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Liberty University PSYC 101 quiz 4 complete Answers | Rated A+
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Liberty University PSYC 101 quiz 4 complete Answers | Rated A+

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Chapter 4

Question 1

In which state of consciousness should a person’s level of awareness or attention be the highest?

Question 2

Delta9tetrahydrocannabinol is the psychoactive chemical in

Question 3

Narcotics include which type of drug?

Question 4

Regarding sleep patterns across the life cycle, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 5

Regarding consciousness, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 6

Regarding psychoactive drugs, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 7

The pattern of fluctuations in bodily processes that occur regularly each day are called ______.

Question 8

Regarding sleep cycles, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 9

All but which of the following are depressants?

Question 10

Which statement best describes effective treatment of sleep disorders?

Question 11

The hormone melatonin helps synchronize the sleepwake cycle by means of

Question 12

“Crack” is to _____ as “ice” is to ______.

Question 13

Barbiturates are used for all of the following EXCEPT

Question 14

Many of the drugs of abuse share the tendency to increase levels of which neurotransmitter in the brain?

Question 15

Hashish is a potent form of which psychoactive drug?

Question 16

Which organ is most severely damaged by alcohol abuse?

Question 17

In general, nightmare disorder occurs in ______ sleep, while sleep terror disorder occurs in ______ sleep.

Question 18

The SCN (suprachiasmatic nucleus) works to regulate the sleepwake cycles by means of

Question 19

Kelsey has a sleep disorder in which she suddenly wakes up in the night with a panicky scream. She is only able to remember fragments of her dream images, and she is dazed and frightened upon awakening. Which sleep disorder does Kelsey most likely have?

Question 20

From a Freudian perspective, the purpose of dreams is to

 

Question 1

Barbiturates are used for all of the following EXCEPT

Question 2

Which of the following groups have relatively low levels of alcoholism?

Question 3

Cocaine blocks reuptake of ______ , the chemical that stimulates reward pathways in the brain.

Question 4

Regarding sleepwalking disorder, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 5

Regarding daydreaming, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 6

In which state of consciousness should a person’s level of awareness or attention be the highest?

Question 7

Which of the following people is at risk for inducing psychosis?

Question 8

From a Freudian perspective, the purpose of dreams is to

Question 9

All of the following can help a person develop healthier sleeping patterns EXCEPT

Question 10

Regarding patterns of smoking, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 11

Mr. Grammarcy has been having trouble sleeping at night, and his lack of sleep is beginning to interfere with his ability to function properly during the day. He’s concerned that he may lose his job in the next round of layoffs at his company. He is also having marital problems. He tends to lay awake at night, worrying about these problems and thinking about what he can do to resolve these issues. Based on the discussion in the text, Mr. Grammarcy should understand that _____.

Question 12

Many of the drugs of abuse share the tendency to increase levels of which neurotransmitter in the brain?

Question 13

In meditation, a mantra is a

Question 14

Barney has developed a psychological dependence on alcohol, but not a physiological dependence. This means that _____.

Question 15

Which of the following stimulants is likely to produce hallucinogenic effects?

Question 16

A common treatment for opioid addiction is

Question 17

Sleep spindles are to ______ sleep as delta waves are to ______ sleep.

Question 18

Jason lost sleep two nights in a row because of a neighbor’s loud partying. He took a nap at lunchtime at work and felt better afterwards, so he has been napping fairly regularly since then. However, he now finds that he frequently has trouble falling asleep at night. Jason could benefit from the suggestion that he _____.

Question 19

Harriet uses the most widely used illicit drug in the U.S., as well as the Western world. What is Harriet’s drug of choice?

Question 20

In a study reported in the text, Canadian drivers were asked to report distracted driving behaviors. Which behavior was most commonly reported for other drivers?

 

Question 1

In which state of consciousness should a person’s level of awareness or attention be the highest?

Question 2

Delta9tetrahydrocannabinol is the psychoactive chemical in

Question 3

Narcotics include which type of drug?

Question 4

Regarding sleep patterns across the life cycle, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 5

Regarding consciousness, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 6

Regarding psychoactive drugs, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 7

The pattern of fluctuations in bodily processes that occur regularly each day are called ______.

