Question details

Liberty University PSYC 101 quiz 9 complete Answers | Rated A+
$ 14.00

Liberty University PSYC 101 quiz 9 complete Answers | Rated A+

Look for 6 different versions

Chapter 9

Question 1 Other factors being equal, which child is at highest risk for negative outcomes in adolescence like poor school performance and low self­confidence?

Question 2 Regarding the normal declines in memory functioning that occur during midlife, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 3 All but which of the following people are using compensation to successfully respond to challenges of aging?

Question 4 Impaired hearing and vision, deformed teeth and bones, and liver damage may occur as a result of which teratogen?

Question 5 Shawn was born with fetal alcohol syndrome. Shawn’s symptoms may include all of the following EXCEPT

Question 6 Which is the first sign of puberty in a female?

Question 7 Kohlberg’s postconventional level of moral development consists of which stages?

Question 8 The period of life beginning at puberty and ending with early adulthood is called

Question 9 Kohlberg studied moral development by

Question 10 What general term does Piaget use for the process of changing to function more effectively in responding to environmental challenges?

Question 11 Research on parenting styles suggests that the most effective parenting style is

Question 12 What is the correct sequencing of Piaget’s stages of cognitive development?

Question 13 Nurse Ross Millhouse works in an assisted living facility where he cares for residents over the age of 85. Assuming the residents are typical of people of their age, about what percentage of the residents under Millhouse’s care would be expected to suffer from Alzheimer’s disease?

Question 14 In her research on attachment, Ainsworth noted ______ different styles of attachment, and they are called ______.

Question 15 Which of the following structures acts as a sort of shock absorber for the developing embryo or fetus?

Question 16 Regarding infants’ learning abilities, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 17 Nine­year­old Dakoda realizes that the quantity of water in a glass remains the same, even when the water is poured into a different shaped glass and appears to look like more or less. In Piaget’s terms, Dakoda has developed

Question 18 Who studied the process of imprinting in geese and other species?

Question 19 Paula has recently dropped out of high school. She is not sure where she is headed in life, but school does not seem to be a part of it. She has started drinking and hanging around whoever has some alcohol. It sounds like Paula is in a state of

Question 20 An average child in the concrete operational stage of cognitive development can be expected to do all but which of the following?

 

Question 1 Instead of focusing on what she is no longer able to do, 80­year­old Pauline uses her time and money to make up for the shortcomings associated with aging, focusing on activities that are meaningful and important to her. Pauline demonstrates which characteristic associated with successful aging?

Question 2 At the beginning of the twentieth century, the average American girl began to show signs of puberty by around age

Question 3 Psychologist Jeffrey Arnett describes the transition from adolescence to adulthood with the term

Question 4 How are bonding and attachment different?

Question 5 Which of the following is the leading cause of dementia?

Question 6 Francesca, who is pregnant, has just felt the first movements of her developing offspring. Given what you know about prenatal development, at which month of pregnancy would you estimate Francesca to be?

Question 7 According to Vygotsky, the optimal relationship between adult and child is

Question 8 Regarding adolescent­parent relationships, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 9 The typical order of the stages in death and dying is

Question 10 The ability to solve abstract problems best describes someone at which of Piaget’s stages of cognitive development?

Question 11 Sixty­five­year­old Pablo is terminally ill with cancer. In terms of the stages of death and dying, how can his family and health care providers best help him?

Question 12 Forty­two­year­old Jon is experiencing a psychological challenge. He is grappling with the loss of his youth and feels “trapped,” perceiving a lack of future options. Based on this discrimination, what is Jon most likely experiencing?

Question 13 Regarding physical changes in adulthood, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 14 In the Moro reflex, a newborn infant

Question 15 Regarding peer relationships in childhood, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 16 Regarding physical and cognitive changes in late adulthood, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 17 Imaginary audience and personal fable are components of which aspect of adolescent thinking?

Question 18 The fetal stage of prenatal development lasts from

Question 19 Lawrence Kohlberg was interested in which aspect of development?

Question 20 Research on parenting styles suggests that the most effective parenting style is

 

Question 1 Third­grade teacher Ben Stallworth can expect that the majority of his eight­ and nine ­ year­old students are in which stage of cognitive development?

Question 2 Teratogens that damage the arms and legs are most likely to have an effect during which weeks of pregnancy?

Question 3 Fifteen­year­old Erica is predicted to experience which psychosocial crisis?

Question 4 In her research on attachment, Ainsworth noted ______ different styles of attachment, and they are called ______.

Question 5 Which is the first sign of puberty in a female?

Question 6 Sharon is in the fourth week of her pregnancy. At which stage of prenatal development is her offspring?

Question 7 If Aretha is like the typical older adult, the psychological problem she is most likely to face is

Question 8 The age of viability refers to the

Question 9 Aimee was late coming home from school. Even though she had a reasonable excuse, her parents grounded her for a month and suspended her allowance. This sounds like which style of parenting?

