Question details

Liberty University PSYC 101 quiz 6 complete Answers | Rated A+
$ 14.00

Liberty University PSYC 101 quiz 6 complete Answers | Rated A+

Chapter 6

Question 1 Recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse are controversial because of all but which of the following reasons?

Question 2 ______ occurs when eyewitnesses are given incorrect data during the retention interval of memory.

Question 3 Regarding ideas about where memories are stored, the current belief is that

Question 4 Many psychologists think of human memory as a type of information processing system that has _____ basic processes that are called ______.

Question 5 When children are first learning the alphabet, they tend to be accurate on the ABCD portion and the WXYZ portion while making lots of mistakes in between. This represents the

Question 6 When questioning eyewitnesses, open­ended questions tend to _________ but tend to elicit _________.

Question 7 An organized knowledge structure reflecting one’s past experience and future expectations is called a

Question 8 Pedro has suffered a head injury that causes him to have no memory of the events preceding the injury. He is suffering from

Question 9 From a biological perspective, memories are most like which of the following?

Question 10 Regarding declarative memory, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 11 Which of the following psychologists is a leading expert on eyewitness testimony?

Question 12 Cells that “fire together, wire together.” This saying best captures the concept of

Question 13 The overall outcome of Lashley’s search for the engram was the

Question 14 Because of an accident he suffered last month, Jason suffers from anterograde amnesia. As a result, he may have trouble remembering _____.

Question 15 Which question is most likely to be associated with episodic memory?

Question 16 Flashbulb memories are most likely to be associated with

Question 17 Strengthening synaptic connections between neurons by repeated stimulation is known as

Question 18 Regarding research on forgetting and decay theory, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 19 In memory encoding, mental picture is to _____ as meaning is to _____.

Question 20 The idea that memory gradually disintegrates over time is the basis of

 

Question 1 Herman counts the number of times it takes to rehearse a list of nonsense syllables in order to memorize it. Then he counts the number of times it takes to relearn the list after a month has passed. Herman then calculates the difference between the number of times and determines the percentage gain he made between the two efforts at memorization. Herman uses this figure as a measure of memory retention. Which technique is Herman using?

Question 2 The _____ plays an important role in encoding emotional experiences, such as fear responses.

Question 3 While taking her psychology exam, Edith is certain that she knows who developed the forgetting curve. She remembers studying it, and she can get a vague picture of where the material is in her textbook. Edith’s certainty that she knows something, but inability to recall it is called

Question 4 By manipulating a particular gene in mice, scientists have been able to

Question 5 Where memory is concerned, the hippocampus _____.

Question 6 Many psychologists think of human memory as a type of information processing system that has _____ basic processes that are called ______.

Question 7 Regarding research on forgetting and decay theory, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 8 Regarding long­term memory, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 9 Jessica is participating in an experiment on memory. She has been asked to memorize a long list of word pairs. Once she has mastered the list, she will be asked a series of questions about which words were paired with each other. This is an example of a _____ test of memory.

Question 10 Cells that “fire together, wire together.” This saying best captures the concept of

Question 11 Lionel takes an exam in his French class. He is presented a word in English and asked to list the French equivalent. What type of memory task is Lionel completing?

Question 12 When it comes to retention, in general,

Question 13 Procedural memory is to ______ as declarative memory is to ______.

Question 14 Regarding implicit and explicit memory, which of the following statements is TRUE?

Question 15 According to constructionist theory, memories of life experiences may be described by all but which of the following?

Question 16 Grace knows how to tie a square knot and how to drive an automobile with a standard transmission. These are examples of

Question 17 Recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse are controversial because of all but which of the following reasons?

Question 18 Mark’s friends say he has a “photographic memory.” In scientific terms, Mark’s memory ability is described as

Question 19 Experts suggest that college students distribute their study sessions throughout the semester rather than preparing for exams by cramming. This means that college students should use which approach to memorization?

Question 20 Motivated forgetting is another name for

 

Question 1 Cells that “fire together, wire together.” This saying best captures the concept of

Question 2 A group of students make a presentation on theories of forgetting. Which student was assigned retrieval theory?

Question 3 Long­term potentiation involves _____.

Question 4 To make your studying more productive, your text suggests all but which of the following?

Question 5 Semantic memory is most analogous to a(n)

Question 6 The World Wide Web’s structure, which is organized in terms of a network of associated concepts, is based on which of the following?

Question 7 Flashbulb memories are most likely to be associated with

Question 8 Kandel found that the amount of neurotransmitters released into synapses involved in the gill withdrawal reflex _____ as the animal learned the conditioned response.