Question 8

Regarding sleep cycles, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 9

All but which of the following are depressants?

Question 10

Which statement best describes effective treatment of sleep disorders?

Question 11

The hormone melatonin helps synchronize the sleepwake cycle by means of

Question 12

“Crack” is to _____ as “ice” is to ______.

Question 13

Barbiturates are used for all of the following EXCEPT

Question 14

Many of the drugs of abuse share the tendency to increase levels of which neurotransmitter in the brain?

Question 15

Hashish is a potent form of which psychoactive drug?

Question 16

Which organ is most severely damaged by alcohol abuse?

Question 17

In general, nightmare disorder occurs in ______ sleep, while sleep terror disorder occurs in ______ sleep.

Question 18

The SCN (suprachiasmatic nucleus) works to regulate the sleepwake cycles by means of

Question 19

Kelsey has a sleep disorder in which she suddenly wakes up in the night with a panicky scream. She is only able to remember fragments of her dream images, and she is dazed and frightened upon awakening. Which sleep disorder does Kelsey most likely have?

Question 20

From a Freudian perspective, the purpose of dreams is to

 

Question 1

Barbiturates are used for all of the following EXCEPT

Question 2

Which of the following groups have relatively low levels of alcoholism?

Question 3

Cocaine blocks reuptake of ______ , the chemical that stimulates reward pathways in the brain.

Question 4

Regarding sleepwalking disorder, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 5

Regarding daydreaming, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 6

In which state of consciousness should a person’s level of awareness or attention be the highest?

Question 7

Which of the following people is at risk for inducing psychosis?

Question 8

From a Freudian perspective, the purpose of dreams is to

Question 9

All of the following can help a person develop healthier sleeping patterns EXCEPT

Question 10

Regarding patterns of smoking, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 11

Mr. Grammarcy has been having trouble sleeping at night, and his lack of sleep is beginning to interfere with his ability to function properly during the day. He’s concerned that he may lose his job in the next round of layoffs at his company. He is also having marital problems. He tends to lay awake at night, worrying about these problems and thinking about what he can do to resolve these issues. Based on the discussion in the text, Mr. Grammarcy should understand that _____.

Question 12

Many of the drugs of abuse share the tendency to increase levels of which neurotransmitter in the brain?

Question 13

In meditation, a mantra is a

Question 14

Barney has developed a psychological dependence on alcohol, but not a physiological dependence. This means that _____.

Question 15

Which of the following stimulants is likely to produce hallucinogenic effects?

Question 16

A common treatment for opioid addiction is

Question 17

Sleep spindles are to ______ sleep as delta waves are to ______ sleep.

Question 18

Jason lost sleep two nights in a row because of a neighbor’s loud partying. He took a nap at lunchtime at work and felt better afterwards, so he has been napping fairly regularly since then. However, he now finds that he frequently has trouble falling asleep at night. Jason could benefit from the suggestion that he _____.

Question 19

Harriet uses the most widely used illicit drug in the U.S., as well as the Western world. What is Harriet’s drug of choice?

Question 20

In a study reported in the text, Canadian drivers were asked to report distracted driving behaviors. Which behavior was most commonly reported for other drivers?

 

Question 1 All but which of the following people are predicted to be experiencing an altered state of consciousness?

Question 2 Jet lag has shown to be associated with all but which of the following?

Question 3 Sociocultural factors that might increase the probability that an individual will begin to abuse drugs or alcohol include all of the following EXCEPT _____.

Question 4 People who abuse more than one drug at a time are called

Question 5 Beta brain waves are ______, and alpha brain waves are ______.

Question 6 In terms of brain waves, awake and alert is to ______ as awake and relaxed is to ______.

Question 7 Scientists believe that narcolepsy is caused by

Question 8 In Freudian theory, the actual events that occur in a dream are referred to as its ______ content, while the underlying meaning of a dream is its ______ content.

Question 9 Which of the following people is at risk for inducing psychosis?

Question 10 The two most widely used hallucinogens are

Question 11 Daydreaming is most likely to occur during which type of consciousness?

