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Liberty University PSYC 101 quiz 8 complete Answers | Rated A+
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Liberty University PSYC 101 quiz 8 complete Answers | Rated A+

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Chapter 8

Question 1 Motivation includes factors that _______ goal­directed behavior.

Question 2 According to research reported in your textbook, Japanese people may report an unpleasant feeling of indebtedness to others, which is known as _____.

Question 3 In the dual­pathway model of fear, where is stimulus information first processed?

Question 4 Happiness is LEAST likely to be found in which of the following?

Question 5 Of the following factors, which is most likely to be linked to personal happiness?

Question 6 In his research on hunger and the brain, Dr. VanderZyl stimulates the lateral hypothalamus of his animal subjects. This stimulation

Question 7 Display rules refer to

Question 8 Changes in blood sugar and circulating fats are detected by the

Question 9 Regarding research on gender differences in emotion, which of the following is FALSE

Question 10 According to the text, severely obese people have about______ fat cells.

Question 11 All but which of the following would be part of one’s esteem needs?

Question 12 The three components of emotions are

Question 13 Who conducted research suggesting that humans and many other animals have basic needs for exploration and activity?

Question 14 You have particular needs or wants that drive your behavior and help explain why you do the things you do. These are called your

Question 15 Regarding the polygraph, which of the following best describes the position of the National Academy of Sciences?

Question 16 Complex feeling states having physiological, cognitive, and behavioral components are called

Question 17 Nervous system activation is reflected most directly in which component of emotions?

Question 18 Mrs. Taylor has two new immigrant girls in her fourth­grade class: Soledad from Mexico and Li­Hua from China. Should she expect the two to differ in how they display emotion?

Question 19 Which of the following is the best definition of drive?

Question 20 Ramona had a stroke that damaged her ventromedial hypothalamus. Generalizing from animal research, you might expect Ramona to

 

Question 1 The facial­feedback hypothesis suggests that

Question 2 Nervous system activation is reflected most directly in which component of emotions?

Question 3 After not having eaten for a while, blood sugar _______ and fat cells ________.

Question 4 Happiness is LEAST likely to be found in which of the following?

Question 5 Subjective, or conscious, experience of feelings is associated with the _____ component of emotion, whereas the tendency to approach or avoid objects or situations is associated with the ______component of emotion.

Question 6 Shelby, an avid bird watcher, explains that birds build nests because that is their nature. Shelby advocates ________ theory.

Question 7 Joshua’s cerebral cortex is involved in all but which of the following emotional experiences?

Question 8 Charlize has anorexia nervosa. She is at risk for developing any of the following EXCEPT

Question 9 Based on research cited in the text, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 10 Which of the following statements is true about gender differences in emotions in Western cultures?

Question 11 Motivation includes factors that _______ goal­directed behavior.

Question 12 All but which of the following would be part of one’s esteem needs?

Question 13 Incentive value is

Question 14 Bulimia nervosa

Question 15 Anne and Norman were both offered a promotion. Anne willingly accepted the promotion offer because she felt it would help her be successful in her career, while Norman refused to accept it because he was afraid he would be unsuccessful. Which motivational concept(s) are Anne and Norman demonstrating?

Question 16 Who conducted research suggesting that humans and many other animals have basic needs for exploration and activity?

Question 17 In drive theory, biological drives are also known as

Question 18 Researchers believe that genetic factors influence happiness by means of determining

Question 19 The hippocampus is involved in processing information relating to the context of _____.

Question 20 Of the following emotions Ken experiences, which is most likely to be processed in his right prefrontal cortex?

 

Question 1 What are the basic emotions that people throughout the world seem to be able to identify through facial expressions?

Question 2 Maslow’s hierarchy of needs has how many levels?

Question 3 Empathy is most likely to play a role in which aspect of emotional intelligence?

Question 4 In motivation theories, psychosocial needs are also known as

Question 5 Even though Fabiola does not need a new dress, she buys one because she really feels drawn toward it. This is an example of

Question 6 Which of the following is a secondary drive?

Question 7 The technical name for a lie detector test is a(n)

Question 8 Bulimia nervosa

Question 9 What is a Duchenne smile?

