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Liberty University PSYC 101 quiz 5 complete Answers | Rated A+
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Liberty University PSYC 101 quiz 5 complete Answers | Rated A+

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Chapter 5

Question 1

Of the following parents giving praise to their child, which is using the most effective strategy?

Question 2

Through classical conditioning, Alyce has developed a fear of mice. She also shows a fear response to gerbils and hamsters. Alyce is demonstrating

Question 3

Following extinction, a conditioned response can be learned again more quickly than it was learned originally. This process is called

Question 4

Compared to continuous reinforcement, partial reinforcement results in _______ learning that is _______ to extinguish.

Question 5

Watson investigated the classical conditioning of which type of responses?

Question 6

To achieve classical conditioning, you should pair

Question 7

Which of the following best describes the nature of learning?

Question 8

Regarding research on the classical conditioning of taste aversions, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 9

Through classical conditioning, Eduardo has developed a fear of dogs. However, he only fears large, longhaired dogs but not small, longhaired dogs or large, shorthaired dogs. Eduardo is demonstrating

Question 10

Observational learning is also referred to as

Question 11

Rico attends technical college where he is using technology to study for the GED. His computer guides Rico through an inventory of increasingly more challenging questions. If he answers correctly, the questions increase in challenge; if he answers incorrectly, the questions decrease in difficulty. Rico is using which application of operant conditioning?

Question 12

Which pattern best describes what happens once classical conditioning occurs?

Question 13

All but which of the following are primary reinforcers?

Question 14

Regarding classical conditioning, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 15

Following _____, a conditioned response may reappear. This process is known as ______.

Question 16

Researchers use the method of successive approximations in the process of

Question 17

Helena has learned that she gets motion sickness easily. If Helena takes medicine before a boat ride so she doesn’t get sea sick, she is demonstrating

Question 18

Researchers have been able to successfully condition immune system suppression by linking neutral stimuli with a(n)

Question 19

Which of the following represents an application of a cognitive perspective on classical conditioning?

Question 20

William has noticed that every time his dog sits quietly by his chair, he tends to scratch the dog’s ears. As a result, the dog usually sits quietly by William’s chair any time William sits in the chair. This is an example of

 

Question 1

Karl wishes to reinforce positive behavior in his fourthgrade students. After identifying the desired behaviors, what would be Karl’s next step?

Question 2

In a typical classical conditioning experiment by Pavlov, a buzzer or tone serves as a(n)

Question 3

A child receives a dime for, on average, every 5 dandelions he pulls from the yard. This is an example of a ______ schedule of reinforcement.

Question 4

Velma takes headache medicine to relieve pain. The medicine serves to remove the pain. This is an example of

Question 5

Which of the following does NOT belong?

Question 6

In classical conditioning, a conditioned response can weaken and eventually disappear. This is referred to as

Question 7

______ is a process by which two people in a relationship list the behaviors of the other that they would like changed, and then they agree to reinforce each other for making the changes.

Question 8

A reflexive reaction triggered by a stimulus is a(n)

Question 9

Following extinction, a conditioned response can be learned again more quickly than it was learned originally. This process is called

Question 10

Which of the following is the best definition of reinforcer?

Question 11

Which of the following can best be described as an example of latent learning?

Question 12

Through classical conditioning, Alyce has developed a fear of mice. She also shows a fear response to gerbils and hamsters. Alyce is demonstrating

Question 13

The Law of Effect was proposed by

Question 14

Your significant other gives you a compliment, and you smile at him/her. The probability that s/he will give you another compliment increases. This is an example of which type of learning?

Question 15

Compared to continuous reinforcement, partial reinforcement results in _______ learning that is _______ to extinguish.

Question 16

The process of learning in which the consequences of a response determine the probability that the response will be repeated is called

Question 17

Which of the following can best be described as an example of observational learning?

Question 18

Pavlov found that the strength of a conditioned response increased with the number of pairings of the

Question 19

Chris has been experiencing a number of problems on the job. In order to get away from his problems for a while, Chris regularly drinks heavily in the evening, after work. We can explain this behavior as a form of

Question 20

The systematic application of learning principles to help people overcome phobias is called ______ therapy.

 

Regarding classical conditioning, which of the following statements is FALSE?

“When in Rome, do as the Romans do,” underscores the importance of ______ in learning.

Of the following parents giving praise to their child, which is using the most effective strategy?

Every time her husband pays her a compliment, Sarah looks him in the eye and smiles at him. This is an example of

Rico attends technical college where he is using technology to study for the GED. His computer guides Rico through an inventory of increasingly more challenging questions. If he answers correctly, the questions increase in challenge; if he answers incorrectly, the questions decrease in difficulty. Rico is using which application of operant conditioning?

