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Liberty University PSYC 101 quiz 7 complete Answers | Rated A+
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Liberty University PSYC 101 quiz 7 complete Answers | Rated A+

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Chapter 7

Question 1 Letty has a very complex problem to solve. She decides to break the problem down into smaller, more manageable problems. Which strategy best describes what Letty is doing?

Question 2 In Binet’s method of intelligence testing, the age at which a child’s performance peaked was considered his or her

Question 3 The rules governing proper use of words, phrases, and sentences to convey meaning are called

Question 4 In testing, ______ is to consistency of results as ______ is to accuracy of results.

Question 5 A deviation IQ is an IQ score based on

Question 6 In the normal distribution of IQ scores, approximately what percentage of scores falls between 85 and 115?

Question 7 Francesca has very high levels of linguistic intelligence. The model of multiple intelligences suggests that Francesca might be best suited to be a(n)

Question 8 A heuristic is

Question 9 Gardner describes intelligence as being composed of

Question 10 Which of the following best describes decision making?

Question 11 In IQ testing, what is predictive validity?

Question 12 Jessica’s advisor recommends that Jessica take courses in at least one foreign language because, he says, there are some thoughts that simply cannot occur to people who speak only one language. Her advisor’s opinion is probably based on _____.

Question 13 Regarding theories of intelligence, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 14 Louise is a 35­year­old woman with intellectual disability. She has the reading and math skills of a normal sixth grader. She can function fairly independently and has a productive job. Her level of intellectual disability is most likely described as ____.

Question 15 Mental set is a

Question 16 The use of the generic “he” in referring to doctors and scientists may negatively affect career aspirations in young woman. This can best be explained by

Question 17 What percentage of people with intellectual disability can be described as having a profound level of intellectual disability?

Question 18 Esther scores 130 on a test of intelligence. Esther’s score corresponds to the ______ percentile of the population.

Question 19 Kohler studied which aspect of problem solving?

Question 20 Norm and Bertha’s baby daughter has just begun making cooing sounds. If her development is average, what age is she predicted to be?

 

Question 1 In Sternberg’s model of intelligence, creative intelligence includes

Question 2 Which group is predicted to have the most highly correlated IQ scores?

Question 3 Which of the following statements regarding language development is most strongly supported by the evidence?

Question 4 The belief that language affects how we think was first developed by ______, and this idea is presented in the ______.

Question 5 Regarding the concept of the language acquisition device, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 6 Concepts defined by specific rules are called

Question 7 Concerns with intelligence tests include all of the following EXCEPT

Question 8 Regarding language, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 9 Language is

Question 10 Beginning the use of one­word phrases is typical for which age group?

Question 11 Alexander Graham Bell studied the human ear and noticed how sounds were transmitted when a membrane (the eardrum) vibrated. He applied this knowledge to the development of the telephone, using a similar process of vibration of a membrane. Which cognitive process did Bell demonstrate?

Question 12 A given trait has a heritability of 75 percent. This means

Question 13 Jorge is a biology student and learns that botanists have clear rules for determining what a bean is. The concept of “bean” he is learning in class is referred to as a

Question 14 Karen had been trying to solve a problem for several days when she experienced a sudden awareness of the correct solution to her problem. Karen’s experience describes the concept of

Question 15 According to the text, which of the following definitions best describes intelligence?

Question 16 Irene has a mental age of 10 and a chronological age of 8. Using the IQ formula from your text, Irene’s IQ would be

Question 17 What is the major drawback of algorithms?

Question 18 Letty has a very complex problem to solve. She decides to break the problem down into smaller, more manageable problems. Which strategy best describes what Letty is doing?

Question 19 Norm and Bertha’s baby daughter has just begun making cooing sounds. If her development is average, what age is she predicted to be?

Question 20 Paul is trying to research a problem online. He has found a wealth of relevant information. He is examining the information he has collected with a critical attitude, trying to ensure that the information he has collected is valid. Paul is engaged in which aspect of creative problem solving?

 

Question 1 Martin looks at his class syllabus and notices that his professor will lecture today on the work of Noam Chomsky. What is most likely to be the focus of the lecture?

Question 2 Taking an overview of the theories of intelligence, all but which of the following are fair conclusions?

Question 3 In Binet’s method of intelligence testing, the age at which a child’s performance peaked was considered his or her

Question 4 Eric was tested at school for entry into the gifted program. It is likely that Eric scored at least _____ on his intelligence test.

Question 5 Regarding human language development, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 6 Regarding theories of intelligence, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 7 What is the sequence for language development?

Question 8 Who adapted the Binet­Simon Intelligence Test for American use and established norms for the test?