Question 10 An influential theory of death and dying was developed by

Question 11 The ability to solve abstract problems best describes someone at which of Piaget’s stages of cognitive development?

Question 12 Regarding the development of identity, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 13 Toma is almost five years old. As he was struggling to learn to tie his shoes, his parents became exasperated with him and bought him shoes with Velcro closures. When he had trouble learning to ride a two­wheeler with training wheels, his parents made him go back to a tricycle. According to Erikson’s theory, Toma may end up with a feeling of

Question 14 Regarding infant sensory abilities, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 15 Preserved intellectual ability in later life is associated with which factor(s)?

Question 16 As discussed in the text, in which culture do fathers engage in more physical play than mothers with their children?

Question 17 The fetal stage of prenatal development lasts from

Question 18 Harriet is working on building a sense of independence and self­control. Generalizing from the theory of psychosocial development, Harriet is probably in which age group?

Question 19 Pedro just began lifting his chin and bringing objects to his mouth. What age would you guess Pedro to be?

Question 20 If 6­month­old Mikhail’s development is normal, he can be expected to do all but which of the following?

 

Question 1 The New York Longitudinal Study identified ______ types of temperament, and they are called ______.

Question 2 In Piaget’s terminology, changing existing schemas to incorporate new information is called

Question 3 Petra is able to imagine what would happen if parents were held legally responsible for the crimes of their children. She is capable of making an argument for or against this, regardless of her opinion. Petra is probably in which stage of cognitive development?

Question 4 A child who explains that putting his toys away is good because he will get a treat is at what level of moral development?

Question 5 Elvin is 75 years old. He is rather sad because he regrets the wasted opportunities in life and feels he has made a lot of mistakes. From Erikson’s perspective, this reflects a sense of

Question 6 How are bonding and attachment different?

Question 7 According to Erik Erikson, people who forge a strong sense of ego identity earlier in development are more likely to achieve what in early adulthood?

Question 8 All but which of the following have been put forth as criticisms of Piaget’s theory?

Question 9 Ten­-month-­old Kazik’s parents are very sensitive to her needs. Whenever she cries, someone tries to comfort her. Based on this description, she will probably effectively resolve which psychosocial crisis?

Question 10 In the film “Fly Away Home,” a group of abandoned goslings develop a strong bond with a young girl. Since their mother is not there, the girl teaches the geese to fly using an ultralite airplane. This film is a good example of which concept from development psychology?

Question 11 In her research on attachment, Ainsworth noted ______ different styles of attachment, and they are called ______.

Question 12 Fifteen-­year-­old Erica is predicted to experience which psychosocial crisis?

Question 13 Regarding physical and cognitive changes in late adulthood, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 14 Eight-­month-­old Finnegan is playful and responds positively to changes. He generally has a happy mood, and he quickly developed a regular sleeping and feeding schedule. Based on this description from the New York Longitudinal Study, Finnegan would be categorized as a(n) ______ child.

Question 15 In a cross­cultural study of moral reasoning in Americans and Indians reported in the text, which of the following was found?

Question 16 The fetal stage of prenatal development lasts from

Question 17 An influential theory of death and dying was developed by

Question 18 Regarding adult crystallized intelligence and fluid intelligence, which of the following statements is TRUE?

Question 19 According to the text, all but which of the following factors are associated with adolescent risk-­taking?

Question 20 Generalizing from attachment research, it appears that the majority of infants have which attachment style?

 

Question 1 Imaginary audience and personal fable are components of which aspect of adolescent thinking?

Question 2 Of the following characteristics Fiona experienced during puberty, which is a primary sex characteristic?

Question 3 In the film “Fly Away Home,” a group of abandoned goslings develop a strong bond with a young girl. Since their mother is not there, the girl teaches the geese to fly using an ultralite airplane. This film is a good example of which concept from development psychology?

Question 4 If Paige is like the average American girl, she will have her first period at about what age?

Question 5 The formation of a strong bond of a newborn animal to the first moving object seen after birth is called

Question 6 As discussed in the text, in which culture do fathers engage in more physical play than mothers with their children?

Question 7 Generalizing from attachment research, it appears that the majority of infants have which attachment style?

Question 8 Chris and Pat set limits for their children without being overcontrolling. Which style of parenting are they using?

Question 9 Regarding infant sensory abilities, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 10 Forty­two­year­old Jon is experiencing a psychological challenge. He is grappling with the loss of his youth and feels “trapped,” perceiving a lack of future options. Based on this discrimination, what is Jon most likely experiencing?

Question 11 Regarding the effects of teratogens on prenatal development, it appears that

Question 12 Which activity might allow Gwyneth to help her six­-month-­old granddaughter develop object permanence?

Question 13 If Maury’s son’s development is normal, Maury can expect that his son will develop depth perception by about what age?

Question 14 In a cross­cultural study of moral reasoning in Americans and Indians reported in the text, which of the following was found?

Question 15 Which of the following is a secondary sex characteristic?