Question 10 Anne and Norman were both offered a promotion. Anne willingly accepted the promotion offer because she felt it would help her be successful in her career, while Norman refused to accept it because he was afraid he would be unsuccessful. Which motivational concept(s) are Anne and Norman demonstrating?

Question 11 According to the text, severely obese people have about______ fat cells.

Question 12 Women are generally better at recognizing _____, whereas men are generally better at recognizing _____.

Question 13 The set point theory of obesity suggests that

Question 14 Which theorist(s) formulated the dual­pathway model of fear?

Question 15 Terry is described as having extrinsic motivation for the achievement of his goals. This means that Terry

Question 16 Which theorists supported instinct theory?

Question 17 The instinct theory of human motivation was replaced by the

Question 18 Regarding achievement motivation, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 19 In drive theory, biological drives are also known as

Question 20 Homeostasis is the basis for which theory of motivation?

 

Question 1 Which brain structure might best be described as an “emotional computer”?

Question 2 Regarding stimulus motives, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 3 Positive psychology focuses on _____.

Question 4 The body’s downward adjustment of metabolic rate during times of famine is explained by which of the following theories?

Question 5 Dr. Diaz is a researcher studying emotions. Specifically, Diaz is interested in the behavioral expression of emotions. Her research program could involve any of the following EXCEPT

Question 6 Who is a major researcher in the study of need for achievement?

Question 7 Each of the following is identified in the text as a factor in obesity EXCEPT

Question 8 Which of the following words is/are derived from the Latin movere, meaning “to move”?

Question 9 Regarding obesity, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 10 LaDonna experiences a state of biological tension because she is hungry. Her hunger motivates her to stop at the local deli after class. Which theory best explains LaDonna’s choice to go to the deli?

Question 11 Display rules refer to

Question 12 Who conducted research suggesting that humans and many other animals have basic needs for exploration and activity?

Question 13 Emotional intelligence is best defined as _____.

Question 14 Stephen has a low need for achievement. Generalizing from research, we would predict that Stephen will set goals that are

Question 15 Motivation includes factors that _______ goal­directed behavior.

Question 16 In an effort to increase her happiness, college student Stacy Hinson tries an exercise described in her psychology class. She spends time visualizing a person who had a huge effect on her life—someone she never thanked. Stacy then spends about a week writing a testimonial to that person and then follows up by calling on the person and sharing her thoughts with the person. Which of Seligman’s happiness exercises is Stacy trying?

Question 17 In motivation theories, psychosocial needs are also known as

Question 18 According to research reported in your textbook, Japanese people may report an unpleasant feeling of indebtedness to others, which is known as _____.

Question 19 Terry is described as having extrinsic motivation for the achievement of his goals. This means that Terry

Question 20 Quentin has a strong need to excel at whatever he does. Quentin’s need is called need for

 

Question 1 Complex feeling states having physiological, cognitive, and behavioral components are called

Question 2 According to set point theory, when people lose weight

Question 3 Which of the following approaches to weight loss leads to the highest rate of long­term success?

Question 4 Mrs. Taylor has two new immigrant girls in her fourth­grade class: Soledad from Mexico and Li­Hua from China. Should she expect the two to differ in how they display emotion?

Question 5 Your text suggests all of the following ways for controlling anger that you may experience in relating to others' lives EXCEPT _____.

Question 6 Vonda is exceptionally skilled at perceiving emotions in others, which is an important element of emotional intelligence. Vonda has a high level of

Question 7 What does a polygraph test measure?

Question 8 The technical name for a lie detector test is a(n)

Question 9 The set point theory of obesity suggests that

Question 10 The body’s downward adjustment of metabolic rate during times of famine is explained by which of the following theories?

Question 11 Ramona had a stroke that damaged her ventromedial hypothalamus. Generalizing from animal research, you might expect Ramona to

Question 12 What is the typical sequencing of needs in Maslow’s hierarchy?

Question 13 Which theorists supported instinct theory?

Question 14 Generalizing from Zuckerman’s research on sensation seeking, which of the following statements best describes a sensation­seeker?

