that must be interpreted by the examiner.

Question 4 It is often said of substance abusers that the first step in recovery is admitting they have a problem. In Freudian terms, we might say they need to overcome

Question 5 A(n) ______ culture is one that emphasizes social roles and obligations.

Question 6 Regarding self­efficacy, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 7 Karen Horney’s feminine psychology emphasized the importance of our basic anxiety, which is _____.

Question 8 Herschel believes that he will be able to perform the behaviors necessary for him to succeed at college. Bandura used the term ______ to describe Herschel’s beliefs.

Question 9 Which of the following is most likely in Freud’s latency stage of development?

Question 10 Federico is a perfectionist with a strong need for self­control, order, and cleanliness. Freud would describe Federico as having a(n)

Question 11 Jung believed that similarities among cultures in dream images, art, and religious symbols are an essential part of the

Question 12 Rogers used the term ______ to describe acceptance of a person’s basic worth under any circumstance.

Question 13 A culture in which the sense of self is tied to personal accomplishments s best described as

Question 14 Regarding Freud’s psychoanalytic theory, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 15 An individual’s general belief about his or her ability to obtain reinforcements is referred to as

Question 16 In social­cognitive theory, expectancies are

Question 17 The primary contributors to social­cognitive theory are

Question 18 An extension of behaviorism that includes roles for internal mental processes and the influences of other people on our behavior is called

Question 19 Which neo­Freudian raised the idea that men may experience “womb envy”?

Question 20 Psychologist Walter Mischel emphasizes the importance of self­regulatory systems and plans, by which is meant _____.

 

Question 1 Rorschach test is to ______ as Thematic Apperception Test is to ______.

Question 2 From Freud’s perspective, a boy resolves his Oedipus complex by

Question 3 After six­year­old Samantha’s baby brother was born, she started to have temper tantrums the way she had when she was two. This may be a case of

Question 4 In the humanistic perspective, realization of one’s own potential is known as

Question 5 Cybill takes a personality test based on Eysenck’s theory and finds that her “type” is extraverted­stable. Which description most likely fits Cybill?

Question 6 Projective personality tests have been criticized on the basis of each of the following EXCEPT _____.

Question 7 Social­cognitive theorists believe that personality is

Question 8 An extension of behaviorism that includes roles for internal mental processes and the influences of other people on our behavior is called

Question 9 An individual’s general belief about his or her ability to obtain reinforcements is referred to as

Question 10 In Freudian theory, the level of consciousness that corresponds to our current level of awareness is the

Question 11 Social­cognitive theorist Mischel’s most recent work focuses on

Question 12 Freud’s psychoanalytic theory posits that the superego consists of _____.

Question 13 Who developed the Thematic Apperception Test?

Question 14 Raymond Cattell thought that surface traits are _____.

Question 15 In Freudian theory, the failure to acknowledge a threatening impulse or desire is called

Question 16 Which part of the personality might be described as “the great compromiser”?

Question 17 According to Allport, secondary traits

Question 18 William has set a series of goals for himself that are practically unachievable, and his self­esteem drops each time he fails to meet one of his goals. William needs to know that _____.

Question 19 The belief that people’s character and mental abilities could be judged by the patterns of bumps on their skull is called

Question 20 In comparison to psychodynamic and behaviorist explanations of human behavior and thought processes, humanistic theory

 

Using an iceberg analogy, the tip of the iceberg is most like which level of consciousness in Freud’s theory?

Darius scores high on psychoticism. In which way is Darius likely to be perceived by others?

Carl Rogers’ theory suggests that self-esteem is a function of how closely we come to matching our self-ideals, which are _____.

Regarding Freud’s view on personality development, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Psychologist Walter Mischel emphasizes the importance of self-regulatory systems and plans, by which is meant _____.

Wanda takes a personality test in which she is required to tell stories in response to a series of ambiguous pictures? Which test is Wanda taking?

A culture in which the sense of self is tied to personal accomplishments s best described as

From a psychoanalytic perspective, someone with a very strong sense of morality might be described as having a very strong

An extension of behaviorism that includes roles for internal mental processes and the influences of other people on our behavior is called

According to Freud, most of the human mind resides in the ______, and primitive sexual and aggressive instincts lie in the ______.

1.

Regarding the definition of personality, all but which of the following belong?

 

A)

Relatively unstable

 

B)

Psychological characteristics

 

C)

Behavioral patterns

 

D)

Accounting for individuality and consistency

 

E)

Environmental adaptation

2.