Question 16 The stage at which people become physically capable of reproducing is called

Question 17 Regarding physical changes in adulthood, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 18 Six­month­old Charlotte fits the characteristics of a slow­to­warm­up temperament. Charlotte would be expected to exhibit all but which of the following?

Question 19 Regarding physical and cognitive changes in late adulthood, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 20 Kohlberg’s postconventional level of moral development consists of which stages?

 

Sharon is in the fourth week of her pregnancy. At which stage of prenatal development is her offspring?

If 60-year-old Evelyn wants to increase her chances of preserving mental sharpness, which activity might she consider taking up?

Andrew took the family car without permission. He seriously damaged it while joyriding. Afterwards, his parents bought him a car of his own. This is an example of which parenting style?

In Piaget’s theory, the tendency to view the world only from one’s own perspective is

Harold says that hitting his sister is wrong because he will be punished if he does. Harold’s reasoning reflects which level of moral development?

Which of the following parental actions is associated with children having more behavior problems?

The typical order of the stages in death and dying is

Fifteen-year-old Erica is predicted to experience which psychosocial crisis?

Preserved intellectual ability in later life is associated with which factor(s)?

In Vygotsky’s terms, the range between a child’s present level of skills and knowledge and their potential level of skills and knowledge with appropriate guidance is called the child’s

 

1. As a developmental psychologist, Dr. Brighton is concerned with which of the following topics?

a) How can we measure IQ in an unbiased fashion?

b) When do people prefer to be in the company of others?

c) What is children's understanding of the concept of death at various ages?

d) Why do some people with bipolar disorder fail to respond to the medication that helps others?

e) Who is more likely to be an effective CEO, a male or a female?

2. According to the stages of development presented in the text, middle childhood is considered to be ages

a) two to four.

b) three to six.

c) four to eight.

d) five to ten.

e) six to twelve.

3. The psychologist who maintained that nurture, not nurture, determined behavior, and that he could mold infants into doctors, lawyers, beggars or thieves, was

a) Sigmund Freud

b) Arnold Gesell

c) William James

d) B. F. Skinner

e) John Watson

4. Whether genetics or the environment is the major influence on development is the focus of which issue that underlies the study of human development?

a) Continuity versus discontinuity

b) Stability versus instability

c) Nature versus nurture

d) Universal versus culture-specific

e) Qualitative versus quantitative

5. Paul's father is extremely aggressive and so is Paul. Whether Paul inherited his aggressive tendencies or learned them is related to which question of development?

a) Continuity versus discontinuity

b) Stability versus instability

c) Nature versus nurture

d) Universal versus culture-specific

e) Longitudinal versus cross-sectional

6. To determine the role of nature versus nurture in particular human traits, developmental researchers use all of the following EXCEPT

a) familial association studies.

b) environmental deprivation studies.

c) adoptee studies.

d) twin studies.

e) kinship studies.

7. Whether development is characterized by quantitative or qualitative change is the focus of which underlying question in developmental psychology?

a) Continuity versus discontinuity

b) Stability versus instability

c) Nature versus nurture

d) Universal versus culture-specific

e) Longitudinal versus cross-sectional

8. In developmental psychology, quantitative is to ________ as qualitative is to ________.

a) discontinuity; continuity

b) stability; instability

c) universal; culture-specific

d) culture-specific; universal

e) continuity; discontinuity

9. Your psychology professor lectures on evidence suggesting that certain personality traits remain consistent over time, whereas others change with age. With which question of development is your professor's lecture concerned?

a) Continuity versus discontinuity

b) Stability versus instability

c) Nature versus nurture

d) Universal versus culture-specific

e) Qualitative versus quantitative

10. Researchers have found that aborigine children demonstrate certain cognitive abilities several years later than Western European children. This finding is related to which question of development?

a) Continuity versus discontinuity

b) Stability versus instability

c) Nature versus nurture

d) Universal versus culture-specific

e) Qualitative versus quantitative

11. Antoine's second-grade teacher is astonished to learn that he has become a career military officer. When he was in second grade he was the class clown, was undisciplined, and did very poorly. This turn of events is related to which question of development?

a) Continuity versus discontinuity

b) Qualitative versus quantitative

c) Nature versus nurture

d) Universal versus culture-specific

e) Stability versus instability

12. In a longitudinal study,

a) people of the same age are observed at multiple time points.

b) people of the same age are observed at one point in time.

c) people of different ages are studied at one point in time.

d) people of different ages are studied at multiple time points.

e) one or more individuals are studied in depth.