Question 12 Which of the following groups have relatively low levels of alcoholism?

Question 13 Which of the following stimulants is likely to produce hallucinogenic effects?

Question 14 Use of MDMA may result in all but which of the following?

Question 15 Which of the following statements regarding regular use of caffeinated coffee is FALSE?

Question 16 ______ theory describes hypnosis as a phenomenon in which one’s consciousness divides or splits.

Question 17 Barney has developed a psychological dependence on alcohol, but not a physiological dependence. This means that _____.

Question 18 Which of the following statements about marijuana is FALSE?

Question 19 Regarding daydreaming, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 20 In comparing consciousness to an ever­flowing river, the early psychologist William James was making the point that consciousness involves

 

Question 1 A common treatment for opioid addiction is

Question 2 Monica is having a long, detailed dream. In which stage of sleep is Monica most likely to be?

Question 3 Kelsey has a sleep disorder in which she suddenly wakes up in the night with a panicky scream. She is only able to remember fragments of her dream images, and she is dazed and frightened upon awakening. Which sleep disorder does Kelsey most likely have?

Question 4 Regarding hallucinogens, which of the following statements is TRUE?

Question 5 Nina’s pineal gland has been damaged. She can expect a disturbance in the release of the hormone

Question 6 Hashish is a potent form of which psychoactive drug?

Question 7 Fernando just entered a drug treatment center for his chemical dependency. He is currently going through a process in which his body is cleared of drugs. What is this process called?

Question 8 Jonathan is in a state of focused awareness while he studies for his final exams. Jonathan’s consciousness can be described as all but which of the following?

Question 9 The role­playing model of hypnosis proposes that the effects of hypnosis can best be understood in terms of _____.

Question 10 According to the early psychologist William James, consciousness can best be described as

Question 11 Regarding REM sleep, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 13 Inheriting a greater tolerance for the negative effects of alcohol

Question 14 Alcohol is to ______ as caffeine is to _____.

Question 15 To combat insomnia, all but which of the following are recommended in the text?

Question 16 Since hallucinogens alter sensory perceptions and produce sensory distortions, they are also called ________, a word that literally means "mind revealing."

Question 17 Regarding amphetamines, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 18 _____ is an example of a synthetic opioid.

Question 19 Daydreaming is most likely to occur during which type of consciousness?

Question 20 Regarding tranquilizers, which of the following statements is FALSE?

 

Question 1 Regarding psychoactive drugs, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 2 All but which of the following are depressants?

Question 3 Lorna was just pulled over by the police for suspicious driving. Testing revealed her blood alcohol level to be .25. Which description is the police officer most likely to have written regarding Lorna’s appearance and behavior?

Question 4 All but which of the following people are predicted to be experiencing an altered state of consciousness?

Question 5 Amphetamine psychosis resembles acute episodes of which psychological disorder?

Question 6 Which of the following drugs can lead to psychological but not physiological dependence?

Question 7 Which of the following best describes sleep apnea?

Question 8 Regarding sleep cycles, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 9 Which statement best describes effective treatment of sleep disorders?

Question 10 Which of the following statements regarding regular use of caffeinated coffee is FALSE?

Question 11 Regarding patterns of smoking, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 12 During hypnosis, Gail’s hypnotist tells her that she will have an increased desire to drink water and eat healthy food. This describes what type of hypnotic experience?

Question 13 Regarding alcohol use among college students, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 14 Which of the following best describes REM sleep?

Question 15 Juanita and Emilia are Latino sisters who were both raised in a family and community that discouraged drinking among women. Juanita has been living in the U.S. for 15 years, while Emilia remained in their home country. Now, Juanita drinks alcohol much more regularly and heavily than Emilia. This is an example of which type of influence on drug use?

Question 16 Which of these hallucinogens derive from natural substances and have been used by Native Americans for religious purposes?

Question 17 People who abuse more than one drug at a time are called

Question 18 Regarding consciousness, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 19 The psychological effects of LSD are best described as

Question 20 Nina’s pineal gland has been damaged. She can expect a disturbance in the release of the hormone

 

Question 1 Regarding REM sleep, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 2 Which psychologist can be described as working from the role­playing model of hypnosis?