Question 15 Driving along a dark, rural road, Norma sees a deer jump across the road in front of her. Norma experiences physiological arousal, her heart pounding and her hands trembling. Norma realizes that she is aroused and says, “I’m terrified.” This characterization of Norma’s emotional experience is most consistent with which theoretical model of emotion?

Question 16 Which of the following is not one of the six universally recognized emotional expressions?

Question 17 Positive psychology focuses on _____.

Question 18 Which of the following is NOT an argument against instinct theory for human behavior?

Question 19 Based on research cited in the text, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 20 The desire to steer clear of failure is called

 

Question 1 What is a Duchenne smile?

Question 2 Display rules refer to

Question 3 Empathy is most likely to play a role in which aspect of emotional intelligence?

Question 4 The amygdala _____.

Question 5 Shelby, an avid bird watcher, explains that birds build nests because that is their nature. Shelby advocates ________ theory.

Question 6 LaDonna experiences a state of biological tension because she is hungry. Her hunger motivates her to stop at the local deli after class. Which theory best explains LaDonna’s choice to go to the deli?

Question 7 The hippocampus is involved in processing information relating to the context of _____.

Question 8 The physiological component of an emotional experience involves _____.

Question 9 The instinct theory of human motivation was replaced by the

Question 10 When Walter’s blood sugar dips, he becomes hungry. He eats, and then he is no longer hungry—his body is back in balance. This balancing is an example of

Question 11 Regarding Maslow’s theory of motivation, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 12 In contrast to the lateral hypothalamus, stimulation of the ventromedial hypothalamus

Question 13 Regarding research on restaurant portion sizes reported in the text, which of the following statements is TRUE?

Question 14 Your text suggests all of the following ways for controlling anger that you may experience in relating to others' lives EXCEPT _____.

Question 15 Based on research cited in the text, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 16 Which of the following is NOT an argument against instinct theory for human behavior?

Question 17 Anne and Norman were both offered a promotion. Anne willingly accepted the promotion offer because she felt it would help her be successful in her career, while Norman refused to accept it because he was afraid he would be unsuccessful. Which motivational concept(s) are Anne and Norman demonstrating?

Question 18 Maslow referred to the need to fulfill one’s own unique potential as the need for

Question 19 According to the text, the most widely studied psychosocial need is the need for

Question 20 All but which of the following are common medical complications arising from bulimia?

 

Question 1 Nervous system activation is reflected most directly in which component of emotions?

Question 2 The technical name for a lie detector test is a(n)

Question 3 Of the following emotions Ken experiences, which is most likely to be processed in his right prefrontal cortex?

Question 4 Who is a major researcher in the study of need for achievement?

Question 5 Regarding sources of motivation, self­gratification is to ______ as money is to ______.

Question 6 Which of the following is not one of the six universally recognized emotional expressions?

Question 7 Mrs. Taylor has two new immigrant girls in her fourth­grade class: Soledad from Mexico and Li­Hua from China. Should she expect the two to differ in how they display emotion?

Question 8 After not having eaten for a while, blood sugar _______ and fat cells ________.

Question 9 Which hormone do scientists believe works on the hypothalamus to stimulate appetite and eating?

Question 10 What is an instinct?

Question 11 Shelby, an avid bird watcher, explains that birds build nests because that is their nature. Shelby advocates ________ theory.

Question 12 The physiological component of an emotional experience involves _____.

Question 13 Curlee has a good ability to recognize emotions in herself and in others. She is also able to effectively manage her emotions. Curlee appears to have high levels of

Question 14 Of the following factors, which is most likely to be linked to personal happiness?

Question 15 The two­factor theory of emotion suggests that emotions

Question 16 Regarding stimulus motives, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 17 Generalizing from Zuckerman’s research on sensation seeking, which of the following statements best describes a sensation­seeker?

Question 18 In drive theory, biological drives are also known as

Question 19 Empathy is most likely to play a role in which aspect of emotional intelligence?

Question 20 Joshua’s cerebral cortex is involved in all but which of the following emotional experiences?