13. What are the two most frequently used methods for studying developmental changes?

a) Experiment and case study

b) Cross-sequential and cross-sectional

c) Longitudinal and case study

d) Cohort and cross-sectional

e) Cross-sectional and longitudinal

14. Lewis Terman's famous study of intellectually gifted children is an example of which type of research design?

a) Cross-sequential

b) Cross-sectional

c) Factor analysis

d) Experimental

e) Longitudinal

15. Which of the following is the main advantage of the longitudinal method of studying developmental changes?

a) The cohort effect

b) The low cost

c) The short span of time required for the study

d) The ability to observe changes in the same individual over time

e) The representativeness of the sample and its generalizability to the population at large

16. Developmental psychologist Lynn Bagley conducts research in which she studies groups of people of different ages at one time. Dr. Bagley is using what sort of study?

a) Longitudinal

b) Cross-sectional

c) Sequential group

d) Cross-sequential

e) Multiple case study

17. Julia's study purported to chart the decline of eye-hand coordination as people age. Her sample consisted of one group of 30-year-olds and another of 60-year-olds. The results showed a significant difference in eye-hand coordination between the two groups, and Julia concluded that the ability does decline markedly. Her study is flawed because she overlooked the fact that the 30-year-olds had improved their eye-hand coordination by playing video games in their teens, something the earlier generation of 60-year-olds did not do. In other words, she neglected to take into consideration the

a) cross-sectional effect.

b) discontinuity effect.

c) cohort effect.

d) zone of proximal development.

e) scaffolding effect.

18. Discuss the four questions that have shaped the study of human development.

19. Each sperm cell contains a(n) ________ chromosome, and each ovum contains ________ chromosome(s)

a) Y; an X

b) X; a Y

c) X or a Y; an X

d) Y; an X or a Y

e) X and a Y; two X

20. Where does fertilization typically occur?

a) In the interior of the uterus

b) In the cervix

c) In the vagina

d) In an ovary

e) In a fallopian tube

21. What is a zygote?

a) A sperm cell

b) An unfertilized egg cell

c) A fertilized egg cell

d) The developing organism from implantation to about the eighth week

e) The developing organism in the later stages of prenatal development

22. What is the correct order of stages in prenatal development?

a) Germinal, embryonic, fetal

b) Germinal, fetal, embryonic

c) Embryonic, germinal, fetal

d) Embryonic, fetal, germinal

e) Fetal, germinal, embryonic

23. Sharon is in the fourth week of her pregnancy. At which stage of prenatal development is her offspring?

a) Uterine

b) Fetal

c) Germinal

d) Amniotic

e) Embryonic

24. In prenatal development, the time between conception and about week 2 is called the

a) germinal stage.

b) fetal stage.

c) embryonic stage.

d) first trimester.

e) fertilization stage.

25. The protective environment inside the mother's uterus is called the ________, and nutrients and waste materials are exchanged between mother and embryo via the ________.

a) amniotic sac; placenta

b) placenta; amniotic sac

c) placenta; neural tube

d) umbilical cord; placenta

e) amniotic sac; neural tube

26. The umbilical cord connects the

a) neural tube to the placenta.

b) placenta to the amniotic sac.

c) amniotic sac to the embryo.

d) embryo and fetus to the placenta.

e) embryo and fetus to the amniotic sac.

27. Xan's offspring is in the embryonic stage of development. Which of the following is occurring for Xan's offspring?

a) It is kicking and making its movements felt.

b) It is about 14 inches in length.

c) It is beginning the process of implantation.

d) Its major organs are beginning to take shape.

e) It has a clearly recognizable human form.

28. The fetal stage of prenatal development lasts from

a) conception to week 2.

b) conception to week 8.

c) implantation to week 8.

d) week 9 through delivery.

e) week 12 through delivery.

29. The organism grows from about 4 inches in length to about 14 inches and from about 1 ounce of weight to about 2 pounds during the

a) germinal stage.

b) first trimester.

c) second trimester.

d) third trimester.

e) embryonic stage.

30. Francesca, who is pregnant, has just felt the movements of her developing offspring for the first time. Given what you know about prenatal development, at which month of pregnancy would you estimate Francesca to be?

a) Second

b) Third

c) Fourth

d) Sixth

e) Eighth

31. The age of viability is the

a) youngest age at which it is safe for a female to be pregnant.

b) youngest age at which an embryo is likely to survive if born prematurely.

c) youngest age at which a fetus is capable of sustaining life on its own.

d) optimal age for women to become pregnant.

e) point in the pregnancy when the danger of miscarriage has passed.

32. Sarah was born prematurely. This means that she

a) was born prior to 40 weeks of gestation.

b) was born prior to 37 weeks of gestation.

c) weighed less than 5 pounds at birth.

d) weighed less than 2,500 grams at birth.

e) weighed less than 2 pounds at birth.

33. Twenty-three-year-old Venetia is thinking about getting pregnant. Her doctor recommends that Venetia begin taking folic acid supplements in order to reduce the risk of what to her offspring?

a) Miscarriage

b) Down syndrome

c) Neural tube defects

d) Cerebral palsy

e) Sudden infant death syndrome

34. Which of the following conditions is a neural tube defect?

a) Spina bifida

b) Cystic fibrosis

c) Down syndrome

d) Cerebral palsy

e) Rubella

35. Nolan was born with a hole in the tube surrounding his spinal cord. Which disorder does Nolan have?

a) Down syndrome

b) Teratogenesis

c) Spina bifida

d) Rubella

e) Cystic fibrosis

36. Teratogen is derived from the Greek word teras, which means

a) abnormal.

b) risk.

c) bad.

d) monster.

e) problem.