Skinner found that coincidental association of a behavior and a reinforcement may result in

A discriminative stimulus signals that

Regarding operant conditioning, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Modern psychologists refer to the first part of the Law of Effect as _____ and the second part as _____.

In a typical classical conditioning experiment by Pavlov, a buzzer or tone serves as a(n)

A puff of air to the eye causes a reflexive blink. If you precede the puff of air with a buzzer, eventually the buzzer will cause a blink. In this example, the puff of air is called the

______ is a process by which two people in a relationship list the behaviors of the other that they would like changed, and then they agree to reinforce each other for making the changes.

An acquired fear response is called

All but which of the following are primary reinforcers?

To which area of human behavior was Thorndike particularly excited about applying principles of animal learning?

Researchers use the method of successive approximations in the process of

Thorndike is to _____ as Skinner is to _______.

Which of the following best describes charted data for a variable interval schedule of reinforcement?

Who is most closely associated with the study of conditioned emotional reactions?

A researcher finds that rats avoid drinking from bottles in a room in which they had received exposure to radiation that subsequently made them ill. This demonstrates

 

Question 1 Amita was just grounded by her parents. She is not allowed to use her computer or cell phone, or watch television. Which method of punishment are Amita’s parents using?

Question 2 A clear connection between a behavior and a reinforcement is referred to as

Question 3 Pavlov found that the strength of a conditioned response increased with the number of pairings of the

Question 4 ______ is the systematic application of operant conditioning to strengthen adaptive behavior and weaken maladaptive behavior.

Question 5 A schedule of reinforcement in which the first response performed after a specific amount of time has passed is reinforced is called a

Question 6 The most surprising element in Garcia’s research on taste aversion was that

Question 7 Which of the following is an example of negative reinforcement?

Question 8 Although Hannah knows that praise strengthens desirable behavior in children, she is not sure what specific strategies she should use. Which of the following guidelines should Hannah follow?

Question 9 Cognitive learning involves

Question 10 Operant conditioning is also known as

Question 11 A puff of air to the eye causes a reflexive blink. If you precede the puff of air with a buzzer, eventually the buzzer will cause a blink. In this example, the puff of air is called the

Question 12 Pauline became ill after eating eggs contaminated with salmonella. She subsequently becomes nauseous whenever she sees eggs. This is an example of

Question 13 Most psychologists define learning as

Question 14 Increasing the number of pairings of the US and CS will

Question 15 Watson investigated the classical conditioning of which type of responses?

Question 16 Which of the following does NOT belong?

Question 17 Vlad receives $100 for every ten telemarketing calls he makes. This is an example of a ______ schedule of reinforcement.

Question 18 Which of the following is the best definition of spontaneous recovery?

Question 19 Mentally working through a problem until the sudden realization of the solution occurs is referred to as

Question 20 Who is most closely associated with the study of conditioned emotional reactions?

 

Question 1 Operant conditioning is also known as

Question 2 Regarding research on the classical conditioning of taste aversions, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 3 All but which of the following are examples of the application of principles of operant conditioning?

Question 4 Karen agrees to replace the toilet paper when it runs out if her roommate, Susan, will wash her dirty dishes every evening after dinner. This is an example of

Question 5 Regarding observational learning, which of the following is FALSE?

Question 6 An “Open” sign in the window of a store that tells Ivan he can go in to purchase a beverage he finds particularly reinforcing. In this example, the sign serves as a

Question 7 Helena has learned that she gets motion sickness easily. If Helena takes medicine before a boat ride so she doesn’t get sea sick, she is demonstrating

Question 8 Regarding classical conditioning, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 9 Classical conditioning is best described as learning by

Question 10 Researchers have been able to successfully condition immune system suppression by linking neutral stimuli with a(n)

Question 11 The Law of Effect was proposed by

Question 12 Dr. Emmanuel demonstrates a typical Pavlovian conditioning experiment for his psychology class. Emmanuel pairs a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus and then asks the class, “What is the neutral stimulus called now?” The correct answer is

Question 13 When Salina was a young girl, a dog viciously attacked her as she was walking along a white picket fence. Since then, she displays intense fear of white picket fences. Salina is demonstrating

Question 14 Regarding operant conditioning, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 15 Which of the following can best be described as an example of latent learning?

Question 16 Classical conditioning can explain the development of all of the following EXCEPT

Question 17 Regarding Rescorla’s views on classical conditioning, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 18 Psychologist Albert Bandura believes that children learn aggression through

Question 19 Under which condition would Watson’s experiments on classical conditioning be replicated today?

Question 20 Regarding characteristics that influence conditioned responses, which of the following statements is FALSE?

 

Question 1 Cognitive learning involves

Question 2 In the classic latent learning experiments described in your text, it appears that the rats developed a mental representation of the maze. Researchers call this mental representation a

Question 3 Watson investigated the classical conditioning of which type of responses?