Question 9 Paul is trying to research a problem online. He has found a wealth of relevant information. He is examining the information he has collected with a critical attitude, trying to ensure that the information he has collected is valid. Paul is engaged in which aspect of creative problem solving?

Question 10 Concerns with intelligence tests include all of the following EXCEPT

Question 11 The terms “veggie burger” and “cell phone” represent which process underlying creative thinking?

Question 12 Chalanda is described as suffering from a moderate intellectual disability. She likely has an IQ in the range of

Question 13 Chrissy relies on a “rule of thumb” to solve her problem. In scientific terms, Chrissy’s strategy is called a(n)

Question 14 All but which of the following are examples of phonemes?

Question 15 What is the major drawback of algorithms?

Question 16 Third­grade teacher Victor serves as a proctor for administration of group IQ tests to children at his school. Victor has been instructed to make sure that he follows the uniform procedures for administering the test in order to make sure the test is used correctly. With which criteria of test administration is Victor concerned?

Question 17 Stella uses a problem­solving technique in which she proposes as many solutions to a problem as possible, no matter how far­fetched or weird the ideas seem. Which technique is Stella using?

Question 18 Whose theory of intelligence has had a particularly strong influence on the field of education?

Question 19 Regarding concepts, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 20 Which of the following statements regarding language development is most strongly supported by the evidence?

 

Question 1 Culture­fair IQ tests are not widely used because they

Question 2 Most people assume there are more words in the English language that begin with the letter k than have the letter k in the third position. This may be because it is easier to think of words that begin with k and thus may be an example of

Question 3 Tara has experienced severe delays in all areas of development, though she has learned some basic speech skills. Her doctors think she may be able to learn some simple tasks, but she will require fairly close supervision in everything she does. Tara is best described as having _____.

Question 4 William has been trying to solve a particularly thorny problem he is faced with. Every time he tries to solve the problem, he starts thinking about it and framing it in the same way that failed to lead to a solution before. William is having problems with which aspect of creative problem solving?

Question 5 Alexander Graham Bell studied the human ear and noticed how sounds were transmitted when a membrane (the eardrum) vibrated. He applied this knowledge to the development of the telephone, using a similar process of vibration of a membrane. Which cognitive process did Bell demonstrate?

Question 6 Chrissy relies on a “rule of thumb” to solve her problem. In scientific terms, Chrissy’s strategy is called a(n)

Question 7 In its original conception, intelligence quotient was defined as

Question 8 What is the major drawback of algorithms?

Question 9 Samuel faces the challenge of intellectual disability. He has been working as a cashier in a convenience store for several years. He has learned to do relatively simple arithmetic as it applies to his job, and he can read well enough to understand the daily newspaper, but he cannot easily go beyond these tasks. Samuel is best described as having _____.

Question 10 Letty has a very complex problem to solve. She decides to break the problem down into smaller, more manageable problems. Which strategy best describes what Letty is doing?

Question 11 Kristina scored below average on an intelligence test in 5 th grade. As a result, she was held back a year. Her parents and teachers developed low expectations for her. Ultimately, Kristina quit high school and took a low­paying job at a convenience store. This is an example of

Question 12 The rules governing the meaning of words are called

Question 13 Tom’s parents have just been told that Tom has dyslexia. What does this mean?

Question 14 In the history of intelligence tests, which event is the most recent?

Question 15 Concerns with intelligence tests include all of the following EXCEPT

Question 16 Chalanda is described as suffering from a moderate intellectual disability. She likely has an IQ in the range of

Question 17 What are the smallest units of meaning in a language?

Question 18 Which of the following examples represents the most remarkable demonstration of teaching animals to communicate?

Question 19 According to the text, thinking involves each of the following EXCEPT

Question 20 A heuristic is

 

Question 1 Compared to men, women tend to

Question 2 Which group is predicted to have the most highly correlated IQ scores?

Question 3 Regarding Wechsler’s tests of intelligence, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 4 Karen had been trying to solve a problem for several days when she experienced a sudden awareness of the correct solution to her problem. Karen’s experience describes the concept of

Question 5 Spearman proposed that intelligence is composed of

Question 6 Which heuristic involves starting with a possible solution and then working in reverse order to see if the data support the solution?

Question 7 The rules governing proper use of words, phrases, and sentences to convey meaning are called

Question 8 Arnold tries to find the single correct solution to his problem. Which mental process is Arnold using?

Question 9 Culture­fair IQ tests are not widely used because they

Question 10 Who developed an artificial language based on plastic chips and trained a chimp to communicate with these chips?

Question 11 In intelligence testing, norms are

Question 12 What is the sequence for language development?

Question 13 Which type of imagery is easiest to form?