Freud developed an approach to personality called  ______ theory.

 

A)

psychoanalytic

 

B)

trait

 

C)

social-cognitive

 

D)

humanistic

 

E)

levels of consciousness

3.

In Freudian theory, the level of consciousness that corresponds to our current level of awareness is the

 

A)

unconscious.

 

B)

conscious.

 

C)

preconscious.

 

D)

superego.

 

E)

ego.

4.

Using an iceberg analogy, the tip of the iceberg is most like which level of consciousness in Freud's theory?

 

A)

Preconscious

 

B)

Unconscious

 

C)

Ego

 

D)

Conscious

 

E)

Superego

5.

Id, ego, and superego refer to which component of psychoanalytic theory?

 

A)

They describe the levels of consciousness.

 

B)

They are types of defense mechanisms.

 

C)

They describe the stages of psychosexual development.

 

D)

They are methods of psychoanalytic therapy.

 

E)

They describe the structure of personality.

6.

Using the iceberg analogy, which personality structure(s) lies completely below the water?

 

A)

Superego and ego

 

B)

Ego and id

 

C)

Superego and id

 

D)

Superego only

 

E)

Id only

7.

From the psychoanalytic perspective, it is possible for a person to unconsciously banish unacceptable wishes, urges, and impulses. This type of motivated forgetting, thought by Freud to be a primary defense mechanism, is called

 

A)

sublimation.

 

B)

repression.

 

C)

regression.

 

D)

reaction formation.

 

E)

projection.

8.

According to Freud, the purpose of defense mechanisms is to

 

A)

satisfy the id.

 

B)

destroy the id.

 

C)

prevent threatening thoughts from attaining awareness.

 

D)

unite the id and superego.

 

E)

protect the superego from troubling impulses.

9.

After 6-year-old Samantha's baby brother was born, she started to have temper tantrums the way she had when she was two. This may be a case of

 

A)

repression.

 

B)

regression.

 

C)

projection.

 

D)

displacement.

 

E)

sublimation.

10.

Ingmar's boss ridiculed him in front of the whole office. When Ingmar returns home, he yells at his wife and children and kicks his dog. This is an example of

 

A)

projection.

 

B)

reaction formation.

 

C)

regression.

 

D)

displacement.

 

E)

sublimation.

11.

It is often said of substance abusers that the first step in recovery is admitting they have a problem. In Freudian terms, we might say they need to overcome

 

A)

projection.

 

B)

denial.

 

C)

reaction formation.

 

D)

rationalization.

 

E)

displacement.

12.

Angela unconsciously despises old people. Yet, she volunteers two days each week at a retirement home. This is a classic case of

 

A)

regression.

 

B)

displacement.

 

C)

reaction formation.

 

D)

sublimation.

 

E)

projection.

13.

Rapists sometimes defend their actions by saying, “she asked for it.”  This is an example of

 

A)

denial.

 

B)

displacement.

 

C)

sublimation.

 

D)

projection.

 

E)

regression.

14.

Rodina has suffered from substance abuse for many years. She stopped using and now competes in extreme sports. She may be demonstrating

 

A)

projection.

 

B)

displacement.

 

C)

rationalization.

 

D)

regression.

 

E)

sublimation.

15.

Ruth has conflicting feelings about getting married that she has not allowed to enter her consciousness. On the night before her wedding, Ruth says, “Tomorrow I'm going to my funeral.” Ruth's comment is an example of a(n)

 

A)

displacement.

 

B)

projection.

 

C)

rationalization.

 

D)

inferiority complex.

 

E)

Freudian slip.

16.

What is the correct ordering of Freud's psychosexual stages of development?

 

A)

Anal, oral, latency, phallic, genital

 

B)

Oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital

 

C)

Oral, anal, latency, phallic, genital

 

D)

Oral, phallic, anal, latency, genital

 

E)

Anal, oral, phallic, latency, genital

17.

Jung believed that similarities among cultures in dream images, art, and religious symbols are explained by the

 

A)

personal unconscious.

 

B)

collective unconscious.

 

C)

creative self.

 

D)

cultural consciousness.

 

E)

reality principle.

18.

Mahatma Gandhi's lifelong commitment to non-violent solutions to social problems would likely be considered an example of a(n) ______ trait.

 

A)

ordinal

 

B)

central

 

C)

secondary

 

D)

cardinal

 

E)

primary

19.