37. All of the following are examples of teratogens EXCEPT

a) folic acid.

b) lead.

c) X-rays.

d) mercury.

e) infectious organisms.

38. Teratogens that damage the arms and legs are most likely to have an effect during which weeks of pregnancy?

a) Weeks 1 and 2

b) Weeks 4 to 8

c) Weeks 10 to 12

d) Weeks 20 to 25

e) Weeks 30 to 32

39. Rubella is also known as

a) chicken pox.

b) mumps.

c) German measles.

d) whooping cough.

e) FAS.

40. Tara contracts rubella during the early part of her pregnancy. Her offspring is at increased risk for developing

a) heart disease.

b) lung disease.

c) liver damage.

d) facial deformities.

e) blindness.

41. Impaired hearing and vision, deformed teeth and bones, and liver damage may occur as a result of which teratogen?

a) Congenital syphilis

b) Rubella

c) Lead

d) Alcohol

e) Nicotine

42. Celia smokes heavily throughout her pregnancy. Celia is increasing the risk of what to her offspring?

a) Deformed arms and legs

b) Spina bifida

c) Sudden infant death syndrome

d) Liver damage

e) Deafness

43. Diane's son Lance was born prematurely and weighed very little compared to other premature infants. At age four, he was diagnosed with asthma. Now that he's six years old and has undergone testing in school, he has been found to have a low IQ, a reduced attention span, and hyperactivity. It is most likely that Lance was prenatally exposed to which teratogen?

a) Alcohol

b) Nicotine

c) Rubella

d) Syphilis

e) German measles

44. Which of the following statements is true about maternal use of alcohol during pregnancy?

a) Fetal alcohol syndrome is the leading preventable cause of mental retardation in the United States.

b) Fetal alcohol syndrome affects about 10,000 babies in the United States every year.

c) Fetal alcohol syndrome is associated with such facial deformities as an overly prominent nose, an overdeveloped upper jaw, and closely spaced eyes.

d) Fetal alcohol syndrome occurs only in babies of women who drink heavily during pregnancy.

e) Maternal use of alcohol during pregnancy is linked to sudden infant death syndrome.

45. Regarding the effects of teratogens on prenatal development, it appears that

a) the embryonic stage is the stage most susceptible to major structural abnormalities from teratogens.

b) the fetal stage is the stage most susceptible to major structural abnormalities from teratogens.

c) the germinal stage is the stage most susceptible to major structural abnormalities from teratogens.

d) the amniotic stage is the stage most susceptible to major structural abnormalities from teratogens.

e) all of the stages have an equal risk of major structural abnormalities from teratogens.

46. Sophia, who just found out that she is pregnant, is being tested to see whether she is a carrier of sickle cell anemia. What test is she having?

a) A blood test

b) A fetal DNA test

c) Amniocentesis

d) Chorionic villus sampling

e) An ultrasound

47. Ursula, who is seventeen weeks pregnant, has a prenatal test in which fluid containing fetal cells is extracted and analyzed for biochemical and chromosomal abnormalities. Which prenatal test is Ursula having performed?

a) Babinski test

b) Parental blood testing

c) Ultrasound imaging

d) Chorionic villus sampling

e) Amniocentesis

48. Which prenatal test uses tissue samples from the membrane that holds the amniotic sac and fetus?

a) Amniocentesis

b) Ultrasound

c) Choriocentesis

d) Chorionic villus sampling

e) Parental blood test sampling

49. Ajit has a chromosomal disorder that has caused him to be mentally retarded. In addition, Ajit has facial abnormalities. What disorder does Ajit have?

a) Tay-Sachs disease

b) Fetal alcohol syndrome

c) Spina bifida

d) Sickle cell anemia

e) Down syndrome

50. The chorion is a membrane that

a) contains the fetus and amniotic sac.

b) develops into the nervous system.

c) contains the placenta and umbilical cord.

d) connects the umbilical cord and amniotic sac.

e) allows exchange of nutrients and waste products.

51. Which of the following can be detected by chorionic villus sampling?

a) Sudden infant death syndrome

b) Acquired immune deficiency syndrome

c) Down syndrome

d) Fetal alcohol syndrome

e) Tay-Sachs disease

52. Down syndrome results when there

a) is a missing chromosome from the 21st pair of chromosomes.

b) is an extra chromosome present on the 21st pair of chromosomes.

c) are no chromosomes in the 21st position.

d) is an extra pair of chromosomes in the 21st position.

e) is genetic material missing from one of the chromosomes in the 21st pair.