Question 3 Monica is having a long, detailed dream. In which stage of sleep is Monica most likely to be?

Question 4 Amphetamine psychosis resembles acute episodes of which psychological disorder?

Question 5 In a study reported in the text, Canadian drivers were asked to report distracted driving behaviors. Which behavior was most commonly reported for other drivers?

Question 6 Nadia frequently drives home without paying attention to her route. This is an example of

Question 7 All but which of the following are reasons that investigators have described for the functions of sleep?

Question 8 Regarding alcohol, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 9 Regarding consciousness, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 10 After repeatedly using a drug over six months, Elian’s body chemistry has changed such that it depends on having a steady supply of the drug. Elian has developed

Question 11 Negative and positive hallucinations describe which hypnotic experience?

Question 12 Sherilyn takes MDMA. When she buys the drug at the local dance club, she asks for

Question 13 In terms of brain waves, awake and alert is to ______ as awake and relaxed is to ______.

Question 14 Regarding sleep deprivation, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 15 All of the following are tranquilizers EXCEPT

Question 16 Regarding alcohol use among college students, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 17 Regarding hypnosis, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 18 Reduction of central nervous system activity is the defining feature of

Question 19 Inheriting a greater tolerance for the negative effects of alcohol

Question 20 Opioids utilize the same receptors in the brain as

 

Question 1 Among teenagers who begin smoking, about what proportion or percentage will eventually die of smoking-­related causes?

Question 2 Barbiturates are used for all of the following EXCEPT

Question 3 In which stage do you spend the majority of your sleep time?

Question 4 An LSD “trip” may last as long as

Question 5 In terms of brain waves, awake and alert is to ______ as awake and relaxed is to ______.

Question 6 In hypnosis, reliving of past events is described as

Question 7 The hormone melatonin helps synchronize the sleep-­wake cycle by means of

Question 8 Which of the following statements about the SCN (suprachiasmatic nucleus) is FALSE?

Question 9 Regarding sleep patterns across the life cycle, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 10 Which statement best describes effective treatment of sleep disorders?

Question 11 The SCN (suprachiasmatic nucleus) works to regulate the sleep­wake cycles by means of

Question 12 Among alcohol-­induced deaths, what is a frequent cause of death?

Question 13 Regarding circadian rhythms, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 14 Sheila is awake and in an alert state. Sheila’s brain wave pattern should consist primarily of

Question 15 Amphetamine psychosis resembles acute episodes of which psychological disorder?

Question 16 Who is generally regarded as the father of American psychology and recognized for his contributions to the study of consciousness?

Question 17 The protective function of sleep refers to the role of sleep in

Question 18 In a study reported in the text, Canadian drivers were asked to report distracted driving behaviors. Which behavior was most commonly reported for other drivers?

Question 19 _____ is an example of a synthetic opioid.

Question 20 Characteristics of a highly hypnotizable person include all of the following EXCEPT

 

1.

Regarding consciousness, which of the following statements is FALSE?

 

A)

Waking consciousness changes regularly throughout the day, ranging from focused awareness to divided consciousness to drifting consciousness.

 

B)

Research on multitasking generally supports the common perception that “To do two things at once is to do neither.”

 

C)

Negative ways of thinking act like mental filters in one's consciousness that can skew how a person interprets and reacts to events in their lives.

 

D)

Drifting consciousness often leads to daydreaming.

 

E)

Since altered states of consciousness are produced by taking drugs, people should avoid attempting to change their states of consciousness.

2.

Who is generally regarded as the father of American psychology and recognized for his contributions to the study of consciousness?

 

A)

Wilhelm Wundt

 

B)

Sigmund Freud

 

C)

William James

 

D)

Alan Rechtschaffen

 

E)

Ernest Hilgard

3.

Wylene is able to pay attention to street signs as she drives her pick-up truck, but is not aware of noises coming from the street and other vehicles. Wylene's experience is an example of

 

A)

focused awareness.

 

B)

drifting consciousness.

 

C)

conscious attention.

 

D)

focused consciousness.