Question 4 Classical conditioning can explain the development of all of the following EXCEPT

Question 5 Chris has been experiencing a number of problems on the job. In order to get away from his problems for a while, Chris regularly drinks heavily in the evening, after work. We can explain this behavior as a form of

Question 6 Who is most closely associated with the study of conditioned emotional reactions?

Question 7 In an example reported in your text, a man was trapped behind a refrigerator and nearly suffocated. Subsequently, he has a phobia of tight, enclosed spaces and is afraid to ride on small, crowded elevators. However, he has no fear of large, uncrowded elevator rides. The man’s fear of small elevators is an example of ______, and his lack of fear toward large elevators is an example of _______.

Question 8 Compared to continuous reinforcement, partial reinforcement results in _______ learning that is _______ to extinguish.

Question 9 A discriminative stimulus signals that

Question 10 Primary reinforcers are

Question 11 ______ is the systematic application of operant conditioning to strengthen adaptive behavior and weaken maladaptive behavior.

Question 12 Most psychologists define learning as

Question 13 Psychologist Albert Bandura believes that children learn aggression through

Question 14 Which of the following can best be described as an example of observational learning?

Question 15 Vlad receives $100 for every ten telemarketing calls he makes. This is an example of a ______ schedule of reinforcement.

Question 16 When two­year­old Clarice was playing in the basement, a large burst of thunder scared her at the same time she saw a spider. Now Clarice has a spider phobia. Clarice’s experience is an example of which type of learning?

Question 17 Which of the following is the best definition of spontaneous recovery?

Question 18 Helena has learned that she gets motion sickness easily. If Helena takes medicine before a boat ride so she doesn’t get sea sick, she is demonstrating

Question 19 Which of the following best describes the nature of learning?

Question 20 A researcher finds that rats avoid drinking from bottles in a room in which they had received exposure to radiation that subsequently made them ill. This demonstrates

 

Question 1 Each of the following describes a form of cognitive learning EXCEPT

Question 2 Caroline has an “Aha!” experience when solving a problem. Caroline most likely experienced which type of learning?

Question 3 When two-­year-­old Clarice was playing in the basement, a large burst of thunder scared her at the same time she saw a spider. Now Clarice has a spider phobia. Clarice’s experience is an example of which type of learning?

Question 4 Following his experience in the military, Hans developed a classically conditioned fear response to radio static. After he left the military, the response extinguished. However, after not hearing radio static for several months, Hans again shows the conditioned fear response. Hans’s experience is best described by

Question 5 Which of the following pairings is correct?

Question 6 In Pavlov’s studies of classical conditioning, the unconditioned stimulus was one that caused

Question 7 Regarding operant conditioning, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 8 Compared to continuous reinforcement, partial reinforcement results in _______ learning that is _______ to extinguish.

Question 9 In an application of classical conditioning principles reported in the text, how were sheep ranchers able to protect their sheep from coyotes?

Question 10 Classical conditioning is best described as learning by

Question 11 A reflexive reaction triggered by a stimulus is a(n)

Question 12 Which pattern best describes what happens once classical conditioning occurs?

Question 13 The Law of Effect was proposed by

Question 14 Which of the following is the best definition of reinforcer?

Question 15 Which of the following best describes the nature of learning?

Question 16 Regarding observational learning, which of the following is FALSE?

Question 17 In classical conditioning, a conditioned response can weaken and eventually disappear. This is referred to as

Question 18 In applying a cognitive perspective to explaining classical conditioning, a psychologist would emphasize the extent to which the CS __________ the US.

Question 19 Mr. Bonoir gives students stars on their homework when it is done well. A student can exchange 10 stars for a treat. This is a form of

Question 20 In Watson’s research with Little Albert, the rat began as the _____ and became the _____.

 

Question 1 Mr. Bonoir gives students stars on their homework when it is done well. A student can exchange 10 stars for a treat. This is a form of

Question 2 Through classical conditioning, Eduardo has developed a fear of dogs. However, he only fears large, longhaired dogs but not small, longhaired dogs or large, shorthaired dogs. Eduardo is demonstrating

Question 3 What is Rosalie Rayner’s role in the history of psychology?

Question 4 Dr. Emmanuel demonstrates a typical Pavlovian conditioning experiment for his psychology class. Emmanuel pairs a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus and then asks the class, “What is the neutral stimulus called now?” The correct answer is

Question 5 Shawn does extremely well on his spelling test in school. His father praises Shawn for this test score and tells him how smart he is, but he should be able to learn the next list of words even faster. Where giving praise is concerned, Shawn’s Dad needs to know about the principle of

Question 6 Regarding characteristics that influence conditioned responses, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 7 Modern psychologists refer to the first part of the Law of Effect as _____ and the second part as _____.