53. Cora, a 49-year-old woman, has just found out that she is pregnant with her first baby. What is the probability that the baby will have Down syndrome?

a) 1 in 365

b) 1 in 109

c) 1 in 32

d) 1 in 11

e) 1 in 4

54. An image of the fetus and amniotic sac is provided by which prenatal technique?

a) Chorionic villus sampling

b) Ultrasound

c) Amniocentesis

d) Intraplacental recording

e) Parental blood testing

55. Explain the stages of prenatal development.

56. An unlearned response to a particular stimulus is a(n)

a) instinct.

b) habit.

c) reflex.

d) reaction.

e) skill.

57. When two-week-old Carson's father strokes the baby's left cheek, Carson turns his head to the left. Carson's response is called the

a) sucking reflex.

b) eyeblink reflex.

c) Moro reflex.

d) rooting reflex.

e) Babinski reflex.

58. In the Moro reflex, an infant

a) blinks for protection against light or foreign objects.

b) extends its arms and arches its back when its head falls backward.

c) turns its head toward a cheek that has been touched.

d) fans out and curls its toes when the sole of its foot is stroked.

e) curls its fingers around an object that touches the palm.

59. Which reflex may have had the survival value in ancestral times of preventing infants from falling as their mothers carried them around all day?

a) The Moro reflex

b) The palmar grasp reflex

c) The Babinski reflex

d) The rooting reflex

e) The sucking reflex

60. Which reflex protected infants from bright lights and small flying objects?

a) The rooting reflex

b) The Moro reflex

c) The palmar grasp reflex

d) The Babinski reflex

e) The eyeblink reflex

61. When the sole of her foot is stroked, 3-week-old Pam curls and fans her toes. Pam is demonstrating which reflex?

a) Babinski

b) Moro

c) Rooting

d) Palmar grasp

e) Sucking

62. Which of the following statements is true about infant reflexes?

a) The Babinski and Moro reflexes help infants obtain nourishment.

b) The timely presence and disappearance of reflexes is used to gauge neurological development.

c) Most newborn reflexes disappear in the second half of the first year of life.

d) All of the infant reflexes have important survival value today.

e) The basic reflexes develop in the first couple of weeks after birth.

63. What is the biological unfolding of an organism according to its underlying genetic blueprint called?

a) Adaptation

b) Scaffolding

c) Imprinting

d) Assimilation

e) Maturation

64. Maturation is development that is

a) the result of experience.

b) unaffected by genetics.

c) in response to environmental conditions.

d) primarily a function of genetics.

e) learned.

65. Which factor primarily explains why children today are taller on average than children of a century ago?

a) Maturation

b) Improved living conditions

c) Eradication of diseases such as small pox

d) Enhanced parental knowledge

e) Improved nutrition

66. The increase in brain volume between birth and adulthood is due mainly to ________ and ________.

a) formation of synaptic connections; myelination

b) formation of synaptic connections; decreased metabolic activity

c) formation of myelin sheath; neuronal development

d) decreased metabolic activity; neuronal development

e) decreased metabolic activity; formation of synaptic connections

67. Gregor weighed 7 pounds at birth. About how much is he expected to weigh on his first birthday?

a) 11 or 12 pounds

b) 14 or 15 pounds

c) 21 or 22 pounds

d) 28 or 29 pounds

e) 32 or 33 pounds

68. If newborn Fannie is 20 inches long at birth, how tall is she expected to be at her first birthday?

a) About 25 inches

b) About 30 inches

c) About 34 inches

d) About 38 inches

e) About 42 inches

69. Of the five senses, which is the slowest to develop?

a) Vision

b) Hearing

c) Touch

d) Taste

e) Smell

70. If Miguel's son's development is normal, Miguel can expect that his son will develop depth perception by about what age?

a) 3 months

b) 6 months

c) 9 months

d) 12 months

e) 18 months

71. Which of the following statements is true about infants' visual abilities?

a) Infants begin to visually track a moving object at around 3 months.

b) Newborn infants can recognize their mothers' faces.

c) Basic color vision develops prenatally.

d) Vision develops faster than the other senses.

e) Most infants develop depth perception at around 12 months.

72. Who used the visual cliff apparatus to study infant depth perception?

a) Jean Piaget

b) Theodore Simon

c) Harry Harlow

d) Eleanor Gibson and Richard Walk

e) Mary Ainsworth and John Bowlby

73. Infant researcher Dr. Collins uses the visual cliff apparatus to test infants' sensory abilities. What, specifically, is Dr. Collins studying?

a) Depth perception

b) Color vision

c) Sound discrimination

d) Visual discrimination

e) Visual tracking

74. A normal, six-day-old baby can be expected to do which of the following?

a) Distinguish components of music, such as pitch and tempo

b) Retain memory for faces

c) Discriminate among happy, angry, and neutral facial expressions

d) Discern his mother's voice from other voices

e) Differentiate between various speech sounds, such as "ba" and "ma"

75. Infants show preferences for sweets at

a) birth.

b) 2 weeks of age.

c) 1 month of age.

d) 6 months of age.

e) 9 months of age.