Question 9 Grace knows how to tie a square knot and how to drive an automobile with a standard transmission. These are examples of

Question 10 To learn the EGBDF musical scale, Rybeccah uses the saying “Every Good Boy Deserves Fudge.” Which mnemonic technique is Rybeccah using?

Question 11 Dr. Ohno conducts research on retrospective memory. Which type of memory will Ohno’s research participants be recalling?

Question 12 In contrast to maintenance rehearsal, elaborative rehearsal involves

Question 13 All of the following are categories of declarative memory EXCEPT

Question 14 Most people consider recognition tasks to be easier than recall tasks, possibly because _____.

Question 15 Even though she was only a toddler at the time, 45­year­old Jean has a vivid picture in her mind of her mother weeping when the television announced that President Kennedy had been assassinated. Jean’s experience is an example of which of the following?

Question 16 A retrieval cue is

Question 17 In his research on memory, Kandel demonstrated that

Question 18 Eric Kandel studied the formation of memories in the

Question 19 The major role of genes in memory may be their ability to control

Question 20 In memory, as time passes between learning and recall,

 

Question 1 _____ are memory circuits in the brain that consist of complicated networks of nerve cells.

Question 2 In a study reported in the text, African­American children were told stories in which light­ and dark­complexioned African­American characters were associated with either positive or negative attributes. When the children were asked to recall the stories, what happened?

Question 3 Which of the following psychologists is a leading expert on eyewitness testimony?

Question 4 What is the current status of research on memory­enhancing drugs?

Question 5 Dr. Ohno conducts research on retrospective memory. Which type of memory will Ohno’s research participants be recalling?

Question 6 All of the following are categories of declarative memory EXCEPT

Question 7 Experts suggest that college students distribute their study sessions throughout the semester rather than preparing for exams by cramming. This means that college students should use which approach to memorization?

Question 8 ______ is the system by which we retain information and bring it to mind.

Question 9 Even though she was only a toddler at the time, 45­year­old Jean has a vivid picture in her mind of her mother weeping when the television announced that President Kennedy had been assassinated. Jean’s experience is an example of which of the following?

Question 10 While Althea was filling out a job application, memory of her current address prevented her from accurately remembering her previous address. This is an example of

Question 11 When Jacques wants to learn a new concept, he attempts to connect it with previously existing knowledge. This is an example of

Question 12 In his studies of memory, Ebbinghaus found that ______ of the information was lost by the end of the first day after studying, and that ______ of the information was lost after a month had passed.

Question 13 Regarding research on forgetting and decay theory, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 14 When Louise told her friend about a book she had just read, she was able to provide a lot of details about the last several pages. This demonstrates the

Question 15 Kandel found that the amount of neurotransmitters released into synapses involved in the gill withdrawal reflex _____ as the animal learned the conditioned response.

Question 16 Regarding declarative memory, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 17 Sleep is important for which memory process?

Question 18 Flashbulb memories are most likely to be associated with

Question 19 Where memory is concerned, the hippocampus _____.

Question 20 According to constructionist theory, Gwendolyn’s negative stereotype of how Asians behave is an example of a(n)

 

Question 1 When Jacques wants to learn a new concept, he attempts to connect it with previously existing knowledge. This is an example of

Question 2 Which of the following suggests that long­term memory is organized in terms of an elaborate arrangement of associated concepts?

Question 3 The conversion of short­term memory into long­term declarative memory most likely involves the

Question 4 Why do students generally perform better on multiple­choice tests than on essay tests?

Question 5 Regarding research on forgetting and decay theory, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 6 Regarding eyewitness testimony, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 7 In retrograde amnesia,

Question 8 Regarding eidetic imagery, which of the following statements is TRUE?

Question 9 The major role of genes in memory may be their ability to control

Question 10 All but which of the following factors influence the reliability of eyewitness testimony?

Question 11 Grace knows how to tie a square knot and how to drive an automobile with a standard transmission. These are examples of

Question 12 The levels­of­processing theory explains the

Question 13 Dr. Ohno conducts research on retrospective memory. Which type of memory will Ohno’s research participants be recalling?

Question 14 The process of converting unstable, short­term memory into lasting, stable memories is called

Question 15 Because of an accident he suffered last month, Jason suffers from anterograde amnesia. As a result, he may have trouble remembering _____.

Question 16 When questioning eyewitnesses, open­ended questions tend to _________ but tend to elicit _________.

Question 17 Which student is taking a test that is a recognition task?

Question 18 In a free recall task, an individual is asked _____.

Question 19 The Ebbinghaus Forgetting Curve suggests that forgetting

Question 20 Tasha is studying for a test in geography. She has discovered that the word “HOMES” can help her remember the names of the Great Lakes. Tasha is using a(n) _____ to aid her memory.