Question 8 Regarding classical conditioning, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 9 Which of the following pairings is correct?

Question 10 In the past three psychology labs, Liliya has been attempting to classically condition a lab rat. Her strategy has been to present the US and CS simultaneously. Which of the following should she do to strengthen the conditioned response of the rat?

Question 11 Pavlov found that the strength of a conditioned response increased with the number of pairings of the

Question 12 A “scalloped” response pattern is typical of which type of reinforcement schedule?

Question 13 In a typical classical conditioning experiment by Pavlov, a buzzer or tone serves as a(n)

Question 14 Helena has learned that she gets motion sickness easily. If Helena takes medicine before a boat ride so she doesn’t get sea sick, she is demonstrating

Question 15 Learning that occurs without apparent reinforcement and is not revealed in performance when it occurs is referred to as

Question 16 A puff of air to the eye causes a reflexive blink. If you precede the puff of air with a buzzer, eventually the buzzer will cause a blink. In this example, the puff of air is called the

Question 17 Rescorla applies a cognitive perspective in explaining classical conditioning. He focuses on the extent to which the CS __________ the US.

Question 18 Through classical conditioning, Alyce has developed a fear of mice. She also shows a fear response to gerbils and hamsters. Alyce is demonstrating

Question 19 Which researcher conducted investigations of latent learning with rats in mazes?

Question 20 Which of the following is the best definition of spontaneous recovery?

 

1. Learning is best defined as

a) any change in behavior.

b) any change in behavior due to maturation.

c) any change in behavior due to experience.

d) a relatively permanent change in behavior due to natural development.

e) a relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience.

2. Who first identified the form of learning called classical conditioning?

a) John Watson

b) Ivan Pavlov

c) John Garcia

d) B. F. Skinner

e) Robert Rescorla

3. Ivan Pavlov accidentally stumbled on classical conditioning while studying

a) insight learning in dogs.

b) operant conditioning in rats.

c) observational learning with children.

d) digestive processes of dogs.

e) conditioning responses in pigeons.

4. Regarding Ivan Pavlov, which of the following statements is true?

a) Pavlov trained in psychology in Russia.

b) Pavlov's discovery of classical conditioning was no accident.

c) Pavlov was studying the digestive system of rats when he discovered classical conditioning.

d) After discovering classical conditioning, Pavlov left the subject to others and returned to physiological studies.

e) Pavlov believed that the learned responses he observed in his research animals were reflexive.

5. Marcel sits in a cafe eating the best croissant he has ever tasted. He begins frequenting the cafe to order the croissants. He hardly notices the jingling of the cash register just before the clerk hands him the croissant. Now every time he hears the same kind of jingling from another cash register, his mouth waters. Marcel's learning is an example of

a) operant conditioning.

b) latent learning.

c) a conditioned taste aversion.

d) classical conditioning.

e) observational learning.

6. Annie's cat purrs reflexively whenever she strokes his fur. She does so only when she gets home from work and sits on the couch and turns on the TV to watch the news. One day, Annie turns on the TV news and the cat starts purring before she sits down to stroke his fur. Annie's cat has undergone

a) spontaneous recovery.

b) latent learning.

c) classical conditioning.

d) operant conditioning.

e) observational learning.

7. Learning in which a previously neutral stimulus becomes capable of triggering a reflexive response is called

a) operant conditioning.

b) classical conditioning.

c) instrumental conditioning.

d) stimulus-response learning.

e) spontaneous recovery.

8. Classical conditioning is best described as

a) learning by trial-and-error.

b) learning by association.

c) learning by stimulus-response.

d) instrumental conditioning.

e) learning by observation.

9. Classical conditioning occurs when a(n)

a) neutral stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.

b) conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.

c) neutral stimulus is paired with a conditioned response.

d) conditioned stimulus is paired with a conditioned response.

e) unconditioned stimulus is paired with a conditioned response.

10. A reflexive reaction triggered by an unconditioned stimulus is a(n)

a) conditioned response.

b) unconditioned response.

c) conditioned stimulus.

d) neutral response.

e) operant response.

11. In Pavlov's classical conditioning experiments, a buzzer or tone became the

a) conditioned response.

b) acquired stimulus.

c) unconditioned stimulus.

d) unconditioned response.

e) conditioned stimulus.

12. Pavlov found that the strength of a conditioned response increased with the number of pairings of the

a) CR and UR.

b) CS and US.

c) CS and CR.

d) CS and UR.

e) CR and US.

13. In classical conditioning, an unconditioned stimulus is one that causes a(n)

a) uncontrolled response.

b) controlled response.

c) unconditioned response.

d) conditioned response.

e) neutral response.