 

According to research reported in your textbook, Japanese people may report an unpleasant feeling of indebtedness to others, which is known as _____.

After looking at the exotic desserts presented on the dessert tray, Colin decides to have one of the desserts even though he is not hungry. This is best described as an example of

One component of emotional intelligence is the ability to motivate yourself. This involves _____.

Regarding research on restaurant portion sizes reported in the text, which of the following statements is TRUE?

Each of the following is identified in the text as a factor in obesity EXCEPT

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs has how many levels?

Curlee has a good ability to recognize emotions in herself and in others. She is also able to effectively manage her emotions. Curlee appears to have high levels of

The instinct theory of human motivation was replaced by the

According to drive theory, secondary drives are

Anne and Norman were both offered a promotion. Anne willingly accepted the promotion offer because she felt it would help her be successful in her career, while Norman refused to accept it because he was afraid he would be unsuccessful. Which motivational concept(s) are Anne and Norman demonstrating?

In contrast to the lateral hypothalamus, stimulation of the ventromedial hypothalamus

Complex feeling states having physiological, cognitive, and behavioral components are called

Jason has just narrowly avoided being in an accident with another driver. His heart is pounding in his chest, he is very tense in his body posture, and he is trembling. Jason feels afraid. This subjective feeling of fear represents the _____ component of his emotional response.

Anorexia nervosa is

Of the following factors, which is most likely to be linked to personal happiness?

Your text suggests all of the following ways for controlling anger that you may experience in relating to others' lives EXCEPT _____.

Which of the following words is/are derived from the Latin movere, meaning “to move”?

LaDonna experiences a state of biological tension because she is hungry. Her hunger motivates her to stop at the local deli after class. Which theory best explains LaDonna’s choice to go to the deli?

Emotional intelligence is best defined as _____.

Besides the cerebral cortex, the brain structures most involved in the brain’s control of emotions are in found in the

 

1.

You have particular needs or wants that drive your behavior and help explain why you do the things you do. These are called your

 

A)

instincts.

 

B)

motives.

 

C)

perceptions.

 

D)

incentives.

 

E)

emotions.

2.

Motives address the fundamental question of the _____ of behavior.

 

A)

who

 

B)

what

 

C)

why

 

D)

where

 

E)

when

3.

What is an instinct?

 

A)

A drive that is acquired through experience

 

B)

A factor that activates, directs, and sustains goal-directed behavior

 

C)

An innate pattern of responding that is species-specific

 

D)

An internal state that prompts stimulation-seeking behavior

 

E)

An innate reward or other stimulus that motivates one to act

4.

Which theorists supported instinct theory?

 

A)

Walter Cannon and Philip Bard

 

B)

William Masters and Virginia Johnson

 

C)

Harry Harlow and Marvin Zuckerman

 

D)

Abraham Maslow and Darryl Bem

 

E)

Sigmund Freud and William James

5.

Shelby, an avid bird-watcher, explains that birds build nests because that is their nature. Shelby advocates

 

A)

drive theory.

 

B)

incentive theory.

 

C)

instinct theory.

 

D)

arousal theory.

 

E)

set point theory.

6.

A need is

 

A)

another word for instinct.

 

B)

a state of deprivation or deficiency.

 

C)

a state of bodily tension.

 

D)

a learned desire.

 

E)

a reward that motivates.

7.

Which of the following is the best definition of drive?

 

A)

An incentive that pulls one in the direction of obtaining it.

 

B)

A reward or other stimulus that motivates one to act

 

C)

A state of deprivation or deficiency

 

D)

A genetically programmed pattern of response specific to members of a particular species

 

E)

A state of bodily tension that arises from an unmet need

8.

Drive reduction is

 

A)

acting upon instincts.

 

B)

an increase in homeostasis.

 

C)

a decrease in homeostasis.

 

D)

satisfaction of a state of bodily tension.

 

E)

the “pull” of a goal or reward.

9.

Homeostasis is the basis for which theory of motivation?

 

A)

Instinct theory

 

B)

Arousal theory

 

C)

Drive theory

 

D)

Need theory

 

E)

Hierarchy of needs theory

10.