In Allport's view, cardinal traits are

 

A)

the most pervasive characteristics of one's personality.

 

B)

basic building blocks of personality.

 

C)

specific preferences.

 

D)

fluctuating patterns of behavior.

 

E)

superficial traits inferred from observation.

20.

Allport proposed ______ types of traits in the personality, and they are called _____.

 

A)

2; internal and external locus of control

 

B)

5; neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness

 

C)

3; introversion-extraversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism

 

D)

2; surface and source traits

 

E)

3; cardinal, central, and secondary traits

21.

_____'s model of personality describes personality in terms of three major traits: introversion-extraversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism.

 

A)

Cattell

 

B)

Eysenck

 

C)

Allport

 

D)

Freud

 

E)

Jung

22.

Cathleen takes the 16PF test of personality. This test will measure Cathleen's _____ traits.

 

A)

source

 

B)

surface

 

C)

central

 

D)

primary

 

E)

cardinal

23.

Current research on the “factors” of personality suggests that there are _____ major personality factors that best describe human personality.

 

A)

thousands of

 

B)

hundreds of

 

C)

twenty-four

 

D)

sixteen

 

E)

five

24.

The construct of   ______represents the belief that behavior involves an interrelationship between personality traits and situational factors.

 

A)

eclecticism

 

B)

interactive associationism

 

C)

reciprocal determinism

 

D)

self-efficacy expectations

 

E)

interactionism

25.

The idea of reciprocal determinism was developed by

 

A)

Bandura.

 

B)

Rotter.

 

C)

Skinner.

 

D)

Cattell.

 

E)

Mischel.

26.

Which of the following best describes Bandura's ideas about the relationship between behavior, cognition, and environment?

 

A)

Cognitions, behaviors, and the environment mutually influence each other.

 

B)

Cognitions influence behaviors that, in turn, influence the environment.

 

C)

Behaviors influence cognitions that, in turn, influence the environment.

 

D)

The environment and cognitions jointly influence behavior.

 

E)

The environment influences cognitions and behavior.

27.

Who are the two main contributors to the humanistic perspective?

 

A)

Jung and Adler

 

B)

Bandura and Rotter

 

C)

Cattell and Allport

 

D)

Murray and Rorschach

 

E)

Maslow and Rogers

28.

According to humanists, personality is

 

A)

one's consistent manner of behavior.

 

B)

the interaction between genes and environment.

 

C)

the expression of conscious experience of directing ourselves towards achieving our own unique potentials.

 

D)

determined by reinforcement and punishment.

 

E)

based on a hierarchy of pervasive characteristics.

29.

Roger used the term ______ to describe acceptance of a person's basic worth under any circumstance.

 

A)

unconditional positive regard

 

B)

self-actualization

 

C)

self-esteem

 

D)

subjective value

 

E)

conditional positive regard

30.

Generalizing from Roger's ideas about positive regard, which tactic should parents take with their children?

 

A)

Prize their children regardless of their behavior at any particular time.

 

B)

Accept all of their children's behavior.

 

C)

Bestow approval on their children only when they behave properly.

 

D)

Teach their children to judge their behavior based on whether or not they meet other people's expectations.

 

E)

Reward their children for appropriate behavior and ignore their inappropriate behavior.

31.

The belief that people's character and mental abilities could be judged by the patterns of bumps on their skull is called

 

A)

psychometrics.

 

B)

psychophysics.

 

C)

phrenology.

 

D)

psychokinesis.

 

E)

projective testing.

32.

______ are the most widely used method for learning about personality today.

 

A)

Formal personality tests

 

B)

Case studies

 

C)

Observational techniques

 

D)

Experimental studies

 

E)

Phrenological studies

33.

A(n) ______ culture is one that emphasizes social roles and obligations.

 

A)

archetypal

 

B)

self-actualized

 

C)

individualistic

 

D)

humanistic

 

E)

collectivistic

34.

Jacob and his friends like to lie around on summer days, stare up at the clouds, and tell each other what they see in the clouds. Their activity is most like which test of personality?

 

A)

The Thematic Apperception Test

 

B)

The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory

 

C)

The Rorschach test

 

D)

The 16PF

 

E)

The Eysenck Personality Inventory

35.

Wanda takes a personality test in which she is required to tell stories in response to a series of ambiguous pictures? Which test is Wanda taking?