Question 14 The most widely used intelligence tests in America today were developed by

Question 15 Regarding gender differences in cognitive abilities, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 16 In IQ testing, what is predictive validity?

Question 17 Chalanda is described as suffering from a moderate intellectual disability. She likely has an IQ in the range of

Question 18 Language is

Question 19 A heuristic is

Question 20 Regarding intelligence, psychologists have long argued about all but which of the following?

 

Question 1 Kohler studied which aspect of problem solving?

Question 2 Engineer Phinegan Tatarchuk likes to use analogy during the creative process of developing new products. When Tatarchuk does this, he is

Question 3 What percentage of people with intellectual disability can be described as having a profound level of intellectual disability?

Question 4 Which of the following best describes decision making?

Question 5 Jorge is a biology student and learns that botanists have clear rules for determining what a bean is. The concept of “bean” he is learning in class is referred to as a

Question 6 Tara has experienced severe delays in all areas of development, though she has learned some basic speech skills. Her doctors think she may be able to learn some simple tasks, but she will require fairly close supervision in everything she does. Tara is best described as having _____.

Question 7 Which of the following examples represents the most remarkable demonstration of teaching animals to communicate?

Question 8 Scientists believe that ape communication through gesturing represents

Question 9 Irene has a mental age of 10 and a chronological age of 8. Using the IQ formula from your text, Irene’s IQ would be

Question 10 Language is

Question 11 Regarding the concept of the language acquisition device, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 12 In Binet’s method of intelligence testing, the age at which a child’s performance peaked was considered his or her

Question 13 Regarding research on the Whorfian hypothesis, which of the following statements is TRUE?

Question 14 All but which of the following are examples of phonemes?

Question 15 Regarding concepts, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 16 Eric was tested at school for entry into the gifted program. It is likely that Eric scored at least _____ on his intelligence test.

Question 17 According to the text, thinking is defined as

Question 18 As cited in the text, many of Albert Einstein’s creative insights involved the use of

Question 19 Regarding intelligence, psychologists have long argued about all but which of the following?

Question 20 Who adapted the Binet­Simon Intelligence Test for American use and established norms for the test?

 

Question 1 Which group is predicted to have the most highly correlated IQ scores?

Question 2 Samuel faces the challenge of intellectual disability. He has been working as a cashier in a convenience store for several years. He has learned to do relatively simple arithmetic as it applies to his job, and he can read well enough to understand the daily newspaper, but he cannot easily go beyond these tasks. Samuel is best described as having _____.

Question 3 Language consists of _____ basic components, and they are called ______.

Question 4 A deviation IQ is an IQ score based on

Question 5 According to the text, creative problem solving begins with

Question 6 According to the text, which of the following definitions best describes intelligence?

Question 7 A woman who sticks to her belief that her husband is not abusive and discounts evidence of his abusive behavior may be demonstrating

Question 8 In Gardner’s model, interpersonal intelligence is defined as the ability to

Question 9 The fact that Rosa has very good “people skills” but is not particularly adept at linguistic skills is best accounted for by _____.

Question 10 Scientists believe that ape communication through gesturing represents

Question 11 Cognitive psychologists are likely to study all but which of the following topics?

Question 12 Functional fixedness is

Question 13 Gardner describes intelligence as being composed of

Question 14 Among these individuals, who would be considered the earliest pioneer in the field of intelligence testing?

Question 15 Whose theory of intelligence has had a particularly strong influence on the field of education?

Question 16 Which of Sternberg’s types of intelligence is typically measured in traditional tests of intelligence?

Question 17 What are the smallest units of meaning in a language?

Question 18 The rules governing the meaning of words are called

Question 19 Helena takes the subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Adults (WAIS). She will take all but which of the following?

Question 20 Francesca has very high levels of linguistic intelligence. The model of multiple intelligences suggests that Francesca might be best suited to be a(n)

 

Martin looks at his class syllabus and notices that his professor will lecture today on the work of Noam Chomsky. What is most likely to be the focus of the lecture?

Regarding thinking and mental imagery, which of the following statements is FALSE?

The rules governing the meaning of words are called

Dr. Fabiano wishes to assess the reliability of an intelligence test he recently developed. Fabiano chooses the test-retest method of assessing reliability. What will Dr. Fabiano have to do?

Which cognitive bias best describes our tendency to judge people based on first impressions?

Dr. Gregor’s research focuses on decision-making and problem solving. Gregor is probably a(n) ______ psychologist

The Binet-Simon test of intelligence was brought to the U.S. and translated into English by

Which of the following are considered nonlinguistic forms of communication?

A deviation IQ is an IQ score based on

Regarding human language development, which of the following statements is FALSE?

School psychologist Miguel Blackstone sometimes is called upon to administer the Alternate Uses Test. Which of the following is Blackstone measuring?