 

1. The system by which we retain information and bring it to mind is called

a) sensation.

b) cognition.

c) learning.

d) memory.

e) perception.

2. Many psychologists conceptualize human memory as a type of information processing system that has three basic processes:

a) declarative, procedural, and explicit.

b) semantic, visual, and acoustic.

c) consolidation, elaboration, and rehearsal.

d) sensory, short-term, and long-term memory.

e) encoding, storage, and retrieval.

3. What is the order of processing in memory?

a) Storage, retrieval, encoding

b) Storage, encoding, retrieval

c) Encoding, storage, retrieval

d) Encoding, retrieval, storage

e) Retrieval, storage, encoding

4. Memory encoding that is based on meaning is called

a) association encoding.

b) semantic encoding.

c) acoustic encoding.

d) visual encoding.

e) verbal encoding.

5. Encoding that involves converting auditory signals into strings of recognizable sounds is called

a) vocal encoding.

b) internal encoding.

c) acoustic encoding.

d) sub-auditory encoding.

e) semantic encoding.

6. In memory encoding, mental picture is to ________ as meaning is to ________.

a) acoustic; semantic

b) semantic; visual

c) visual; acoustic

d) visual; semantic

e) semantic; acoustic

7. Which of the following best describes memory storage?

a) The process of retaining information in memory

b) The recognition and storage of sensory impressions

c) The process of accessing and bringing into consciousness information stored in memory

d) The lingering mental representations of a visual image

e) The process of converting information into a form that can be stored in memory

8. Remembering how many windows there are in your bedroom involves which type of memory encoding?

a) Acoustic

b) Eidetic

c) Echoic

d) Semantic

e) Visual

9. The ability to access stored information from memory often depends on the availability of ________ in one's present environment that are associated with the original learning and help jog one's awareness.

a) traces

b) phonological loops

c) retrieval cues

d) sensory registers

e) engrams

10. The best memory usually results from which type of encoding?

a) Verbal

b) Semantic

c) Acoustic

d) Visual

e) Echoic

11. Retrieval of memories is most successful when cues present at recall are similar to those present during the initial conversion of information into memory. This is referred to as which principle?

a) Encoding specificity

b) Serial position

c) Primacy

d) Chunking

e) Recency

12. The encoding specificity principle suggests that things

a) that are learned first are remembered better than things that are learned later.

b) that are learned later are remembered better than things that are learned first.

c) are remembered better when they are learned first and last.

d) are remembered better if cues during recall are similar to those present during learning.

e) are remembered better when large amounts of information are broken down into more manageable bits.

13. While Zubin was in the cheese section of a store, his wife called him on his cellular telephone to remind him to pick up some cantaloupe. By the time he got to the produce section, he had forgotten what he was supposed to pick up, only to remember it again when he walked through the cheese section. This is an example of

a) the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon.

b) context-dependent memory.

c) rehearsal.

d) semantic coding.

e) chunking.

14. Information is better recalled in the situation in which it was originally learned. This phenomenon is termed

a) memory without awareness.

b) retrieval-induced forgetting.

c) directed forgetting.

d) the context-dependent memory effect.

e) echoic memory.

15. Godden and Baddeley conducted research showing that swimmers who learned material on the beach were better able to recall the material when tested on the beach than when immersed in water. This effect was an example of

a) the semantic encoding principle.

b) role-specific rehearsal.

c) context-dependent memory.

d) state-dependent memory.

e) chunking.

16. A retrieval cue is a(n)

a) experimental task in which subjects are presented with a stimulus that primes them to respond in a particular way.

b) process for enhancing retention of information by breaking the information into smaller, more easily recalled chunks.

c) lingering mental representation of a sound.

d) lingering mental representation of a visual image.

e) stimulus associated with original learning that helps jog one's memory.

17. People have superior recall for material if they are in the same physiological or psychological condition as when they learned it. This is known as

a) state-dependent memory.

b) context-dependent memory.

c) short-term memory.

d) internal memory.

e) iconic memory.

18. When did Kenny experience the state-dependent memory effect?

a) When he studied for a history test while listening to music and could not remember all the facts of the Civil War until he listened to the same CD

b) When he saw a horror movie and couldn't get one of the violent scenes out of his mind

c) When he was sad and left his cell phone on top of the TV set and didn't remember to look for it there until the next time that he was sad

d) When he couldn't remember the name of the professor he had the year before in psychology, although he was sure the name began with a "C" and had three syllables

e) When he was introduced to his girlfriend's uncle in the restaurant and couldn't remember his name until they met again in the same restaurant

19. The context-dependent memory effect would lead us to expect that Barrie, the victim of a mugging, would be able to best recall details of the crime at which location?

a) At the police station, where he can think most clearly

b) At the scene of the crime, where he had the experience

c) At home, where he feels most secure

d) In his lawyer's office, where he feels most supported

e) None of the above; recall is not influenced by location

20. A memory storage system that contains memory of impressions for a very brief time (a few seconds or less) is called

a) short-term memory

b) limited memory.

c) sensory memory.

d) temporary memory.

e) echoic memory.