 

A)

Rorschach test

 

B)

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory

 

C)

Eysenck Personality Inventory

 

D)

Thematic Apperception Test

 

E)

16PF

 

1. The combination of all psychological characteristics and behavior patterns that define an individual and characterize the ways in which that individual relates to the world and adapts to demands constitutes the

a) ego.

b) personality.

c) cognition.

d) superego.

e) temperament.

2. Freud's theory is called psychodynamic theory because it deals with the dynamic struggle that takes place between

a) mothers and sons.

b) good and bad people.

c) fathers and sons.

d) unconscious forces within the mind.

e) parents and children.

3. Freud developed an approach to personality called

a) psychoanalytic theory.

b) trait theory.

c) social-cognitive theory.

d) humanistic theory.

e) levels-of-consciousness theory.

4. You meet a psychologist who explains behavior in terms of defense mechanisms and psychosexual stages. This psychologist represents which view of personality?

a) Trait

b) Social-cognitive

c) Humanist

d) Psychoanalytic

e) Levels-of-consciousness

5. From the famous French neurologist Jean Martin Charcot, Freud got the idea that if hysterical symptoms could be removed by hypnotic suggestion, then they must be

a) the result of trauma.

b) faked.

c) psychological in nature.

d) subject to conscious control.

e) nothing to worry about.

6. Freud's belief that we share with nonhuman animals the goal of survival is demonstrated in his conceptualization of the

a) levels of consciousness.

b) id, ego, and superego.

c) sexual and aggressive instincts.

d) psychosexual stages.

e) Oedipus complex.

7. In Freudian theory, the level of consciousness that corresponds to our current level of awareness is the

a) unconscious.

b) conscious.

c) preconscious.

d) superego.

e) ego.

8. In the iceberg analogy, the tip of the iceberg is most like which level of consciousness in Freud's theory?

a) Preconscious

b) Unconscious

c) Ego

d) Conscious

e) Subconscious

9. According to Freud, most of the human mind resides in the ________, and primitive sexual and aggressive instincts lie in the ________.

a) preconscious; unconscious

b) unconscious; unconscious

c) conscious; preconscious

d) unconscious; preconscious

e) conscious; unconscious

10. According to Freudian theory, when you are asked to recall your phone number, you access your

a) unconscious.

b) preconscious.

c) conscious.

d) superego.

e) defense mechanisms.

11. In psychoanalytic theory, animal drives and instinctual pleasures are thought to be contained in the

a) id.

b) ego.

c) superego.

d) alter ego.

e) preconscious.

12. The terms id, ego, and superego refer to which component of psychoanalytic theory?

a) They describe the levels of consciousness.

b) They are types of defense mechanisms.

c) They describe the stages of psychosexual development.

d) They are methods of psychoanalytic therapy.

e) They describe the structure of personality.

13. Freud might say that someone who was displaying excessive aggression was acting according to his or her

a) id.

b) ego.

c) superego.

d) conscience.

e) reality principle.

14. In psychoanalytic theory, ________ is to reality principle as ________ is to pleasure principle.

a) ego; superego

b) superego; id

c) id; ego

d) superego; ego

e) ego; id

15. In psychoanalytic theory, the personality structure that organizes ways to handle delays of gratification is the

a) ego.

b) id.

c) superego.

d) conscience.

e) unconscious.

16. At the toy store, Tamika's ego was evident when she

a) got upset because she couldn't reach a toy on the upper shelf.

b) cried, "I'm thirsty. I want a drink now!"

c) pointed to a doll and said, "I want that."

d) agreed to wait until her birthday, next week, for the tricycle.

e) threw a temper tantrum because she had to get out of the toy fire engine when it was time to leave.

17. In the iceberg analogy, which personality structure(s) lie(s) completely below the water?

a) Both the superego and the ego

b) Both the ego and the id

c) Both the superego and the id

d) Only the superego

e) Only the id

18. Frank says, "My conscience is bothering me." Using Freud's terminology, we would say that Frank is referring to his

a) superego.

b) ego.

c) id.

d) conscious.

e) unconscious.

19. From a psychoanalytic perspective, someone with a very strong sense of morality might be described as having a very strong

a) id.

b) superego.

c) ego.

d) preconscious.

e) conscious.

20. Which part of the personality might be described as "the great compromiser"?

a) The self-concept

b) The unconscious

c) The superego

d) The ego

e) The id

21. The superego imposes punishment in the form of

a) anxiety.

b) fear or dread.

c) guilt or shame.

d) disappointment.

e) feelings of sadness.