76. Expectant parents Brad and Jaime took special care in choosing the paint colors for the baby's nursery. At what age will the baby have the ability to see them as pink and lilac, rather than as shades of gray?

a) A few hours after birth

b) At 2 weeks of age

c) At 8 weeks of age

d) At 6 months of age

e) At 1 year of age

77. If Felicity's development is average, she can be expected to discriminate among happy, angry, and neutral facial expressions at what age?

a) At birth

b) 2 to 4 weeks

c) 1 to 2 months

d) 4 to 6 months

e) 10 to 12 months

78. If an infant has learned to activate a crib mobile by kicking and she then retains the memory of the behavior for several days, that infant can be as young as

a) 1 month.

b) 2 months.

c) 4 months.

d) 6 months.

e) 8 months.

79. Pedro just began lifting his chin and bringing objects to his mouth. What age would you guess Pedro to be?

a) Less than 2 weeks old

b) 2 to 4 weeks old

c) 4 to 8 weeks old

d) 2 to 3 months old

e) 4 to 6 months old

80. If 6-month-old Mikhail's development is normal, he can be expected to do which of the following?

a) Stand while holding on

b) Sit without support

c) Stand without support

d) Walk while holding on

e) Roll over

81. At the end of her first year, Evana has mastered the most difficult balancing problem she will ever encounter in her life. What skill has she mastered?

a) Walking

b) Crawling

c) Creeping

d) Balancing on one foot

e) Standing without support

82. A typical infant can stand without support by around

a) 5 months.

b) 7 months.

c) 9 months.

d) 12 months.

e) 15 months.

83. Every morning since she was 2 weeks old, Angela has been greeted by the smiling face of her nanny, Suzy. At what age will Angela begin to have the ability to retain a memory of what Suzy's face looks like?

a) At 1 month

b) At 3 months

c) At 4 months

d) At 6 months

e) At 8 months

84. When are newborn infants typically capable of imitating their parents' facial expressions?

a) Within minutes of their birth

b) At about 1 week of age

c) At about 2 weeks of age

d) At about 4 weeks of age

e) At about 2 months of age

85. Define the term reflex, and describe six reflexes that young infants have.

86. Psychologists use which term to describe a characteristic style of behavior or disposition?

a) Habit

b) Temperament

c) Reflex

d) Instinct

e) Personality

87. The New York Longitudinal Study (NYLS) was a landmark study of

a) attachment.

b) temperament.

c) learning.

d) parenting styles.

e) peer relationships.

88. The New York Longitudinal Study identified ________ types of temperament, which are called ________.

a) four; secure, insecure-avoidant, disorganized, and insecure-resistant

b) three; easy, difficult, and slow-to-warm-up

c) three; Types A, B, and C

d) three; permissive, authoritarian, and authoritative

e) two; assimilating and accommodating

89. The New York Longitudinal Study found that about how many children could be classified into one of three temperament groups?

a) 52 percent

b) 65 percent

c) 75 percent

d) 83 percent

e) 97 percent

90. Eight-month-old Finnegan is playful and responds positively to changes. He generally has a happy mood, and he quickly developed a regular sleeping and feeding schedule. Using terminology from the New York Longitudinal Study, Finnegan would be categorized as what type of child?

a) Pleasant

b) Secure

c) Positive

d) Easy

e) Slow-to-warm-up

91. In the New York Longitudinal Study of temperament, the majority of children were classified as which type of children?

a) Secure

b) Slow-to-warm-up

c) Mixed

d) Difficult

e) Easy

92. Children who react negatively to change and are generally irritable are classified as having what kind of temperament?

a) Strong-willed

b) Insecure

c) Contrary

d) Difficult

e) Slow-to-warm-up

93. Six-month-old Charlotte exhibits the characteristics of a slow-to-warm-up temperament. Which of the following would be a typical behavior for Charlotte?

a) Exhibiting a high activity level

b) Showing interest in novel stimuli

c) Becoming overly excited in strange surroundings

d) Adjusting easily to new situations

e) Withdrawing from an unfamiliar setting

94. In descriptions of temperament, another term for "slow-to-warm-up" is

a) difficult.

b) detached.

c) inhibited.

d) insecure.

e) avoidant.

95. What type of infant temperament is associated with the best adjustment in adulthood?

a) Inhibited

b) Slow-to-warm-up

c) Difficult

d) Easy

e) Secure

96. Compared to the other temperament groups, difficult infants tend to

a) have earlier and better language development.

b) be well adjusted as adults.

c) be subdued.

d) not be "pushovers."

e) be calm and easily soothed

97. Dawn's two-year-old son, Trevor, has a difficult temperament. It's likely that Trevor will become an aggressive preschooler if Dawn treats him in what way?

a) In an easygoing, laissez-faire manner

b) In a punitive and unresponsive manner

c) In a manner that lets him see her as a "pushover"

d) In a strict but loving manner

e) Spoiling him by granting his every wish

98. The formation, in a newborn animal, to the first moving object seen after birth is called

a) bonding.

b) attachment.

c) autonomy.

d) adaptation.

e) imprinting.