 

1. Dr. Gregor's research focuses on decision making and problem solving. Dr. Gregor is probably what type of psychologist?

a) Environmental

b) Social

c) Physiological

d) Cognitive

e) Health

2. Cognitive psychologists are likely to study which of the following topics?

a) Social relationships

b) Life span development

c) Genetics

d) Mental illness

e) Information processing

3. One difference between a seen image and one that is imagined is that

a) they activate different parts of the visual cortex.

b) imagined images are less likely to be stored in long-term memory.

c) seen images are more likely to stimulate creative thinking.

d) only imagined images can be manipulated.

e) only seen images facilitate thought processes.

4. The mental representation and manipulation of information is

a) learning.

b) memory.

c) cognition.

d) thinking.

e) perception.

5. A mental image of an event is most like which of the following?

a) A photograph

b) A mirror image

c) A reconstruction

d) An abstraction

e) A video recording

6. Compared to men, women

a) report less vivid images.

b) use more visual imagery to remember past events.

c) are less skilled in visually scanning a mental image.

d) more often use imagery in problem solving.

e) perform worse in forming still images of objects.

7. Which type of imagery is easiest to form?

a) Auditory

b) Tactile

c) Olfactory

d) Gustatory

e) Visual

8. Which of the following is the best definition of a concept?

a) A mental category used to group objects according to shared features

b) A rule of thumb for solving problems or making judgments

c) An original thought

d) A comparison between two things based on similar features

e) A system of communication composed of symbols and following particular rules

9. All of the following are functions of concepts EXCEPT:

a) To help us bring a sense of order to our world

b) To enable us to distinguish threatening from harmless stimuli

c) To help us respond more quickly to events

d) To reduce the need for new learning each time we encounter a familiar object or event

e) To enable us to manipulate mental images

10. Comparing the two types of concepts, logical is to ________ as natural is to ________.

a) intuitive; formal

b) subordinate; superordinate

c) superordinate; subordinate

d) fuzzy; clear

e) clear; fuzzy

11. Concepts defined by specific rules are called

a) natural concepts.

b) intuitive concepts.

c) regular concepts.

d) logical concepts.

e) superordinate concepts.

12. Which of the following is a logical concept?

a) Swimming

b) Jewelry

c) Freedom

d) Oxygen

e) Cereal

13. In the hierarchy of concepts presented in the text, the broadest category of concepts is labeled

a) superordinate.

b) ordinate.

c) subordinate.

d) basic-level.

e) hierarchical.

14. Which of the following best represents basic-level concepts?

a) Compact, French poodle, recliner

b) Car, dog, chair

c) Vehicle, animal, furniture

d) SUV, greyhound, love seat

e) Convertible, dachshund, folding chair

15. Which of the following tots' first word was a subordinate concept?

a) Little Camille's, who said, "Toy"

b) Little Eddie's, who said, "Bottle"

c) Little Harriet's, who said, "Blanket"

d) Little Michael's, who said, "Taxi"

e) Little Doris's, who said, "House"

16. People tend to most readily use

a) superordinate concepts.

b) subordinate concepts.

c) ordinate concepts.

d) basic-level concepts.

e) logical concepts.

17. Children learn to narrow and refine concepts through the use of

a) brainstorming.

b) the representativeness heuristic.

c) analogies.

d) incubation.

e) positive and negative instances.

18. In concept formation, a negative instance

a) can occur only at the subordinate level.

b) can occur only at the basic level.

c) can occur only at the superordinate level.

d) is an example that does not fit the concept.

e) exemplifies a concept.

19. Tyrone is learning to speak. He appeared to generate a negative instance of a concept when he referred to the

a) bottle as "Baba."

b) dog as "Doggie."

c) quilt as "Blanket."

d) mailman as "Dada."

e) toy train as "Choo choo."

20. Karen had been trying to solve a problem for several days, when she experienced a sudden awareness of the correct solution. Karen's experience is an example of

a) linguistic relativity.

b) conceptual expansion.

c) insight.

d) eugenics.

e) a mental set.

21. Köhler is to ________ as Thorndike is to ________.

a) problem solving; decision making

b) algorithms; heuristics

c) insight; trial and error

d) visual imagery; auditory imagery

e) positive instances; negative instances

22. A step-by-step series of rules for solving a problem is called

a) insight.

b) an algorithm.

c) a heuristic.

d) incubation.

e) an analogy.

23. What is the major drawback of algorithms?

a) They tend to lead to confirmation bias.

b) They cause people to rely on the same solutions over and over.

c) They can lead to faulty solutions.

d) They take too long to apply.

e) There may not be any that precisely applies to one's particular problem.