22. According to Freud, the major defense mechanism is

a) denial.

b) rationalization.

c) repression.

d) sublimation.

e) reaction formation.

23. In psychoanalytic terms, motivated forgetting is also known as

a) sublimation.

b) repression.

c) regression.

d) reaction formation.

e) projection.

24. Paul forgets to call his mother-in-law on her birthday. He says it just slipped his mind. In the Freudian view, this type of forgetting may represent the defense mechanism of

a) repression.

b) sublimation.

c) rationalization.

d) reaction formation.

e) displacement.

25. According to Freud, the purpose of defense mechanisms is to

a) satisfy the id.

b) destroy the id.

c) prevent threatening thoughts from attaining awareness.

d) unite the id and superego.

e) protect the superego from troubling impulses.

26. Regression is

a) keeping unacceptable thoughts from awareness.

b) refusing to recognize a threatening thought.

c) the use of self-justifications to explain unacceptable behavior.

d) the return of behavior that is typical of earlier stages of development.

e) channeling unacceptable impulses into acceptable behaviors.

27. After 6-year-old Samantha's baby brother was born, she asked to drink from a bottle, just like baby Simon. This may be a case of

a) repression.

b) regression.

c) projection.

d) displacement.

e) sublimation.

28. Ingmar's boss ridiculed him in front of the whole office. When Ingmar returns home, he yells at his wife and children and kicks his dog. This is an example of

a) projection.

b) reaction formation.

c) regression.

d) displacement.

e) sublimation.

29. Refusing to acknowledge a threatening impulse or desire is

a) rationalization.

b) regression.

c) projection.

d) denial.

e) reaction formation.

30. It is often said of substance abusers that the first step in recovery is admitting they have a problem. In Freudian terms, we might say they need to overcome

a) projection.

b) denial.

c) reaction formation.

d) rationalization.

e) displacement.

31. The politician who campaigned most vigorously against gay marriage in his state is exposed as being secretly gay. This scenario appears to be in line with which defense mechanism?

a) Regression

b) Displacement

c) Reaction formation

d) Sublimation

e) Projection

32. When his wife asked him why he drinks so much, Joey said, "I don't drink too much. I only drink socially. I happen to be a very social guy and so I'm always around other people." Joey appears to justify his drinking with which defense mechanism?

a) Projection

b) Repression

c) Sublimation

d) Rationalization

e) Reaction formation

33. Attributing one's own impulses or wishes to another is called

a) projection.

b) sublimation.

c) displacement.

d) rationalization.

e) reaction formation.

34. Rapists sometimes defend their actions by saying their victim acted toward them in a sexually provocative manner. This is an example of

a) denial.

b) displacement.

c) sublimation.

d) projection.

e) regression.

35. Unlike other young children, Benny was never bothered by the sight of blood. In fact, it fascinated him. Later, as a teen, he loved gory movies. Now, as an adult, he writes horror-filled books that are best sellers. Benny appears to be demonstrating which defense mechanism?

a) Projection

b) Displacement

c) Rationalization

d) Regression

e) Sublimation

36. Ruth has conflicting feelings about getting married that she has not allowed to enter her consciousness. On the night before her wedding, when her mother asks what time they need to be ready to leave the house, Ruth answers, "The hearse will be here at 9 o'clock." Ruth's comment is an example of a(n)

a) displacement.

b) projection.

c) rationalization.

d) inferiority complex.

e) Freudian slip.

37. Regarding Freud's view on personality development, which of the following statements is FALSE?

a) Freud believed that physical activities connected to basic life functions are essentially sexual in nature.

b) Freud believed that personality is formed through five stages of development.

c) Freud believed that each stage of personality development involves a shift in the focus of erogenous zones.

d) Freud believed that the stages of personality development are related to the ways in which children seek pleasure from sexually sensitive parts of the body.

e) Freud believed that boys develop womb envy and girls develop penis envy.

38. In Freudian theory, different parts of the body associated with sexual pleasure are referred to as

a) erogenous zones.

b) fixations.

c) archetypes.

d) defense mechanisms.

e) levels of consciousness.

39. The psychoanalytic perspective suggests that too much or too little gratification at a psychosexual stage may result in

a) an inferiority complex.

b) repression.

c) reaction formation.

d) fixation.

e) regression.