Which of the following is a secondary drive?

 

A)

Hunger

 

B)

Thirst

 

C)

Sexual desire

 

D)

Desire to earn money

 

E)

Need for sleep

11.

Incentives are

 

A)

physiologically-based needs.

 

B)

homeostatically-controlled drives.

 

C)

rewards that motivate us to behave in a certain way.

 

D)

instinctually-based motives.

 

E)

drives acquired through experience.

12.

After looking at the exotic desserts presented on the dessert tray, Colin decides to have one of the desserts even though he is not hungry. This is best described as an example of

 

A)

incentive motivation.

 

B)

drive reduction.

 

C)

instinctual behavior.

 

D)

arousal theory.

 

E)

cognitive dissonance.

13.

Sandra has a strong need to have social relationships. Psychologists use the term ______ to describe Sandra's needs.

 

A)

need for affiliation

 

B)

need for acceptance

 

C)

need for arousal

 

D)

need for sensation

 

E)

need for achievement

14.

Stephen has a low need for achievement. Generalizing from research, we would predict that Stephen will set goals that are

 

A)

so low they are always attainable.

 

B)

so high they are never attainable.

 

C)

so low they are always attainable or so high they are never attainable.

 

D)

challenging but realistic.

 

E)

challenging and unrealistic.

15.

Terry is described as having extrinsic motivation for the achievement of his goals. This means that Terry

 

A)

focuses on immediate outcomes.

 

B)

focuses on short-term outcomes.

 

C)

has a desire for external rewards.

 

D)

has a desire for internal gratification.

 

E)

has low achievement motivation.

16.

Regarding sources of motivation, self-gratification is to ______ as money is to ______.

 

A)

intrinsic; avoidance

 

B)

avoidance; intrinsic

 

C)

extrinsic; avoidance

 

D)

avoidance; extrinsic

 

E)

intrinsic; extrinsic

17.

The desire to steer clear of failure is called

 

A)

achievement motivation.

 

B)

avoidance motivation.

 

C)

performance anxiety.

 

D)

defensive motivation.

 

E)

lack of self-actualization.

18.

The hierarchy of needs model of human motivation was developed by

 

A)

Maslow.

 

B)

Hull.

 

C)

Keltner.

 

D)

Zuckerman.

 

E)

McClelland.

19.

Maslow's hierarchy of needs has how many levels?

 

A)

2

 

B)

3

 

C)

5

 

D)

7

 

E)

12

20.

The highest needs in Maslow's hierarchy are

 

A)

physiological needs.

 

B)

safety needs.

 

C)

esteem needs.

 

D)

self-actualization needs.

 

E)

love and belongingness needs.

21.

After not having eaten for a while, blood sugar _______ and fat cells ________.

 

A)

falls; absorb excess fat

 

B)

falls; release fat

 

C)

rises; absorb excess fat

 

D)

rises; release fat

 

E)

falls; are destroyed

22.

According to the text, severely obese people have about______ fat cells.

 

A)

100 million

 

B)

between 200 and 500 million

 

C)

5 to 25 billion

 

D)

50 to 100 billion

 

E)

200 billion or more

23.

The set point theory of obesity suggests that

 

A)

body weight is regulated around a genetically predetermined level.

 

B)

food intake is controlled by genetics.

 

C)

metabolism is controlled by genetics.

 

D)

the number of fat cells is controlled by genetics.

 

E)

body weight is determined by the incentive value of food.

24.

Approximately what percentage of young women in the United States develops bulimia nervosa?

 

A)

1 to 3%

 

B)

5 to 10%

 

C)

12 to 15%

 

D)

16 to 20%

 

E)

25 to 28%

25.

In a particular society, men are expected to provide protection and monetary support, while women are expected to tend to the home and children. These expectations reflect _______ for females and males in the society.

 

A)

gender identities

 

B)

gender roles

 

C)

gender confusion

 

D)

sex roles

 

E)

sexual orientations

26.

If Jessica and Nick are like the majority of American married couples, how often do they have sexual relations?