 

E)

deep unconsciousness.

4.

Jonathan is in a state of focused awareness while he studies for his final exams. Jonathan's consciousness can be described as all but which of the following?

 

A)

Fully alert

 

B)

Divided attention

 

C)

Wide awake

 

D)

Completely engrossed in his task

 

E)

Paying little attention to distracting internal stimuli

5.

Samantha simultaneously performs two different tasks, each of which demands some level of attention. Samantha's state of consciousness is best described as

 

A)

divided consciousness.

 

B)

mindfulness.

 

C)

selective consciousness.

 

D)

drifting consciousness.

 

E)

focused awareness.

6.

Daydreaming is most likely to occur during which type of consciousness?

 

A)

Divided

 

B)

Unconsciousness

 

C)

Focused

 

D)

Selective

 

E)

Drifting

7.

Nadia frequently drives home without paying attention to her route. This is an example of

 

A)

automatic pilot.

 

B)

daydreaming.

 

C)

drifting consciousness.

 

D)

focused concentration.

 

E)

multitasking.

8.

In a study reported in the text, Canadian drivers were asked to report distracted driving behaviors. Which behavior was most commonly reported for other drivers?

 

A)

Disciplining children

 

B)

Eating

 

C)

Reading

 

D)

Personal grooming

 

E)

Using a cell phone

9.

In which state of consciousness should a person's level of awareness or attention be the highest?

 

A)

Dreaming

 

B)

Drifting consciousness

 

C)

Divided consciousness

 

D)

Altered consciousness

 

E)

Focused awareness

10.

Describe 5 states of consciousness, including a description of the level of alertness in each state.

11.

The pattern of fluctuations in bodily processes that occur regularly each day are called ______.

 

A)

altered states of consciousness

 

B)

biofeedback loops

 

C)

circadian rhythms

 

D)

homeostatic rhythms

 

E)

ultradian rhythms

12.

An area of the brain that regulates sleep-wake cycles is the

 

A)

suprachiasmatic nucleus.

 

B)

amygdala.

 

C)

pituitary gland.

 

D)

hippocampus.

 

E)

corpus callosum.

13.

Beta brain waves are ______, and alpha brain waves are ______.

 

A)

fast and low-amplitude; slow and rhythmic

 

B)

slow and low-amplitude; fast and rhythmic

 

C)

fast and high-amplitude; slow and rhythmic

 

D)

slow and high-amplitude; fast and rhythmic

 

E)

large and rhythmic; slow and rhythmic

14.

Dr. Washington, a sleep researcher, looks at the EEG output of a participant from a sleep study. When Washington sees sleep spindles on the output, she indicates ______ on the paper.

 

A)

Stage 1

 

B)

Stage 2

 

C)

Stage 3

 

D)

Stage 4

 

E)

REM

15.

In which stage do you spend the majority of your sleep time?

 

A)

Stage 1

 

B)

Stage 2

 

C)

Stage 3

 

D)

Stage 4

 

E)

REM

16.

During the past hour, Gaylon has been experiencing slow-wave sleep. Which stages of sleep has Gaylon likely experienced during this time?

 

A)

Stages 1 and 2

 

B)

Stages 4 and REM

 

C)

Stages 3 and 4

 

D)

Stages 2 and 3

 

E)

REM and NREM

17.

Compared to dreams during REM, NREM dreams are

 

A)

longer.

 

B)

more frequent.

 

C)

more thoughtlike.

 

D)

paradoxical.

 

E)

both longer and more frequent.

18.

Monica is having a long, detailed dream.  In which stage of sleep is Monica most likely to be?

 

A)

Stage 1

 

B)

Stage 2

 

C)

Stage 3

 

D)

Stage 4

 

E)

REM

19.

Which of the following best describes REM sleep?

 

A)

The deepest level of sleep

 

B)

A state of light sleep with thought-like dreams

 

C)

Dream sleep accompanied by increased muscle activity

 

D)

State of resting quietly with the eyes closed

 

E)

Sleep in which the brain becomes more active but muscle activity is blocked

20.

Regarding sleep cycles, which of the following statements is FALSE?