24. Chrissy relies on a rule of thumb to solve her problem. In scientific terms, Chrissy's strategy is called a(n)

a) algorithm.

b) heuristic.

c) natural concept.

d) logical concept.

e) analogy.

25. A heuristic is

a) a step-by-step process for solving a problem.

b) a sudden realization of the correct solution to a problem.

c) the most common type of logical concept.

d) a mental shortcut for solving a problem.

e) a trial-and-error or "hit-or-miss" approach to problem solving.

26. Which heuristic involves breaking a problem down into smaller, more manageable problems?

a) Insight heuristic

b) Backward-working heuristic

c) Creating subgoals

d) Means-end heuristic

e) Functional fixedness

27. After studying the human ear, Alexander Graham Bell applied the idea of a vibrating membrane in his design of the telephone. Which problem-solving strategy did Bell use?

a) Analogy

b) Algorithm

c) Means-end heuristic

d) Backward-working heuristic

e) Incubation

28. Shirley has been working for days on a very difficult crossword puzzle. She decides to set the puzzle aside for a day and come back later to solve the last few items that have eluded her. Which problem-solving technique is Shirley using?

a) Creating subgoals

b) An incubation period

c) A means-ends heuristic

d) A backwards-thinking heuristic

e) A representativeness heuristic

29. A mental set is a

a) type of means-ends heuristic.

b) tendency to rely on strategies that worked previously.

c) sudden awareness of a solution to a problem.

d) form of the backwards-thinking heuristic.

e) respite from active problem-solving efforts.

30. Functional fixedness is

a) the tendency to rely on strategies that have been successful in the past.

b) a type of means-ends heuristic.

c) the inability to see how familiar objects can be used in new ways.

d) a form of backward-thinking heuristic.

e) a respite from problem-solving efforts.

31. When people fail to solve the "box-candle" and "two-string" problems presented in the text, they are demonstrating

a) a means-end heuristic.

b) a backwards-thinking heuristic.

c) an incubation period.

d) functional fixedness.

e) low intelligence.

32. Dawn wanted some cereal. She looked in the cupboard and there were no clean bowls, just cups. Not being in the mood to wash a bowl, she left for work without breakfast. Dawn's failure to realize that she could use a cup to hold the cereal instead of a bowl demonstrates

a) trial and error.

b) insight.

c) a mental set.

d) a heuristic.

e) functional fixedness.

33. Which of the following best describes decision making?

a) Combining two or more concepts into one concept

b) Mentally representing and manipulating information

c) Conceiving of new ways to view situations or new uses for familiar objects

d) Developing new, workable products or solutions to problems

e) Selecting a course of action from a set of available alternatives

34. Celia is a juror at a trial. Based on her reading of newspapers, Celia has already decided that the defendant is guilty. She sticks to her decision even when the defense attorney presents strong contradicting evidence. Celia is demonstrating

a) functional fixedness.

b) a mental set.

c) confirmation bias.

d) an availability heuristic.

e) a representativeness heuristic.

35. A woman who sticks to her belief that her husband is not abusive and discounts evidence of his abusive behavior may be demonstrating

a) functional fixedness.

b) a mental set.

c) a representativeness heuristic.

d) an availability heuristic.

e) confirmation bias.

36. Which cognitive bias underlies our tendency to judge people on the basis of first impressions?

a) Confirmation bias

b) The representativeness heuristic

c) The availability heuristic

d) Framing

e) Functional fixedness

37. When you exhibit the representativeness heuristic, you assume that

a) a sample represents a larger population.

b) easily recalled examples represent more prevalent categories.

c) more people agree with you than actually do.

d) your point of view is unique.

e) an initial hypothesis is correct despite evidence against it.

38. Based on a few interactions with an ethnic group, Darnell has developed a stereotype of that group. Darnell is demonstrating

a) the representativeness heuristic.

b) divergent thinking.

c) the availability heuristic.

d) framing.

e) a mental set.

39. The tendency to base decisions on information that most readily comes to mind is

a) framing.

b) a mental set.

c) the availability heuristic.

d) the representativeness heuristic.

e) convergent thinking.

40. Most people assume there are more words in the English language that begin with the letter k than words that have the letter k in the third position. This may be because it is easier to think of words that begin with k and thus may be an example of

a) the availability heuristic.

b) the representativeness heuristic.

c) framing.

d) a mental set.

e) confirmation bias.

41. Framing is

a) assuming a sample is representative of a larger population.

b) basing decisions on how possible outcomes are phrased.

c) basing decisions on information that comes readily to mind.

d) the inability to see new uses for familiar objects.

e) comparing two items based on similar features or properties.