 

A)

Almost every day of the week

 

B)

4 or more times per week

 

C)

2 to 3 times per week

 

D)

A few times per month

 

E)

A few times per year

27.

Which researcher(s) identified the sexual response cycle?

 

A)

Seligman and Ekman

 

B)

Maslow

 

C)

Masters and Johnson

 

D)

Freud

 

E)

Bem

28.

Vasocongestion and myotonia are associated with which stage of the sexual response cycle?

 

A)

Excitement phase in males

 

B)

Excitement phase in females

 

C)

Excitement phase in females and males

 

D)

Excitement phase in males and orgasm phase in females

 

E)

Orgasm and excitement phase in females and males

29.

Contemporary research on sexuality in the United States and Europe has found all but which of the following?

 

A)

About 1 to 2 percent of women identify themselves as exclusively homosexual.

 

B)

About 10 to 15  percent of men identify themselves as exclusively homosexual.

 

C)

About 1 to 4 percent of the population is bisexual.

 

D)

About 20 to 25 percent of men report having had same-sex sexual contact during adolescence or adulthood.

 

E)

About 17 percent of women report having had same-sex sexual contact during adolescence or adulthood.

30.

In studies of sexual orientation, gay men report all but which of the following?

 

A)

More cross-gender behavior as children

 

B)

More sensitivity as children

 

C)

Fewer male buddies as children

 

D)

Early attraction to their mothers' clothes

 

E)

Feelings of being different as children

31.

In the development of sexual orientation, which of the following is TRUE?

 

A)

Genetic factors play no role in the development of sexual orientation.

 

B)

Genetic factors completely account for the development of sexual orientation.

 

C)

Genetic factors account for the development of sexual orientation in males, but not in females.

 

D)

Genetic factors play a larger role in determining homosexuality in males than in females.

 

E)

Genetic factors play a larger role in determining homosexuality in females than in males.

32.

Complex feeling states having physiological, cognitive, and behavioral components are called

 

A)

complex motives.

 

B)

emotional intelligences.

 

C)

incentives.

 

D)

need and drives.

 

E)

emotions.

33.

Which brain structure might best be described as an “emotional computer”?

 

A)

Hippocampus

 

B)

Amygdala

 

C)

Hypothalamus

 

D)

Corpus callosum

 

E)

Thalamus

34.

Display rules refer to

 

A)

cultural differences in the basic emotions.

 

B)

cultural guidelines to interpret emotions.

 

C)

cultural guidelines regulating emotional expression.

 

D)

cultural guidelines regulating feelings of emotions.

 

E)

characterizing emotions on the basis of cultural values.

35.

What is a Duchenne smile?

 

A)

A fake smile

 

B)

A suppressed grimace

 

C)

A smile in response to another person smiling

 

D)

A type of smile resulting from the facial-feedback effect

 

E)

A genuine smile

36.

Facial expression of emotions is controlled by the

 

A)

cerebellum.

 

B)

cerebral cortex.

 

C)

hypothalamus.

 

D)

hippocampus.

 

E)

limbic system.

37.

In terms of prefrontal activation associated with emotions, left hemisphere is to ______ emotions as right hemisphere is to ______ emotions.

 

A)

mimicked; genuine

 

B)

weak; strong

 

C)

strong; weak

 

D)

negative; positive

 

E)

positive; negative

38.

The James-Lange theory of emotion suggests that emotions

 

A)

cause bodily reactions.

 

B)

come after bodily reactions.

 

C)

are not related to bodily reactions.

 

D)

occur simultaneously with bodily reactions.

 

E)

involve arousal and labeling of its causes.

39.

You read an article on the Internet which suggests that when people experience emotions, they simultaneously feel the emotion and have corresponding bodily reactions. You know that this article was written by someone who supports the ______ theory of emotion.

 

A)

James-Lange

 

B)

two-factor

 

C)

Cannon-Bard

 

D)

facial feedback

 

E)

dual-pathway

40.

The two-factor theory of emotion suggests that emotions

 

A)

occur simultaneously with bodily arousal.

 

B)

follow bodily arousal.

 

C)

are processed by two pathways in the brain.