 

A)

In terms of brain activity, REM sleep is similar to ordinary wakefulness.

 

B)

As the night progresses, the amount of time spent in REM sleep decreases.

 

C)

The difference between Stage 3 and Stage 4 sleep is based on the proportion of delta waves present.

 

D)

During sleep, brain waves vary in terms of intensity as well as speed.

 

E)

During the night, Stage 4 sleep eventually disappears.

21.

Your psychology professor argues that dreams represent an attempt by the cerebral cortex to make sense of the random discharges of electrical activity that occur during REM sleep. From which perspective are your professor's comments?

 

A)

Neodissociation theory

 

B)

Activation-synthesis hypothesis

 

C)

Psychodynamic theory

 

D)

Memory consolidation hypothesis

 

E)

Psychological dependence hypothesis

22.

From a Freudian perspective, the purpose of dreams is to

 

A)

consolidate memories and new learning.

 

B)

sort through possible solutions to everyday problems.

 

C)

fulfill underlying wishes.

 

D)

discard unnecessary information.

 

E)

reconcile urges.

23.

Why do we dream?

 

A)

To fulfill wishes of a sexual or aggressive nature.

 

B)

To allow the cerebral cortex to make sense of random electrical activity during REM sleep.

 

C)

To sort through problems and concerns and find solutions.

 

D)

No one really knows.

 

E)

To consolidate memories and new learning that occurred throughout the day.

24.

Who suggested that dreams help us sort through possible solutions to everyday problems and concerns?

 

A)

Ernest Hartmann

 

B)

Publilius Syrus

 

C)

Sigmund Freud

 

D)

William James

 

E)

Alan Rechtschaffen

25.

On many nights, Matilda claims to be able to decide in advance what she will dream about, as well as to be able to control her dreams as they occur. The term _____ is used to describe Matilda's dreams.

 

A)

abnormal

 

B)

precognitive

 

C)

latent

 

D)

manifest

 

E)

lucid

26.

If you were sleep deprived, which of the following would you expect to be affected?

 

A)

Reaction time

 

B)

Concentration and memory

 

C)

Academic performance

 

D)

Concentration, memory, and academic performance

 

E)

Reaction time, concentration, memory, and academic performance

27.

Some nights Chang has problems falling asleep. Other nights, he wakes up several times during the night and has difficulty returning to sleep. Chang likely suffers from which sleep disorder?

 

A)

Insomnia

 

B)

Nightmare disorder

 

C)

Narcolepsy

 

D)

Sleepwalking

 

E)

Sleep apnea

28.

Which statement best describes effective treatment of sleep disorders?

 

A)

Sleep medications are the most effective short- and long-term treatment for sleep disorders.

 

B)

Sleep medications can be used for long periods of time to treat severe sleep disorders.

 

C)

Cognitive-behavioral techniques are as effective as sleep medication in treating insomnia in the short-term, but not in the long-run.

 

D)

Cognitive-behavioral techniques are as effective as sleep medication in treating insomnia, and they are more effective in the long-run.

 

E)

Unknown; researchers have yet to investigate and identify the best methods for treating sleep disorders.

29.

Regarding sleepwalking disorder, which of the following statements is FALSE?

 

A)

Sleepwalking disorder occurs more often in children than in adults, and about 5 percent of children have the disorder.

 

B)

Sleepwalking generally occurs during deep, NREM sleep.

 

C)

Awakening a sleepwalker can be harmful.

 

D)

Sleepwalkers do not usually remember their nighttime wanderings.

 

E)

Sleepwalkers can have accidents during their nighttime wanderings.

30.

Kelsey has a sleep disorder in which she suddenly wakes up in the night with a panicky scream. She is only able to remember fragments of her dream images, and she is dazed and frightened upon awakening. Which sleep disorder does Kelsey most likely have?

 

A)

Sleepwalking disorder

 

B)

Nightmare disorder

 

C)

Narcolepsy

 

D)

Sleep apnea

 

E)

Sleep terror disorder

31.

Describe the various stages of sleep.

32.

Describe the various theories of dreaming.

33.

Deva practices transcendental meditation. What is Deva most likely to use as a point of focus?