21. The storage device of sensory memory is called the

a) phonological loop.

b) consolidation register.

c) temporary storage center.

d) sensory register.

e) semantic network.

22. In sensory memory, auditory stimuli are to ________ memory as visual stimuli are to ________ memory.

a) eidetic; iconic

b) iconic; echoic

c) echoic; iconic

d) acoustic; semantic

e) semantic; acoustic

23. Iconic memory is a type of

a) short-term memory.

b) visual sensory memory.

c) auditory sensory memory.

d) visual limited memory.

e) working memory.

24. Echoic memory differs from iconic memory in that

a) it is more fleeting.

b) it is a type of photographic memory

c) it is longer-lasting

d) only iconic memory is stored in the sensory register.

e) only iconic memories can be transferred to short-term memory.

25. Which of the following statements is true about eidetic imagery?

a) Eidetic images are perceived as clearly as actual photographs.

b) Eidetic imagery usually disappears by age five.

c) Eidetic imagery is more common in adults than in children.

d) About 20 percent of children have eidetic imagery.

e) Eidetic imagery is more commonly known as photographic memory.

26. Mark's friends say he has a "photographic memory." When Mark tries to recall a page in the textbook, the memory can be described as

a) blurred.

b) quite vivid.

c) clear as a photograph of the page.

d) grainy.

e) largely inaccurate.

27. A form of visual memory in which a visual image is recalled in such vivid detail that it is as if the person recalling it is still looking at the original image is termed

a) eidetic imagery.

b) long-term potentiation.

c) echoic memory.

d) flashbulb memory.

e) retrospective memory.

28. Which of the following statements is true about short-term memory?

a) Short-term memory has an unlimited capacity.

b) Short-term memory makes use of semantic coding.

c) Short-term memory allows a person to process and retain sensory information for about two minutes.

d) Use of maintenance rehearsal can extend short-term memory.

e) Short-term memory relies more on visual coding than acoustic coding.

29. Short-term memory relies primarily on

a) kinesthetic coding.

b) acoustic coding.

c) semantic coding.

d) eidetic coding.

e) visual coding.

30. Working memory is conceptualized as the mind's

a) pencil.

b) sharpener.

c) blackboard.

d) camera.

e) tape.

31. The memory system that allows one to hold and mull over information in one's mind for brief periods of time is called

a) working memory.

b) the sensory register.

c) long-term memory.

d) echoic memory.

e) eidetic memory.

32. The capacity of short-term memory was investigated by

a) Loftus.

b) Sperling.

c) Baddeley.

d) Miller.

e) Tulving.

33. The "Magic 7" refers to the

a) duration of sensory memory.

b) capacity of short-term memory.

c) capacity of sensory memory.

d) duration of short-term memory.

e) encoding modalities of long-term memory.

34. What is the capacity of a person's short-term memory?

a) about 2–3 items

b) about 5–9 items

c) about 11–14 items

d) about 15–20 items

e) an unlimited number of items

35. The process of breaking a large amount of information down into smaller pieces to make it easier to recall is termed

a) maintenance rehearsal.

b) elaborative rehearsal.

c) a full-report technique.

d) a partial-report technique.

e) chunking.

36. Sean stopped outside his professor's office to check on the answers to a quiz. When he began to write the answers down, his pen ran out of ink. He repeated the last four answers to himself while he rushed to his dormitory room to write them down. This is an example of

a) maintenance rehearsal.

b) elaborative rehearsal.

c) whole rehearsal.

d) partial rehearsal.

e) chunking.

37. Maintenance rehearsal is

a) synonymous with chunking.

b) consciously repeating information over and over again.

c) connecting to-be-remembered information with already-stored information.

d) synonymous with whole rehearsal.

e) picturing an object, pattern, or image in your mind.

38. When school kids say the Pledge of Allegiance, they break its one long sentence into twelve unvarying parts to make it easier to remember ("I pledge allegiance//to the flag//of the United States//of America//and to the republic//..."). This demonstrates which of the following?

a) Chunking

b) Maintenance rehearsal

c) Consolidation

d) The encoding specificity principle

e) Massed practice effects

39. The four-component model of working memory consists of the phonological loop, the visuospatial sketchpad, the episodic buffer, and the

a) audio receiver.

b) office assistant.

c) central executive.

d) movement coordinator.

e) memory overseer.