 

D)

result from a combination of physiological arousal and cognitive appraisal.

 

E)

are universal across cultures.

41.

In the dual-pathway model of fear, the “high road” leads to the ______ and the “low road” leads to the ______.

 

A)

hypothalamus; cerebral cortex

 

B)

cerebral cortex; amygdala

 

C)

amygdala; cerebral cortex

 

D)

cerebral cortex; hypothalamus

 

E)

hypothalamus; amygdala

42.

Empathy is most likely to play a role in which aspect of emotional intelligence?

 

A)

Managing your emotions

 

B)

Motivating yourself

 

C)

Knowing your emotions

 

D)

Delaying gratification

 

E)

Recognizing emotions in others

43.

Regarding the polygraph, which of the following best describes the position of the National Academy of Sciences?

 

A)

The polygraph is accurate enough to use while other more sophisticated methods of detecting lying are being developed.

 

B)

The polygraph leads to too many false findings of lying, damaging the lives of many innocent people.

 

C)

The polygraph effectively measures physiological signs of lying, and their wide use is supported by research.

 

D)

There is not enough research to determine if the wide use of polygraphs is justified.

 

E)

The polygraph cannot accurately distinguish lying from emotional reactions of honest people put in pressure situations.

44.

The technical name for a lie detector test is a(n)

 

A)

electroencephalograph.

 

B)

electrocardiograph.

 

C)

polygraph.

 

D)

vasocongestion monitor.

 

E)

functional MRI.

 

 

1.        Motivation includes factors that _______ goal-directed behavior.

A)       activate

B)       direct

C)       sustain

D)       activate and direct

E)       activate, direct, and sustain

2.        Shelby, an avid bird-watcher, explains that birds build nests because that is their nature. Shelby advocates

A)       drive theory.

B)       incentive theory.

C)       instinct theory.

D)       arousal theory.

E)       set point theory.

3.        Homeostasis is the basis for which theory of motivation?

A)       Instinct theory

B)       Arousal theory

C)       Drive theory

D)       Need theory

E)       Hierarchy of needs theory

4.        Donald has a higher need for arousal than the average person. In psychological terms, Donald would be described as

A)       having an antisocial personality.

B)       having a high need for achievement.

C)       a sensation-seeker.

D)       an obsessive-compulsive.

E)       having performance anxiety.

5.        Incentive value is

A)       the lowest need in Maslow's hierarchy.

B)       the highest point in Maslow's hierarchy.

C)       the strength of a reward's “pull” on one's behavior.

D)       the amount of drive reduction a behavior has.

E)       the amount of effort expended in attaining a difficult goal.

6.        Sandra has a strong need to have social relationships. Psychologists use the term ______ to describe Sandra's needs.

A)       need for affiliation

B)       need for acceptance

C)       need for arousal

D)       need for sensation

E)       need for achievement

7.        Stephen has a low need for achievement. Generalizing from research, we would predict that Stephen will set goals that are

A)       so low they are always attainable.

B)       so high they are never attainable.

C)       so low they are always attainable or so high they are never attainable.

D)       challenging but realistic.

E)       challenging and unrealistic.

8.        Terry is described as having extrinsic motivation for the achievement of his goals. This means that Terry

A)       focuses on immediate outcomes.

B)       focuses on short-term outcomes.

C)       has a desire for external rewards.

D)       has a desire for internal gratification.

E)       has low achievement motivation.

9.        The highest needs in Maslow's hierarchy are

A)       physiological needs.

B)       safety needs.

C)       esteem needs.

D)       self-actualization needs.

E)       love and belongingness needs.

10.     Changes in blood sugar and circulating fats are detected by the

A)       hippocampus.

B)       thalamus.

C)       cortex.

D)       hypothalamus.

E)       amygdala.

11.     In contrast to the lateral hypothalamus, stimulation of the ventromedial hypothalamus

A)       makes a hungry animal eat.

B)       makes an animal stop eating.

C)       has no effect on eating.

D)       makes a full animal start eating.

E)       restores homeostasis.

12.     According to set point theory, when people lose weight

A)       food intake is increased.