 

A)

A lamp

 

B)

A vase

 

C)

A repeated phrase or sound

 

D)

A candle

 

E)

Any of the above

34.

In meditation, a mantra is a

 

A)

type of dance.

 

B)

sound or phrase.

 

C)

type of song.

 

D)

breathing technique.

 

E)

seating position.

35.

Christiana alters her consciousness through focusing her attention on her breathing to achieve a peaceful, relaxed state. During this state, Christiana attempts to adopt a nonjudgmental state in which she has awareness of the moment. Which technique is Christiana using?

 

A)

Hypnosis

 

B)

Transcendental meditation

 

C)

Mindfulness meditation

 

D)

Daydreaming

 

E)

Biofeedback

36.

Meditation is predicted to be useful in treatment of each of the following EXCEPT

 

A)

high blood pressure.

 

B)

substance abuse.

 

C)

chronic pain.

 

D)

diabetes.

 

E)

stress-related disorders.

37.

During hypnosis, Gail's hypnotist tells her that she will have an increased desire to drink water and eat healthy food. This is an example of which type of hypnotic experience?

 

A)

Hypnotic regression

 

B)

Hypnotic analgesia

 

C)

Posthypnotic amnesia

 

D)

Distortions of reality

 

E)

Posthypnotic suggestion

38.

In hypnosis, reliving of past events occurs through

 

A)

posthypnotic suggestion.

 

B)

posthypnotic amnesia.

 

C)

hypnotic analgesia.

 

D)

hypnotic age regression.

 

E)

hypnotic time distortion.

39.

Which of the following best describes the percentage of college students exhibiting posthypnotic amnesia in response to suggestions?

 

A)

Virtually none; fewer than 1 percent

 

B)

Very few; about 10 percent

 

C)

One in four

 

D)

One in two

 

E)

More than 90 percent

40.

Negative and positive hallucinations are characteristic of which hypnotic experience?

 

A)

Hypnotic age regression

 

B)

Hypnotic analgesia

 

C)

Posthypnotic amnesia

 

D)

Distortions of reality

 

E)

Posthypnotic suggestion

41.

Which psychologist is working from the role-playing model of hypnosis?

 

A)

Dr. Amin says, “Hypnosis is a social interaction between a hypnotist and a subject.”

 

B)

Dr. Birnbaum says, “Hypnosis is an altered state of awareness characterized by heightened suggestibility.”

 

C)

Dr. Chestnut says, “Hypnosis involves a state of dissociated consciousness.”

 

D)

Dr. Davison says, “In hypnosis, part of the subject's consciousness remains a hidden observer.”

 

E)

Dr. Evans says, “Hypnosis is a trance state.”

42.

Of every 100 adults in the U.S., about ______ develop a drug dependence disorder, and about ______  develop a substance abuse disorder.

 

A)

2; 15

 

B)

3; 20

 

C)

8; 16

 

D)

10; 16

 

E)

3; 8

43.

After repeatedly using a drug over six months, Elian's body chemistry has changed such that it depends on having a steady supply of the drug. Elian has developed

 

A)

tolerance.

 

B)

psychological dependence.

 

C)

physiological dependence.

 

D)

reverse tolerance.

 

E)

detoxification.

44.

Withdrawal syndrome is also known as

 

A)

drug overdose.

 

B)

drug abuse syndrome.

 

C)

drug dependence syndrome.

 

D)

abstinence syndrome.

 

E)

tolerance.

45.

Which of the following people has a chemical dependency?

 

A)

Marie, who is addicted to gambling

 

B)

Bob, who is addicted to using the Internet

 

C)

Bernadette, who is addicted to sex

 

D)

Dennis, who is addicted to alcohol

 

E)

Marie, Bob, Bernadette, and Dennis are all demonstrating chemical dependencies

46.

Reduction of central nervous system activity is the defining feature of

 

A)

stimulants.

 

B)

hallucinogens.

 

C)

depressants.

 

D)

amphetamines.

 

E)

stimulants and amphetamines.

47.

You see your friend Leonid at a party. He is talking loudly and slurring his words. He also has trouble maintaining his balance. Leonid is probably under the influence of

 

A)

LSD.