40. Michele's car hit a truck that stopped short in front of her on the expressway. When the truck suddenly started and began to speed away, Michele concentrated on retaining a visual image of the truck so that she would be able to describe it to the police. Which part of the four-component model of working memory was actively processing her information?

a) The episodic buffer

b) The central executive

c) The audio receiver

d) The visuospatial sketchpad

e) The phonological loop

41. Which component of working memory stores speech-based material?

a) Central executive

b) Visuospatial sketchpad

c) Episodic buffer

d) Phonological loop

e) Semantic switchboard

42. In the four-component model of working memory, visual is to ________ as verbal is to ________.

a) episodic buffer; visuospatial sketchpad

b) phonological loop; central executive

c) visuospatial sketchpad; phonological loop

d) episodic buffer; central executive

e) central executive; episodic buffer

43. In the four-component model of working memory, which component is best described as "the boss"?

a) The central executive

b) The visuospatial sketchpad

c) The phonological loop

d) The system manager

e) The episodic buffer

44. In the four-component model of working memory, what is true about the "slaves"?

a) There are two of them.

b) They work independently of each other.

c) They are called slaves because they work around the clock even when we're dreaming.

d) They do the bidding of long-term memory.

e) Only one "slave" component can be active at a time.

45. The four-component model of working memory suggests that which of the following pairs of tasks would interfere LEAST with one another?

a) reading a paragraph while trying to remember a string of numbers

b) scanning a visual display to locate a square surrounded by circles while thinking about the route you drive home each night

c) humming a tune to yourself while changing lanes on the highway

d) reading a paragraph while trying to remember a string of letters

e) listening to the radio while discussing the day's stock market results

46. Evelyn is baking a cake. She gingerly opens the oven door to try to decide whether the cake is ready. Based on the way the cake looks and the aroma emanating from it, Evelyn decides that it is. Which part of the four-component model of working memory allowed her to integrate the visual image of the cake with the olfactory information to make that instantaneous decision?

a) The central executive

b) The episodic buffer

c) The phonological loop

d) The modality linker

e) The visuospatial sketchpad

47. The process of converting unstable, short-term memory into lasting, stable memories is called

a) transduction.

b) maintenance rehearsal.

c) elaborative rehearsal.

d) consolidation.

e) chunking.

48. Which type(s) of sleep play(s) an important role in the consolidation of daily experiences into long-term memories?

a) REM sleep only

b) deep, slow-wave sleep only

c) light sleep only

d) both light sleep and REM sleep

e) both deep, slow-wave sleep and REM sleep

49. Compared to short-term memory, long-term memory relies ________ on semantic coding and ________ on acoustic coding.

a) more; less

b) less; more

c) less; less

d) more; more

e) more; just about the same

50. When Jacques wants to learn a new concept, he attempts to connect it with previously existing knowledge. This is an example of

a) elaborative rehearsal.

b) maintenance rehearsal.

c) executive rehearsal.

d) consolidation.

e) encoding specificity.

51. When Agnes hears the word banana, she automatically thinks of concepts such as yellow, monkeys, and fruit. This may be a demonstration of

a) consolidation.

b) elaborative processing.

c) the semantic network model.

d) maintenance rehearsal.

e) chunking.

52. Which model suggests that long-term memory is organized in terms of an elaborate arrangement of associated concepts?

a) The semantic network model

b) The constructionist model

c) The three-stage model

d) The levels-of-processing model

e) The three-component model

53. The World Wide Web's design, with its elaborate structure of interlinking concepts, is based on which model of memory?

a) Three-component model

b) Constructionist model

c) Levels-of-processing model

d) Semantic network model

e) Three-stage model

54. The semantic network model proposes a process in which thinking of a concept leads to a rippling effect that triggers other related concepts. That process is called

a) consolidation.

b) spreading activation.

c) neuronal networking.

d) serial position.

e) savings.

55. The levels-of-processing model explains the

a) interaction among the three components of working memory.

b) organization of the semantic network model.

c) superiority of elaborative rehearsal to maintenance rehearsal.

d) encoding specificity principle.

e) process of consolidating memories during sleep.

56. Which of the following statements is true about Tim Berners-Lee?

a) He introduced his invention in the mid-1980s.

b) He originally thought about naming his invention "Mess."

c) He got the idea for his invention from his father's mathematics books.

d) He modeled his invention on the workings of the human brain.

e) He is a psychologist.