14. A neutral stimulus is one that

a) does not elicit an unconditioned response.

b) elicits an unconditioned response.

c) elicits a conditioned response.

d) elicits a controlled response.

e) returns spontaneously during spontaneous recovery.

15. In classical conditioning, if you combine a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus, the neutral stimulus will become a(n)

a) unconditioned stimulus.

b) conditioned stimulus.

c) controlled stimulus.

d) uncontrolled stimulus.

e) unconditioned response.

16. Samantha is a psychology major with a boyfriend named Lee. She likes everything about Lee except his penchant for watching old war movies. The movies make her yawn. One day, when Lee comes over, she starts to yawn before he puts the tape in the VCR. "Oh no!" she thinks to herself, "I've been classically conditioned and Lee is the

a) conditioned response."

b) conditioned stimulus."

c) unconditioned response."

d) unconditioned stimulus."

e) operant response."

17. A puff of air to the eye causes a reflexive blink. If you precede the puff of air with a buzzer, eventually the buzzer will cause a blink. In this example, the puff of air is the

a) unconditioned stimulus.

b) conditioned stimulus.

c) neutral stimulus.

d) unconditioned response.

e) conditioned response.

18. Which pattern best describes what happens once classical conditioning occurs?

a) UR elicits the US

b) CS elicits the CR

c) NS leads to no response

d) NS + US leads to UR

e) US + CS leads to UR

19. A puff of air to the eye causes a reflexive blink. If you precede the puff of air with a buzzer, eventually the buzzer will cause a blink. In this example, the buzzer begins as the ________ and eventually becomes the ________.

a) neutral stimulus; conditioned stimulus

b) conditioned stimulus; neutral stimulus

c) unconditioned stimulus; conditioned stimulus

d) neutral stimulus; unconditioned stimulus

e) unconditioned stimulus; neutral stimulus

20. Dr. Karaskopolis is a dentist specializing in the treatment of patients with fears of dental procedures. To help patients gradually reduce and eliminate their fears, Karaskopolis uses anesthetics and painless dental techniques. This is an example of which concept from classical conditioning?

a) Spontaneous recovery

b) Stimulus generalization

c) Stimulus discrimination

d) Extinction

e) Higher-order conditioning

21. Lydia sees a behavioral therapist to eliminate her fear of heights. After several sessions, Lydia is successful. A year later, however, Lydia's fear of heights suddenly returns. Lydia has experienced

a) higher-order conditioning.

b) spontaneous recovery.

c) stimulus generalization.

d) stimulus discrimination.

e) latent learning.

22. A conditioned response will weaken and eventually disappear if the CS is presented in the absence of the US. This is referred to as

a) spontaneous recovery.

b) generalization.

c) discrimination.

d) reconditioning.

e) extinction.

23. Which of the following is the best definition of spontaneous recovery?

a) The weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response over time

b) Displaying a conditioned response to stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus

c) Displaying a conditioned response to new neutral stimuli

d) Displaying a conditioned response in the absence of the conditioned stimulus

e) The return of a conditioned response following extinction

24. Amy used classical conditioning to train her dog to salivate every time she played her favorite classical CD. She did it by playing the CD right before filling the dog's bowl with food, doing so for three days. A week after the conditioning experiment, the response was extinguished. In order to see a spontaneous recovery, Amy would have to

a) do nothing other than play the CD again.

b) feed the dog right after playing the CD again.

c) play the CD after feeding the dog.

d) wait until the dog is salivating, and then play the CD.

e) play the CD while the dog is eating.

25. Following his experience in the military, Hans developed a classically conditioned fear response to radio static. After he left the military, the response extinguished. However, after not hearing radio static for several months, Hans again shows the conditioned fear response. Hans's experience is a demonstration of

a) stimulus generalization.

b) stimulus discrimination.

c) reconditioning.

d) spontaneous recovery.

e) higher-order conditioning.

26. Following extinction, a conditioned response can be learned again more quickly than it was learned originally. This is known as

a) spontaneous recovery.

b) generalization.

c) discrimination.

d) reconditioning.

e) higher-order conditioning.

27. Stimulus generalization occurs when the conditioned

a) response reappears after extinction.

b) response is displayed following exposure to stimuli that resemble the conditioned stimulus.

c) response is not displayed following presentation of the conditioned stimulus.

d) stimulus elicits responses that are generally like the conditioned response.

e) stimulus generalizes to other settings.

28. Through classical conditioning, Alyce has developed a fear of mice. She also shows a fear response to gerbils and hamsters. Alyce is demonstrating

a) stimulus generalization.

b) stimulus discrimination.

c) spontaneous recovery.

d) extinction.

e) reconditioning.