42. People will accept a bet in which they are told they have an 80 percent chance of winning. However, people are less likely to accept a bet in which they are told they have a 20 percent chance of losing. In reality, both bets are the same. This is an example of which cognitive bias?

a) Mental set

b) The representative heuristic

c) Functional fixedness

d) Confirmation bias

e) Framing

43. Which of the following statements is true about creativity?

a) Few people have the potential to be creative.

b) The more intelligent a person is, the more creative he or she is, as well.

c) Creativity makes more use of convergent thinking than of divergent thinking.

d) Creativity springs from expansion or alteration of familiar concepts.

e) There is no way to measure creativity.

44. Which of the following questions tests for divergent thinking?

a) If Dana is Maya's daughter and Maya is Nancy's aunt, how are Dana and Nancy related?

b) If there were no more clocks or watches, what would be the consequences?

c) If a train leaves the station at 2:00 P.M. and is traveling at 60 miles per hour, at what time will it reach the next station, which is 40 miles down the track?

d) If Johnny gets paid $5 for every lawn he rakes and he raked 24 this week, how much money did he make?

e) If a triangle has one angle that measures 30 degrees and another that measures 110 degrees, how many degrees does the third angle measure?

45. Divergent thinking is

a) conceiving of new ways of viewing situations and new uses for old objects.

b) maintaining an initial hypothesis despite contradictory evidence.

c) relying on previous successful strategies to solve a new problem.

d) making decisions based on how easily information comes to mind.

e) differentiating between positive and negative instances in refining concepts.

46. A major contributor to invention is

a) divergent thinking.

b) confirmation bias.

c) mental set.

d) functional fixedness.

e) framing.

47. Arnold tries to find the single correct solution to his problem. Which mental process is Arnold using?

a) Divergent thinking

b) A mental set

c) Functional fixedness

d) Convergent thinking

e) Metaphor

48. Guilford was a pioneer in the development of tests that measured

a) functional fixedness.

b) divergent thinking.

c) confirmation bias.

d) framing.

e) complexity.

49. A metaphor is a(n)

a) figure of speech that describes one concept as if it was another.

b) comparison between two things based on similarities.

c) comparison between two things based on differences.

d) figure of speech that contrasts one object or concept with another.

e) expansion of familiar concepts into new ones.

50. Aaron used a metaphor when he said,

a) "My book bag feels like a ton of bricks."

b) "My stomach is a rumbling volcano today."

c) "My little brother laughs like a hyena."

d) "My hair is still sticky from the gel I used last night."

e) "My mother has been nagging me all week."

51. The terms voice mail and text message represent which process underlying creative thinking?

a) Conceptual combination

b) Algorithm

c) Analogy

d) Metaphor

e) Conceptual expansion

52. Chef Josie Grossman takes her mother's recipe and adds new, never-used ingredients. Grossman creates a new culinary delight. Which aspect of creativity is this chef demonstrating?

a) Use of the representativeness heuristic

b) Use of metaphor

c) Use of analogy

d) Conceptual combination

e) Conceptual expansion

53. Research suggests that creativity results from the ________ of ________ categories or concepts.

a) careful analysis; relevant

b) expansion or modification; familiar

c) narrowing or limiting; broad

d) jettisoning; obsolete

e) differentiation; parallel

54. Wally is taking the Alternate Uses Test. Wally is being tested for which ability?

a) Visual imagery

b) Decision making

c) Convergent thinking.

d) Divergent thinking.

e) Concept formation

55. Discuss four type of problem-solving strategies.

56. In language, phonemes are to ________ as morphemes are to ________.

a) sound; meaning

b) meaning; sound

c) semantics; syntax

d) syntax; semantics

e) linguistics; grammar

57. How many morphemes are there in the word outsider?

a) One

b) Two

c) Three

d) Four

e) Eight

58. Which of the following words is composed of exactly two morphemes?

a) Late

b) Go

c) Unlikely

d) Farmers

e) Ironed

59. All of the following are phonemes EXCEPT

a) au.

b) g.

c) l.

d) o.

e) ed.

60. The English language has approximately how many phonemes?

a) 26

b) 40

c) 675

d) 30,000

e) 500,000

61. The word ball consists of ________ phoneme(s) and ________ morpheme(s).

a) one; three

b) two; one

c) three; one

d) one; two

e) four; two

62. What is the smallest unit of meaning in a language?

a) A phoneme

b) A morpheme

c) A semantic

d) A syllable

e) A letter of the alphabet

63. Javan's English teacher tells him, "Watch your syntax!" To what is Javan's teacher referring?

a) Word order

b) Word pronunciation

c) Vocabulary

d) Spelling

e) Word meaning

64. Which of the following is true about phonemes?

a) They are the smallest units of meaning in a language.

b) There are more of them than there are morphemes.

c) They are the same in every language.

d) They always sound the same.

e) They combine to form morphemes.