57. Who invented the World Wide Web?

a) George Miller

b) Tim Berners-Lee

c) Bill Gates

d) Hermann Ebbinghaus

e) Elizabeth Loftus

58. Procedural memory is to ________ as declarative memory is to ________.

a) knowing how; knowing that

b) knowing that; knowing how

c) knowing when; knowing who

d) knowing that; knowing who

e) knowing how; knowing who

59. Which of the following statements is true about declarative memory?

a) Declarative memory is a type of memory stored in short-term memory.

b) Declarative memory is memory of facts and personal information.

c) Declarative memory involves motor or performance skills that cannot be verbalized.

d) Declarative memory is described as implicit.

e) Declarative memory operates largely unconsciously.

60. Declarative memory is also known as

a) procedural memory.

b) demonstrative memory.

c) semantic memory.

d) explicit memory.

e) implicit memory.

61. June recalled a procedural memory when she remembered

a) that she saw the tiger in the zoo last month.

b) who gave her her favorite birthday present, the doll with the braids.

c) how to play "Chopsticks" on the piano.

d) why she was not supposed to play with her mother's makeup.

e) where she left her mittens.

62. Which of the following best describes retrospective memory?

a) Memory of past experiences or events and previously acquired information

b) Memory of how to do things that require motor or performance skills

c) Photographic memory

d) Memory of things one plans to do in the future

e) Memory accessed without conscious effort

63. Another name for episodic memory is

a) semantic memory.

b) prospective memory.

c) retrospective memory.

d) procedural memory.

e) autobiographical memory.

64. Your general world information (e.g., state capitals, U.S. presidents, etc.) is stored in

a) episodic memory.

b) semantic memory.

c) prospective memory.

d) retrospective memory.

e) short-term memory.

65. Keiko knows that Salt Lake City is the capital of Utah and that George Washington was the first president of the United States. This information is stored in

a) procedural memory.

b) declarative memory.

c) historical memory.

d) representative memory.

e) prospective memory.

66. Cynthia's retrospective memory was displayed when she recalled

a) how to ice skate effortlessly, after a period of three years.

b) every word on the page of a book after looking at it briefly.

c) that Bismarck was the capital of North Dakota.

d) how to assemble the juicer, even though she had lost the instruction manual.

e) that she was going to start a new dance class a week from next Tuesday.

67. Which question is most likely to be associated with episodic memory?

a) Who wrote The Catcher in the Rye?

b) Where did I go on my first date?

c) What time is my appointment with the dentist next week?

d) Who was the first astronaut to walk on the moon?

e) Which courses will I take in my next semester of college?

68. Morty says, "It's time to take my medication." Which type of memory has Morty relied on in this example?

a) Retrospective memory

b) Prospective memory

c) Autobiographical memory

d) Episodic memory

e) Semantic memory

69. Paula's procedural memory told her

a) who was having a party that night.

b) how to use makeup to conceal the blemish on her cheek.

c) where she put her gold watch.

d) what time her date was due to arrive.

e) why her parents wanted her to be home before midnight.

70. Grace knows how to tie a square knot and how to drive an automobile with a standard transmission. These are examples of

a) declarative memory.

b) semantic memory.

c) procedural memory.

d) functional memory.

e) episodic memory.

71. Which of the following statements is true about procedural memory?

a) Procedural memory is used when we need to consciously recall a set of procedures to be followed in completing a task.

b) Procedural memories are easily verbalized.

c) Procedural memory is related to implicit memory.

d) Procedural memory involves personal experiences.

e) Procedural memory is a type of short-term memory.

72. Implicit memory can be demonstrated through the use of

a) free recall.

b) priming tasks.

c) semantic network models.

d) levels of processing.

e) forgetting curves.

73. One difference between declarative memory and procedural memory is that

a) declarative memory has to do with "knowing how," whereas procedural memory has to do with "knowing that."

b) declarative memories are implicit, whereas procedural memories are explicit.

c) declarative memories are semantic or episodic, whereas procedural memories are retrospective or prospective.

d) declarative memories are easy to verbalize, whereas procedural memories are not.

e) declarative memory is short-term, whereas procedural memory is long-term.

74. The view that memory is based on recreating the past rather than passively storing the past is called

a) semantic network theory.

b) encoding specificity theory.

c) context-dependent memory.

d) constructionist theory.

e) levels-of-processing theory.

75. An organized knowledge structure reflecting one's past experience and future expectations is called a(n)

a) engram.

b) mnemonic.

c) memory schema.

d) episodic buffer.

e) reconstruction.

76. Gwendolyn's negative stereotype of how Asians behave is an example of a

a) prospective memory.

b) retrospective memory.

c) memory schema.

d) semantic network model.

e) priming task.