29. According to the text, experiences of déjà vu may be explained by which concept from classical conditioning?

a) Extinction

b) Stimulus generalization

c) Stimulus discrimination

d) Spontaneous recovery

e) Higher-order conditioning

30. In stimulus discrimination, stimuli similar to the

a) conditioned stimulus elicit the conditioned response.

b) unconditioned stimulus elicit the conditioned response.

c) conditioned stimulus do not elicit the conditioned response.

d) unconditioned stimulus do not elicit the conditioned response.

e) unconditioned stimulus elicit an unconditioned response.

31. Through classical conditioning, Eduardo has developed a fear of dogs. However, he fears only large, longhaired dogs and not small, longhaired dogs or large, shorthaired dogs. Eduardo is demonstrating

a) spontaneous recovery.

b) stimulus discrimination.

c) stimulus generalization.

d) latent learning.

e) extinction.

32. Nine-year-old Brandon has a crush on his classmate, Lydia, and blushes whenever anyone mentions her name. This morning, he showed stimulus generalization when he

a) coughed when his sister mentioned Lydia's name.

b) blushed when his mother mentioned Lydia's name.

c) blushed when no one mentioned anyone's name.

d) blushed when his brother mentioned Elise, the girl who sits next to Lydia.

e) blushed when the teacher called on Lydia to answer a question.

33. Of the following five people who have some fear of dentistry, which is exhibiting higher-order conditioning?

a) Arne, who thought he had gotten over his fear of dentists but suddenly experiences fear during his annual visit

b) Bertrand, who is fearful not only when visiting his dentist, but also when visiting his orthodontist

c) Carlos, who, after being exposed to anesthetics and painless techniques, has eliminated his fear of the dentist

d) Darla, who is fearful at the sight of her dentist's drill but not at the sight of the teeth-cleaning equipment

e) Edna, who cringes when she hears her dentist's name

34. An animal has been classically conditioned to fear a red light that has been paired with an electric shock. It then becomes conditioned to fear a blue light that has been paired with the red light. This is an example of

a) spontaneous recovery.

b) extinction.

c) higher-order conditioning.

d) stimulus discrimination.

e) stimulus generalization.

35. Higher-order conditioning occurs when a(n) ________ is paired with a(n) ________.

a) neutral stimulus; unconditioned stimulus

b) unconditioned stimulus; conditioned stimulus

c) neutral stimulus; conditioned stimulus

d) unconditioned stimulus; neutral stimulus

e) neutral stimulus; conditioned response

36. Increasing the number of pairings of the US and CS will

a) weaken the CR.

b) strengthen the CR.

c) weaken the CR at first, and then strengthen it.

d) strengthen the CR at first, and then weaken it.

e) have no effect on the CR.

37. The strongest conditioned response occurs when the

a) CS and US are presented simultaneously.

b) CS is presented first and remains on during the presentation of the US.

c) CS is presented first and is terminated before the presentation of the US.

d) US is presented first and is terminated before the presentation of the CS.

e) US is presented first and remains on during the presentation of the CS.

38. Wendy likes horror movies. She especially loves the eerie music that precedes the scariest scenes. In fact, she's been classically conditioned so that whenever she hears that kind of music, even outside the movie theater, she gets goose bumps. What would make Wendy's conditioned response to the music even stronger?

a) Having a longer period of time between the music and the showing of a scary movie scene

b) Hearing louder eerie music

c) Seeing fewer movies with eerie music, but hearing the music more often outside the theater

d) Hearing the eerie music at the same time that the scary scenes are shown on the screen

e) Hearing the eerie music after the scary movie scenes

39. Rescorla injected a ________ element into classical conditioning.

a) cognitive

b) behaviorist

c) humanistic

d) mechanistic

e) psychodynamic

40. Who challenged the conventional behaviorist view that classical conditioning is simply a result of repeated pairings of neutral and unconditioned stimuli?

a) Rosalie Raynor

b) B. F. Skinner

c) John B. Watson

d) Robert Rescorla

e) E. L. Thorndike

41. Rescorla's view of classical conditioning focuses on the extent to which the CS ________ the US.

a) interferes with

b) predicts

c) follows

d) reduces

e) is elicited by

42. Regarding Rescorla's views on classical conditioning, which of the following statements is FALSE?

a) Rescorla believes that classical conditioning depends on the reliability with which the CS predicts the US.

b) Rescorla believes that classical conditioning depends on the simple pairing of stimuli.

c) Rescorla's perspective on classical conditioning can be described as cognitive.

d) Rescorla suggests that the more consistently the CS signals the occurrence of the US, the stronger the conditioned response.

e) Rescorla believes that classical conditioning has important survival implications for animals.