B)       food intake is decreased.

C)       metabolic rate is increased.

D)       metabolic rate is decreased.

E)       stores of fat are released.

13.     Anorexia nervosa is

A)       a form of food restriction that results in extremely low body weight.

B)       an eating disorder among individuals of relatively normal weight.

C)       a disorder in which episodes of binge eating are followed by purging.

D)       a major cause of obesity.

E)       equally prevalent in men and women.

14.     The psychological sense of femaleness or maleness is called

A)       gender.

B)       sex.

C)       gender role.

D)       sexual orientation.

E)       gender identity.

15.     During which phase of her sexual response cycle will Sasha experience an expansion and thickening of her vagina?

A)       Excitement

B)       Plateau

C)       Orgasm

D)       Arousal

E)       Resolution

16.     Lately when Richard is having sex, he has been having difficulty achieving an erection. When he does have an erection, he often has trouble maintaining it. Richard most likely has which sexual dysfunction?

A)       Lack of sexual desire

B)       Premature ejaculation

C)       Erectile dysfunction

D)       Vasocongestion syndrome

E)       Duchenne syndrome

17.     Which type of anxiety plays a key role in many cases of erectile dysfunction?

A)       Generalized anxiety

B)       Obsessive-compulsiveness

C)       Phobias

D)       Performance anxiety

E)       Anxiety from sexual trauma

18.     What are the basic emotions that humans seem to be able to identify through facial expressions?

A)       Anticipation, anger, love, hate, boredom, and happiness

B)       Anger, love, hate, sadness, boredom, and happiness

C)       Anticipation, surprise, and fear

D)       Anger, fear, sadness, and happiness

E)       Anger, fear, disgust, sadness, happiness, and surprise

19.     Happiness is LEAST likely to be found in which of the following?

A)       Development of strong spiritual or personal values

B)       Money

C)       Investment in family life

D)       Involvement in community life

E)       Meaningful work

20.     The two-factor theory of emotion suggests that emotions

A)       occur simultaneously with bodily arousal.

B)       follow bodily arousal.

C)       are processed by two pathways in the brain.

D)       result from a combination of physiological arousal and cognitive appraisal.

E)       are universal across cultures.

21.     Driving along a dark, rural road, Norma sees a deer jump across the road in front of her. Norma experiences physiological arousal, her heart pounding and her hands trembling. Norma realizes that she is aroused and says, “I'm terrified.” This characterization of Norma's emotional experience is most consistent with which theoretical model of emotion?

A)       Cognitive dissonance

B)       Two-factor

C)       Dual-pathway

D)       Cannon-Bard

E)       Facial feedback

22.     The technical name for a lie detector test is a(n)

A)       electroencephalograph.

B)       electrocardiograph.

C)       polygraph.

D)       vasocongestion monitor.

E)       functional MRI.

23.     What is the correct order of stages in prenatal development?

A)       Germinal, embryonic, fetal

B)       Germinal, fetal, embryonic

C)       Embryonic, germinal, fetal

D)       Embryonic, fetal, germinal

E)       Fetal, germinal, embryonic

24      In prenatal development, the umbilical cord connects the

A)       neural tube to the placenta.

B)       placenta to the amniotic sac.

C)       amniotic sac to the embryo.

D)       embryo and fetus to the placenta.

E)       embryo and fetus to the amniotic sac.

25.     All of the following are examples of teratogens EXCEPT

A)       folic acid.

B)       lead.

C)       X-rays.

D)       mercury.

E)       infectious organisms.

26.     Maternal smoking is associated with increased risk in the offspring with all of the following EXCEPT

A)       reduced attention span.

B)       deformed extremities.

C)       learning problems.

D)       behavioral problems.

E)       childhood asthma.

27.     Of the five senses, which is the slowest to develop?

A)       Vision

B)       Hearing

C)       Touch

D)       Taste

E)       Smell

28.     If his development is normal, newborn baby Moses can be expected to do all but which of the following?

A)       Hear a variety of sounds and be particularly sensitive to sounds falling within the frequency of the human voice.

B)       Discriminate among different tastes.

C)     &am

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