65. The rules governing the meaning of words are called

a) grammar.

b) syntax.

c) morphemes.

d) semantics.

e) linguistics.

66. The language acquisition device

a) is an innate mechanism in the brain for learning language.

b) is a behavioral tendency to attempt to use language.

c) consists of circumstances in the environment that support language development.

d) is a combination of biological and environmental influences on language development.

e) is the ability to use rules of syntax in everyday speech without awareness.

67. The sentence "The bus take I to school" violates the rules of

a) phonemes.

b) morphemes.

c) syntax.

d) semantics.

e) metaphors.

68. The language acquisition device was proposed by

a) Chomsky.

b) Pinker.

c) Whorf.

d) Premack.

e) Savage-Rumbaugh.

69. Norm and Bertha's baby daughter has just begun making cooing sounds. If her development is average, what age is she?

a) 1 week

b) 2 months

c) 3 months

d) 6 months

e) 10 months

70. Beginning the use of one-word phrases is typical for which age group?

a) 3 months

b) 6 months

c) 12 months

d) 15 months

e) 18 months

71. Brenda and Akin's son is able to imitate sounds and can understand some words. He has just begun saying single words. If his development is average, how old is he likely to be?

a) 6 months

b) 9 months

c) 12 months

d) 18 months

e) 21 months

72. What is the sequence for language development?

a) cooing, babbling, crying, one-word phrases, two-word phrases

b) crying, cooing, babbling, one-word phrases, two-word phrases

c) crying, babbling, cooing, one-word phrases, two-word phrases

d) crying, cooing, one-word phrases, babbling, two-word phrases

e) cooing, crying, babbling, one-word phrases, two-word phrases

73. Which of the following statements is true about language development?

a) The rules of grammar don't come naturally to children; they must be taught.

b) Language development varies in different parts of the world.

c) Language development requires both biological capacity and environmental exposure.

d) The language acquisition device is a physical structure located in the left hemisphere of the brain.

e) Language development occurs naturally, and parents cannot affect it one way or another.

74. What were the findings of the landmark study conducted by Eleanor Rosch with the members of a New Guinea tribe, whose language contains only two color names?

a) The Whorfian hypothesis was supported.

b) Because they lacked the vocabulary, the tribe members were unable to recognize most of the colors.

c) It was discovered that the tribe members appeared to be suffering from a rare form of colorblindness.

d) Even though they had no names for them, the tribe members were able to recognize all the colors.

e) Because their language was inadequate, the tribe members made up new words to describe the colors in the study.

75. The belief that language affects how we think was first developed by ________, and this idea is presented in the ________.

a) Chomsky; linguistic relativity hypothesis

b) Whorf; linguistic relativity hypothesis

c) Chomsky; language acquisition hypothesis

d) Sternberg; triarchic linguistic hypothesis

e) Whorf; language acquisition hypothesis

76. David Premack trained chimps to communicate using

a) plastic chips on a magnetic board.

b) American Sign Language.

c) grunts and chimpanzee hand gestures.

d) geometric symbols on a keyboard system.

e) a talking computer.

77. The linguistic relativity hypothesis states that

a) there are innate mechanisms in the brain associated with language learning.

b) there are environmental influences that are important for language learning.

c) the way we think affects the language we use.

d) the language we use determines the way we think.

e) differences in language do not affect our perception of reality.

78. What was the remarkable achievement of Kanzi, the pygmy chimpanzee?

a) He formed sentences by placing plastic chips on a magnetic board.

b) After learning 160 signs, he spontaneously combined them to make original sentences.

c) He learned to communicate using a keyboard just by watching his mother.

d) He demonstrated the ability to use complex syntax and correct grammatical structure.

e) He was the first nonhuman to use American Sign Language.

79. Koko was a gorilla taught to communicate by using

a) a simplified form of human speech.

b) American Sign Language.

c) a computer keyboard.

d) a set of plastic tokens.

e) geometric symbols.

80. Who developed an artificial language based on plastic chips and trained a chimp to communicate with these chips?

a) Beatrice and Allen Gardner

b) Noam Chomsky

c) Benjamin Whorf

d) Eleanor Rosch

e) David Premack

81. Your psychology professor says that apes can use language. What does she mean by this?

a) Apes can be trained to use syntax.

b) Apes can be trained to use grammar.

c) Apes can be trained to communicate through the use of symbols.

d) Apes can be taught a vocabulary comparable to that of a human adolescent.

e) Apes can be taught to read.