43. Who is most closely associated with the study of conditioned emotional reactions?

a) John Watson

b) Ivan Pavlov

c) John Garcia

d) B. F. Skinner

e) Albert Bandura

44. Watson investigated the classical conditioning of which type of responses?

a) Anger

b) Sadness

c) Happiness

d) Fear

e) Sexual arousal

45. What is Rosalie Rayner's role in the history of psychology?

a) She was a student assistant who helped Pavlov with his experiments on classical conditioning in animals.

b) She was a colleague who helped Skinner with his experiments on operant conditioning in animals.

c) She developed a cognitive theory of classical conditioning.

d) She created the puzzle box used by Edward Thorndike.

e) She was a student assistant who helped Watson with his experiments on classical conditioning in humans.

46. In Watson's research with Little Albert, what was the UR?

a) A loud sound

b) A white rat

c) Fear of loud sounds

d) Fear of white rabbits

e) A Santa Claus mask

47. When two-year-old Clarice was playing in the basement, a large burst of thunder scared her at the same time that she saw a spider. Now Clarice has a spider phobia. Clarice's experience is an example of which type of learning?

a) Operant conditioning

b) Observational learning

c) Vicarious learning

d) Unintentional learning

e) Classical conditioning

48. An acquired fear response is called a(n)

a) conditioned emotional reaction.

b) operant response.

c) déjà vu feeling.

d) shaping consequence.

e) negative reinforcer.

49. In Watson's research with Little Albert, the rat began as the ________ and became the ________.

a) CR; CS

b) UR; US

c) NS; CS

d) NS; CR

e) CS; NS

50. Under which condition would Watson's experiments on classical conditioning be replicated today?

a) If the researchers obtained parental permission to expose the child to intense fear

b) If the researchers used methods to extinguish the fears after completing their experiments

c) If the researchers followed the children for several years to make sure they were not "damaged" by their participation in the experiment

d) If the researchers taught parents how to extinguish their children's fears

e) The experiments would not be replicated even with the parents' permission.

51. Little Peter liked milk and cookies and was afraid of rabbits. A researcher wanted him to like rabbits. So he gave Peter a glass of milk and cookies while introducing a caged rabbit into the room. Eventually, Peter was relaxed enough by the milk and cookies to pat the rabbit while holding him in his lap. About a week later, Peter asked to skip the milk and cookies and just be allowed to play with the rabbit. In this study, the milk and cookies were the ________, and the rabbit became the ________.

a) US; NS

b) CR; CS

c) NS; CR

d) CR; UR

e) US; CS

52. Which pioneer of psychology can we thank for the introduction of advertisements linking sexual cues with products?

a) Ivan Pavlov

b) Sigmund Freud

c) B. F. Skinner

d) Edward Thorndike

e) John B. Watson

53. Although Little Albert was classically conditioned to fear a rat, he also began to fear dogs, rabbits, and a Santa Claus mask. This is an example of

a) spontaneous recovery.

b) stimulus generalization.

c) stimulus discrimination.

d) extinction.

e) behavior therapy.

54. A magazine advertisement for an SUV shows a sexy model leaning against the car. The two are being paired so that the sexual arousal elicited by the model will become associated with the car. In classical conditioning terms, what is the model's role?

a) She's a neutral stimulus.

b) She's a conditioned response.

c) She's a conditioned stimulus.

d) She's an unconditioned response.

e) She's an unconditioned stimulus.

55. Jessica's grandfather used to make her oatmeal every morning. Now that he's passed away, whenever she makes herself oatmeal in the morning, she remembers him and feels good inside. Jessica's good feelings are the result of

a) observational learning.

b) operant conditioning.

c) reconditioning.

d) classical conditioning.

e) spontaneous recovery.

56. Excessive fears, like Little Albert's fear of rats, are called

a) phobias.

b) obsessions.

c) compulsions.

d) neuroses.

e) superstitions.

57. When Salina was a young girl, a dog viciously attacked her as she was walking along a white picket fence. Since then, she displays intense fear of white picket fences. Salina is demonstrating

a) a discriminative stimulus.

b) extinction.

c) shaping.

d) a phobia.

e) spontaneous recovery.

58. Advertising makes use of classical conditioning. For example, a product is presented along with some naturally appealing stimulus (such as a physically attractive person). In this case, the product begins as the

a) unconditioned stimulus.

b) neutral stimulus.

c) conditioned stimulus.

d) unconditioned response.

e) conditioned response.

59. The systematic application of learning principles to help people overcome phobias is called

a) humanistic therapy.

b) cognitive therapy.

c) conditioning therapy.

d) behavior therapy.

e) re-exposure therapy.