99. Are bonding and attachment different, and if so, how?

a) Yes;, bonding happens in animals, and attachment happens in humans.

b) Yes; bonding happens only with mothers, whereas attachment happens with mothers or fathers.

c) Yes; bonding is the parent's tie to the infant, whereas attachment is the infant's tie to the caregiver.

d) Yes; the environment primarily influences bonding, whereas attachment is influenced primarily by genetics.

e) No, they are not different; they are alternative terms for the same concept.

100. Who conducted famous studies on imprinting in geese and other species?

a) Erik Erikson

b) Harry Harlow

c) John Bowlby

d) Konrad Lorenz

e) Lev Vygotsky

101. In the film Fly Away Home, a group of abandoned goslings develop a strong bond with a young girl. Because their mother is not there, the girl teaches the geese to fly using an ultralite airplane. This film is a good example of which concept from developmental psychology?

a) Attachment

b) Parenting styles

c) Conservation

d) Temperament

e) Imprinting

102. Who was the first theorist to focus on the study of attachment in human infants?

a) John Bowlby

b) Harry Harlow

c) Diana Baumrind

d) Konrad Lorenz

e) Mary Ainsworth

103. In their landmark study with rhesus monkeys, the Harlows found that infant monkeys, who had been separated from their biological mothers, showed preference for and attachment to which type of mother?

a) A human female

b) A human male

c) One made out of wire and a bottle

d) One made out of soft terry-cloth

e) A mechanical one that moved and made noise

104. In their research with baby rhesus monkeys, what did the Harlows demonstrate to be a strong determinant of attachment?

a) Comfort contact

b) An affectionate mother

c) Food

d) Communication

e) Temperament

105. Who proposed the idea that infants and young children need to use their parents as a "secure base" from which to venture into unfamiliar situations?

a) John Bowlby

b) Diana Baumrind

c) Erik Erikson

d) Jean Piaget

e) Mary Ainsworth

106. The Strange Situation was developed to study

a) imprinting in geese.

b) attachment in monkeys.

c) attachment in human infants.

d) bonding with surrogate mothers.

e) temperament of human infants.

107. In the original attachment research using the Strange Situation, about what percentage of infants showed an insecure-resistant pattern of attachment?

a) Less than 2 percent

b) About 10 percent

c) About 20 percent

d) About 35 percent

e) Between 65 and 70 percent

108. In her original research on attachment, Ainsworth noted that the majority of infants displayed which style of attachment?

a) Secure

b) Slow-to-warm-up

c) Disorganized/disoriented

d) Insecure-avoidant

e) Insecure-resistant

109. When 11-month-old Ethan is in a new environment, he feels free to explore. However, he periodically "checks in" with his caregiver during exploration. If his caregiver leaves the room, Ethan sometimes cries and limits his exploration. Upon his caregiver's return, Ethan gives a warm greeting and then begins his exploration again. Generalizing from research on attachment, Ethan's attachment would be described as

a) easy.

b) secure.

c) disorganized.

d) insecure-avoidant.

e) insecure-resistant.

110. Is there one attachment style that is exhibited by a majority of middle-class infants in Western cultures?

a) Yes, the disorganized/disoriented attachment style

b) Yes, the insecure-avoidant attachment style

c) Yes, the insecure-resistant attachment style

d) Yes, the secure attachment style

e) No; the attachment styles are distributed equally among infants

111. Dr. Betts conducts a study of infant attachment. One child, Leon, seems confused during the observation period. He is unable to directly approach his caregiver, even when he is very distressed. It appears that Leon does not have a consistent strategy for dealing with separations and reunions. Betts classifies Leon's attachment style as

a) insecure-avoidant.

b) insecure-resistant.

c) insecure-difficult.

d) insecure-slow-to-warm-up.

e) disorganized/disoriented.

112. Which of the following statements is true of what research has revealed about attachment?

a) Attachment behaviors have no effect on development beyond infancy.

b) The Strange Situation is an appropriate method for measuring attachment behaviors in children from non-Western cultures.

c) Mothers often recreate, with their children, the types of attachment relationships they had with their own mothers.

d) The quality of maternal care has no bearing on whether or not an infant develops a secure attachment.

e) Cross-culturally, the majority of infants show an insecure pattern of attachment.

113. In early childhood, Shandra developed the idea that people are not to be trusted and are undependable. Shandra's expectancies about how others are likely to respond in close relationships is called a(n)

a) attachment-avoidance paradigm.

b) internal working model.

c) faulty attributional style.

d) irreversible expecta

Available solutions
  • Liberty University PSYC 101 quiz 9 complete Answers | Rated A+
    $14.00

    Question 1 Other factors being equal, which child is at highest risk for negative outcomes in adolescence like poor school performance

    Submitted on: 20 May, 2018 10:34:51 This tutorial has not been purchased yet .
    Attachment: Document.zip