40. Emilio's therapist says that Emilio's personality is fixated at the earliest stage of development. In lay terms, the therapist means that Emilio's personality is

a) obsessed with the earliest stage.

b) overly sentimental.

c) completely formed by the earliest stage.

d) functioning optimally.

e) stuck at the earliest stage.

41. What is the correct ordering of Freud's psychosexual stages of development?

a) Anal, oral, latency, phallic, genital

b) Oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital

c) Oral, anal, latency, phallic, genital

d) Oral, phallic, anal, latency, genital

e) Anal, oral, phallic, latency, genital

42. According to Freud, the Oedipus conflict arises during which stage of psychosexual development?

a) Anal

b) Phallic

c) Latency

d) Genital

e) Oral

43. On their first date, which was to see a play at a theater, Angela decided that Alex had an anal-expulsive personality because

a) of how perfectly his tie was knotted.

b) when he opened his wallet to pay for the tickets, she saw that his credit cards were alphabetized.

c) he smelled so clean.

d) he wore mismatched socks.

e) he kept quiet when a woman behind them was making comments during the show.

44. Frederico is a perfectionist with a strong need for self-control, order, and cleanliness. Freud would describe Frederico as having a(n)

a) orally fixated personality.

b) anal-retentive personality.

c) anal-expulsive personality.

d) inferiority complex.

e) drive for superiority.

45. Francis is passive, clingy, and dependent, with a pessimistic outlook on life. In which psychosexual stage might Francis be fixated?

a) Genital

b) Oral

c) Latency

d) Phallic

e) Anal

46. From Freud's perspective, a boy resolves his Oedipus complex by

a) forsaking incestuous desires for his mother and taking on an identification with her.

b) unconsciously blaming his mother for bringing him into the world "ill equipped" to deal with life's problems, and then forgiving her.

c) unconsciously blaming his mother for bringing him into the world "ill equipped" to deal with life's problems, and then identifying with his father.

d) developing the ability to control elimination.

e) forsaking incestuous desires for his mother and identifying with his father.

47. Emmanuel teaches fourth graders. At which stage of psychosexual development can Emmanuel expect the majority of his students to be?

a) Phallic

b) Anal

c) Oral

d) Genital

e) Latency

48. A major contribution of Jung to the psychodynamic approach was his belief in

a) castration anxiety.

b) penis envy.

c) an Electra complex.

d) a collective unconscious.

e) the creative self.

49. Among neo-Freudians, ________ is to analytical psychology as ________ is to individual psychology.

a) Jung; Adler

b) Jung; Horney

c) Adler; Jung

d) Horney; Jung

e) Horney; Adler

50. Which of the following is the best definition of the term archetype?

a) The self-aware part of the personality that organizes goal-seeking efforts

b) A constellation of personality traits characteristic of a particular stage of psychosexual development

c) A relatively enduring personal characteristic

d) A deep-seated form of anxiety associated with feelings of being helpless in a threatening and hostile world

e) A primitive image that reflects ancestral or universal human experiences

51. Jung believed that similarities among cultures in dream images, art, and religious symbols are explained by the

a) personal unconscious.

b) collective unconscious.

c) creative self.

d) cultural consciousness.

e) reality principle.

52. Compared to Freud, Jung placed greater emphasis on all of the following EXCEPT

a) present experience.

b) conscious processes.

c) pursuit of self-directed goals.

d) infantile and childhood experiences.

e) self-awareness.

53. Ali is short, is thin, and has a pock-marked face. He wishes he were as tall as everyone else in his seventh-grade class and that his skin were clear. Nevertheless, with conscious effort, he has managed to become the most popular student in class by cultivating a sense of humor and an easygoing manner. Adler might say that Ali is manifesting which of the following?

a) Basic hostility

b) Basic anxiety

c) Reaction formation

d) A drive for superiority

e) An inferiority complex

54. According to Adler, because of their small size and limited abilities, all children harbor feelings of

a) eroticism.

b) inferiority.

c) hostility.

d) penis envy or castration anxiety.

e) anxiety.

55. Which neo-Freudian raised the idea that men may experience "womb envy"?

a) Charcot

b) Adler

c) Jung

d) Erikson

e) Horney

56. Which neo-Freudian is associated with concepts such as "inferiority complex" and "creative self"?

a) Alfred Adler

b) Erik Erikson

c) Carl Jung

d) Mary Cover Jones

e) Karen Horney

57. In Karen Horney's theory of personality development, children may develop a form of deep resentment toward their parents. Horney labeled this

a) basic anxiety.

b) basic ho

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