60. John, a recovering drug addict, has strong cravings for a fix whenever he passes the street corner where he used to buy the drug. In classical conditioning terms, the cravings are the ________ and the street corner is the ________.

a) UR; US

b) CS; CR

c) CS; UR

d) CR; CS

e) UR; NS

61. Which researcher is well known for studying conditioned taste aversion?

a) John B. Watson

b) Ivan Pavlov

c) John Garcia

d) B. F. Skinner

e) Edward Thorndike

62. A researcher found that rats avoid drinking from bottles in a room in which they had received exposure to radiation that subsequently made them ill. This demonstrates

a) higher-order conditioning.

b) stimulus generalization.

c) conditioned taste aversion.

d) a fixed-interval schedule.

e) behavior therapy.

63. Sue was eating her favorite food, spaghetti and meatballs, when she became nauseated. Although the nausea was due to a 24-hour virus and had absolutely nothing to do with the food, she never regained an appetite for spaghetti and meatballs after that. Sue had developed a(n)

a) eating disorder.

b) latent food habit.

c) food phobia.

d) taste avoidance.

e) taste aversion.

64. The most shocking element in Garcia's research on taste aversion was that

a) animals were sickened by radiation.

b) animals would avoid drinking water.

c) animals would drink even if they were sick.

d) conditioned taste aversion could be developed even when the CS was presented several hours before the US.

e) conditioned taste aversion could be developed only when the US immediately followed the CS.

65. Cassandra, a recovering alcoholic for 15 years, no longer has a physical addiction to alcohol. However, whenever she sees her old "drinking buddies," she begins to have cravings for alcohol. Cassandra's experience is an example of

a) a phobia.

b) operant conditioning.

c) classical conditioning.

d) observational learning.

e) negative reinforcement.

66. In Garcia's research on taste aversions, what was the neutral stimulus?

a) Radiation

b) The taste of the water

c) Nausea

d) Electric shocks

e) The taste of the food

67. Researchers have been able to successfully condition immune system suppression by linking saccharin-sweetened water with a(n)

a) electrical shock.

b) drug that induces nausea.

c) immune-suppressant drug.

d) immune-suppressant response.

e) immune system deactivator.

68. Regarding the use of classical conditioning to suppress the immune system, which of the following is true?

a) Researchers were unable to condition the immune system in rats by using odors.

b) Researchers were unable to condition the immune system in rats by using sound.

c) Researchers were able to suppress the immune system of humans by using a distinctively flavored drink.

d) Researchers have successfully applied their ability to suppress the immune system in the fight against cancer.

e) Researchers have conditioned the immune system of humans by using odors and sounds.

69. In an application of conditioning principles reported in the text, how were sheep ranchers able to protect their sheep from coyotes?

a) The sheep ranchers shot coyotes.

b) Live sheep were injected with a poison that would kill coyotes.

c) Sheep carcasses were injected with poison that would kill coyotes.

d) Sheep carcasses were injected with a poison that would sicken but not kill coyotes.

e) Sheep were classically conditioned to fear coyotes.

70. An important health implication of the research in which rats were conditioned to associate saccharine-sweetened water with an immune-suppressant drug is that

a) rats could be exterminated with saccharine-sweetened water instead of with chemicals that might be harmful to humans.

b) saccharine should be avoided by humans, because it has the potential to suppress the immune system.

c) people might be conditioned to suppress their own immune system after organ transplants.

d) immune-suppressant drugs can be made more palatable with the use of saccharine.

e) saccharine could be used to enhance the immune functioning of humans suffering from cancer.

71. Pauline became ill after eating eggs contaminated with salmonella. She subsequently becomes nauseated whenever she sees eggs. This is an example of

a) a conditioned taste aversion.

b) higher-order conditioning.

c) spontaneous recovery.

d) a fixed-ratio schedule.

e) a conditioned emotional reaction.

72. Summarize the principles of classical conditioning.

73. Behaviors that result in satisfying effects are strengthened, and behaviors that result in discomfort are weakened. This is known as

a) the Law of Effect.

b) classical conditioning.

c) higher-order conditioning.

d) Pavlovian conditioning.

e) learning through association.

74. The Law of Effect was proposed by

a) Pavlov.

b) Skinner.

c) Thorndike.

d) Watson.

e) Tolman.

75. Which of the following did Thorndike use in studying animal learning?

a) A Skinner box

b) A token economy

c) Programmed instruction

d) A conditioning chamber

e) A puzzle box

76. Modern psychologists refer to the first part of the Law of Effect as ________ and to the second part as ________.

a) classical conditioning; operant conditioning

b) operant conditioning; classical conditioning

c) reinforcement; punishment

d) punishment; reinforcement

e) trial and error; latent learning

77. To which area of human behavior was Thorndike particularly excited about applying principles of animal learning?

a) Parenting

b) Law enforcement

c) Medicine

d) Advertising

e) Education

78. Thorndike argued that animals in a "puzzle box" were able to find their way out because they used

a) planning.

b) insight.

c) instincts.

d) reasoning.

e) trial and error.

79. Which of the following&

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