77. According to constructionist theory,

a) memories are never accurate reflections of events.

b) memories are more like realistic paintings than impressionist paintings.

c) memories are carbon copies of reality.

d) memory is better when an event coincides with one's set of beliefs.

e) memories are accurate, but, like cameras, they have a point of view.

78. In a study reported in the text, African American children were told stories in which light- and dark-complexioned African American characters were associated with either positive or negative attributes. The children were then asked to recall the stories. What were the results?

a) The children remembered more stories in which the light-complexioned characters had negative attributes and the dark-complexioned characters had positive attributes.

b) The children remembered more stories in which the light-complexioned characters had positive attributes and the dark-complexioned characters had negative attributes.

c) The children preferred stories in which the light-complexioned characters had positive attributes and the dark-complexioned characters had negative attributes.

d) The children preferred stories in which the light-complexioned characters had negative attributes and the dark-complexioned characters had positive attributes.

e) The children were able to remember all stories equally well, regardless of the attributes assigned to the characters.

79. Compared to other long-term memories, flashbulb memories are

a) less vivid and less accurate.

b) more vivid and more accurate.

c) more vivid and just as inaccurate.

d) less vivid and more accurate.

e) more vivid and less accurate.

80. Even though she was only a toddler at the time, 45-year-old Jean has a vivid picture in her mind of her mother weeping when the television announced that President Kennedy had been assassinated. Jean's experience is an example of which phenomenon?

a) Retrograde amnesia

b) Tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon

c) Long-term potentiation

d) Misinformation effect

e) Flashbulb memory

81. What is true about flashbulb memories?

a) They are more accurate than ordinary memories.

b) Prolonged or extreme stress is liable to produce vivid flashbulb-type memories.

c) Flashbulb memories are emotionally charged.

d) Flashbulb memories are never accurate.

e) Flashbulb memories tend to fade after a couple of months.

82. Wanda suffered for a long time while in an abusive, stressful relationship. After she and her boyfriend broke up, she did not have vivid memories of those three years. Instead, the stress hormones released by her ________ gland(s) dampened her memories.

a) pancreas

b) adrenal

c) thyroid

d) pituitary

e) parathyroid

83. Elizabeth Loftus had subjects view a film of a car accident involving a stop sign. One group was misinformed and told that the sign was a yield sign. Later, when both groups were asked to describe what they saw, the misinformed group

a) was more likely to say they saw a yield sign.

b) tended to recall many more correct details about the accident.

c) reported less confidence in their ability to recall.

d) stubbornly stuck to their memory of having seen a stop sign

e) recalled many additional false "facts" about the accident.

84. Which of the following statements is true about eyewitness testimony?

a) Eyewitness testimony is often flawed and full of errors.

b) Eyewitnesses are more likely to make mistakes when identifying members of their own race than when identifying members of another race.

c) Eyewitness confidence in their testimony is strongly related to the accuracy of their testimony.

d) People who take longer to answer questions in giving testimony are more likely to be accurate than those who respond quickly.

e) Average-looking people are more likely to be accurately remembered and identified than unattractive looking people.

85. Five friends witnessed a store robbery. Who is likely to be the most accurate eyewitness?

a) Pia, who is the only one of the five who is of a different race than the perpetrator

b) Ben, who answers the police's questions after taking a long time to think about each one

c) Celia, who used to work in a store similar to the clothing store that was robbed

d) Anthony, who is the only one of the five being asked suggestive questions by the rookie policeman

e) Valerie, who is the only one of the five who considered the perpetrator to be just average-looking

86. In investigative questioning, how do leading questions and open-ended questions compare?

a) Open-ended questions lead to more accuracy but fewer details than leading questions.

b) Open-ended questions lead to more accuracy and more details than leading questions.

c) Leading questions lead to more accuracy but fewer details than open-ended questions.

d) Leading questions lead to more accuracy and more details than open-ended questions.

e) Both types of questions lead equally to many details but little accuracy.

87. Which of the following psychologists is a leading expert on eyewitness testimony?

a) Baddeley

b) Loftus

c) Lashley

d) Tulving

e) Miller

88. Which of the following calls into question the credibility of recovered memories of childhood abuse?

a) Research showing that false memories can be created under experimental conditions

b) Research showing that people who claim to be abuse victims tend to be dishonest

c) Research showing that hypnosis always heightens suggestibility to false memories

d) Research showing that the misinformation effect played a key role in several cases of false allegations

e) The horrific nature of the memories

89. What can we conclude about the validity of long-repressed memories of childhood abuse?

a) They are usually false memories.

b) It's not possible to tell which ones are true and which ones are false.

c) The ones that are uncovered under hypnosis are likely to be true.

d) They are mostly false because childhood sexual abuse is not that common.

e) They are probably true because those who are abused in childhood are apt to totally repress what happened to them.