82. Scientists believe that the ________ that apes use in communicating with one another may hold clues to the origins of human language.

a) gestures

b) grunts

c) displays of aggression

d) lip smacking and other movements of the mouth

e) tongue displays

83. Describe the stages of language development.

84. Which of the following definitions best describes intelligence?

a) The process of mentally representing and manipulating information

b) A form of problem solving in which a person selects a course of action from the available alternatives

c) Originality of thought associated with the development of new, workable products or solutions

d) The ability to conceive of new ways of viewing situations and new uses for familiar objects

e) The capacity to think and reason clearly and to act purposefully and effectively in adapting to the environment

85. Who defined intelligence as "the global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with the environment"?

a) Alfred Binet

b) Lewis Terman

c) Robert Sternberg

d) David Wechsler

e) Theodore Simon

86. Initially, like many other scientists of his time, Binet thought that intelligence could be determined by

a) gauging reaction times.

b) looking into a person's eyes.

c) measuring head size.

d) using psychophysics.

e) noting the achievements of an individual's parents.

87. Which of the following questions might have appeared on Binet and Simon's first test of intelligence?

a) Who is the president of the United States?

b) What is the capital of France?

c) How many grams are there in a kilogram?

d) How many francs are there in this purse?

e) What is the area of a square whose side is equal to 5 centimeters?

88. Which of the following individuals would be considered the earliest pioneer in the field of intelligence testing?

a) Lewis Terman

b) Alfred Binet

c) Charles Spearman

d) Robert Sternberg

e) Howard Gardner

89. In his work on the measurement of intelligence, Binet was initially attempting to

a) identify intellectually gifted children.

b) identify children who would benefit from special education.

c) separate children who were below normal in IQ so they would not interfere with normal children's education.

d) determine which children had enough schooling to go to work.

e) measure intellectually superior individuals in support of eugenics.

90. In Binet's method of intelligence testing, the age at which a child's performance peaked was considered his or her

a) chronological age.

b) intelligence quotient.

c) mental age.

d) intellectual age.

e) deviation IQ.

91. Intelligence quotient (IQ) is defined as

a) mental age multiplied by chronological age and multiplied by 100.

b) mental age divided by chronological age and multiplied by 100.

c) mental age subtracted from chronological age and multiplied by 100.

d) chronological age subtracted from mental age and multiplied by 100.

e) mental age divided by chronological age and divided by 100.

92. Irene has a mental age of 8 and a chronological age of 10. Her IQ is

a) 180.

b) 125.

c) 80.

d) 18.

e) 108.

93. Pascal has a mental age of 15 and a chronological age of 20. Binet and Simon would have assigned him an IQ of

a) 35.

b) 75.

c) 125.

d) 133.

e) 150.

94. The Binet-Simon test of intelligence was brought to the United States and translated into English by

a) Terman.

b) Spearman.

c) Stanford.

d) Goddard.

e) Stern

95. In intelligence testing, norms are

a) control questions on IQ tests.

b) trial questions on IQ tests.

c) criteria for comparing an individual's IQ score with those of the general population.

d) minimum standards for performance on an IQ test.

e) the range of scores achieved by students with normal IQs.

96. Norms were first developed for the American version of the Binet-Simon test by

a) Terman.

b) Stanford.

c) Binet.

d) Simon.

e) Goddard.

97. The intelligence tests most widely used in America today were developed by

a) Theodore Simon.

b) Alfred Binet.

c) Lewis Terman.

d) David Wechsler.

e) Howard Gardner.

98. Which of the following statements is true about Wechsler's tests of intelligence?

a) Wechsler's tests are the second most widely used intelligence tests in the United States.

b) There are two forms, one for children under the age of 18 and the other for adults.

c) Wechsler scales are standardized so that an average score is set at 120.

d) The WAIS-III contains three groups of subtests: verbal, performance, and visual-spatial.

e) The Wechsler scales introduced the concept of the deviation IQ.

99. A deviation IQ is an IQ score based on

a) the ratio of mental age to chronological age.

b) typical IQ divided by grade in school.

c) typical IQ divided by age.

d) the difference of a person's test score from the norms for that person's age group.

e) the difference between a person's mental quotient and that person's intelligence quotient.

100. Which of the following is a performance subtest on the WAIS-III?

a) Digit Span

b) Letter-Number Sequencing

c) Comprehension

d) Similarities

e) Block Design

101. Elizabeth was told that her son Tommy received an average score on an IQ test. What is the range of possible scores for Tommy's IQ?

a) 99-101

b) 90-100

c) 100-110

d) 85-115

e) 80-120

102. The process of establishing norms for a test by giving it to large numbers of people is called

a) determining reliability.

b) determining validity.

c) standardization.

d) normalization.

e) determining predictability.

103. Third-grade teacher Vic

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