90. Summarize the three-stage model of memory.

91. Among theories of forgetting, decay theory is also known as

a) retrieval theory.

b) savings theory.

c) trace theory.

d) fading theory.

e) constructionist theory.

92. The idea that memory gradually disintegrates over time is the basis of

a) decay theory.

b) interference theory.

c) retrieval theory.

d) encoding specificity.

e) disintegration theory.

93. One of Ebbinghaus's innovations was the use of what as study material for testing memory?

a) Uncommon adjectives

b) Calendar dates

c) Foreign words

d) Nonsense syllables

e) Abstract symbols

94. The Ebbinghaus Forgetting Curve suggests that forgetting

a) occurs slowly at first and then speeds up.

b) occurs uniformly over time.

c) occurs quickly at first and then slows down.

d) does not occur until at least 24 hours have passed.

e) is complete within the first few hours.

95. In his studies of memory, Ebbinghaus found that ________ of the information was lost by the end of the first day after studying and that ________ of the information was lost after a month had passed.

a) 22 percent; 66 percent

b) 33 percent; 66 percent

c) 33 percent; 80 percent

d) 66 percent; 80 percent

e) 66 percent; 99 percent

96. Herman counts the number of times it takes to rehearse a list of nonsense syllables in order to memorize it. Next he counts the number of times it takes to relearn the list after a month has passed. Herman then calculates the difference between these numbers of times and determines the percentage gain he made between the two efforts at memorization. Herman uses this figure as a measure of memory retention. Which technique is Herman using?

a) Savings method

b) Method of loci

c) Peg word system

d) Massed practice

e) Encoding specificity

97. Jeffrey crams for all of his exams. In scientific terms, Jeffrey's approach to memorization is called

a) spaced practice.

b) distributed practice.

c) massed practice.

d) delayed practice.

e) overlearning.

98. Experts suggest that college students should distribute their study sessions throughout the semester rather than preparing for exams by cramming. This means that college students should use which approach to memorization?

a) Spaced practice

b) Massed practice

c) Distributed learning

d) Delayed practice

e) Overlearning

99. Interference theory explains forgetting in terms of

a) inadequate retrieval cues.

b) lack of practice.

c) similarity of events.

d) encoding failure.

e) mental fatigue.

100. Proactive interference occurs when

a) older memories interfere with newer memories.

b) newer memories interfere with older memories.

c) more frequently experienced events interfere with less frequently experienced events.

d) less frequently experienced events interfere with more frequently experienced events.

e) items in the middle of a list interfere with memorizing the first and last items.

101. Wendy's forgetting was due to proactive interference when she

a) remembered what her scores were on the SATs that she took the year before, but not what her scores were on the PSATs that she took two years earlier.

b) recalled the names of the winners on her favorite reality show for the past two seasons but not the earlier ones.

c) couldn't remember her new best friend's cell phone number because she kept confusing it with her former best friend's cell phone number.

d) failed to remember her appointment with the dentist because unconsciously she wanted to miss it.

e) remembered the first and last items on her "to do" list, but not the one in the middle.

102. While Althea was filling out a job application, memory of her current address prevented her from accurately remembering her previous address. This is an example of

a) retrograde amnesia.

b) anterograde amnesia.

c) retroactive interference.

d) proactive interference.

e) the serial position effect.

103. The serial position effect occurs when people

a) remember the first things on a list but forget the last ones.

b) remember the last things on a list but forget the first ones.

c) remember the first and last things on a list better than the middle ones.

d) have difficulty remembering the first and last things on a list.

e) remember just about every other item on a list.

104. "I can count to ten," says 4-year-old Tiffany. "It goes like this: one, two, three, seven, six, nine, ten." Tiffany's counting exemplifies the

a) primacy effect.

b) recency effect.

c) serial position effect.

d) spaced practice effect.

e) alphabet effect.

105. In memory processes, the primacy effect results in

a) inferior memory for items at the beginning of a list.

b) inferior memory for items that were overlearned.

c) superior memory for items at the end of a list.

d) superior memory for items at the beginning of a list.

e) superior memory for items at both the beginning a

Available solutions
  • Liberty University PSYC 101 quiz 6 complete Answers | Rated A+
    $14.00

    Question 1 Recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse are controversial because of all but which of the fol

    Submitted on: 20 May, 2018 10:28:58 This tutorial has not been purchased yet .
    Attachment: Document.zip