 

B)

heroin.

 

C)

alcohol.

 

D)

amphetamines.

 

E)

MDMA.

48.

Which organ is most severely damaged by alcohol abuse?

 

A)

Stomach

 

B)

Liver

 

C)

Heart

 

D)

Kidneys

 

E)

Bladder

49.

Lorna was just pulled over by the police for suspicious driving. Testing revealed her blood alcohol level to be .25. Which description is the police officer most likely to have written regarding Lorna's appearance and behavior?

 

A)

She showed impaired judgment and a low level of alertness.

 

B)

She was conscious but stuporous, with no comprehension of the events around her.

 

C)

Her reaction time was below normal, with impaired motor function.

 

D)

She exhibited severe motor disturbances, including staggering.

 

E)

Her reaction time was very poor, and she had markedly impaired motor function.

50.

Barbiturates are used for all of the following EXCEPT

 

A)

regulating high blood pressure.

 

B)

blocking pain during surgery.

 

C)

inducing euphoria and relaxation.

 

D)

controlling epileptic seizures.

 

E)

treating narcolepsy.

51.

Regarding tranquilizers, which of the following statements is FALSE?

 

A)

Tranquilizers are widely used in the treatment of anxiety and insomnia.

 

B)

Tranquilizers can lead to addiction.

 

C)

Benzodiazepines are a family of tranquilizer drugs that act by boosting the availability of GABA in the brain.

 

D)

Tranquilizers are more toxic than barbiturates.

 

E)

Tranquilizers can reduce excess nervous system activity.

52.

Opioids utilize the same receptors in the brain as

 

A)

serotonin.

 

B)

endorphins.

 

C)

dopamine.

 

D)

norepinephrine.

 

E)

GABA.

53.

Sherrill abuses an opioid. If she abuses the most common one, what is Sherrill's drug of choice?

 

A)

Heroin

 

B)

Morphine

 

C)

Codeine

 

D)

Marijuana

 

E)

Demerol

54.

Amphetamine psychosis resembles acute episodes of which psychological disorder?

 

A)

Obsessive-compulsive disorder

 

B)

Panic disorder

 

C)

Antisocial personality disorder

 

D)

Depression

 

E)

Schizophrenia

55.

Which of the following people is at risk for inducing psychosis?

 

A)

Rhonda, who abuses barbiturates

 

B)

Roger, who abuses alcohol

 

C)

Robyn, who abuses amphetamines

 

D)

Reginald, who abuses heroin

 

E)

Regina, who abuses nicotine

56.

Cocaine and amphetamines are similar in all but which of the following ways?

 

A)

Both increase brain levels of dopamine.

 

B)

Both can lead to a type of psychosis.

 

C)

Both directly stimulate reward pathways to the brain.

 

D)

Both induce feelings of extreme pleasure or euphoria.

 

E)

Both produce a relatively long-lasting “high.”

57.

“Crack” is to _____ as “ice” is to ______.

 

A)

stimulant; hallucinogen

 

B)

cocaine; amphetamine

 

C)

cocaine; MDMA

 

D)

cocaine; marijuana

 

E)

stimulant; depressant

58.

Sherilyn takes MDMA. When she buys the drug at the local dance club, she asks for

 

A)

bennies.

 

B)

crystal meth.

 

C)

Ecstasy.

 

D)

acid.

 

E)

crack.

59.

Which of the following stimulants is likely to produce hallucinogenic effects?

 

A)

Cocaine

 

B)

Amphetamine

 

C)

Nicotine

 

D)

MDMA

 

E)

LSD

60.

Which of the following is a “paradoxical” effect of nicotine?

 

A)

A mild “rush”

 

B)

Decreased appetite

 

C)

Increased arousal

 

D)

Increased concentration

 

E)

Mental calmness and relaxation

61.

Among teenagers who begin smoking, about what proportion or percentage will eventually die of smoking-related causes?

 

A)

One in twenty

 

B)

One in ten

 

C)

One in three

 

D)

One in two

 

E)

Virtually all, more than 90 percent

62.

Which of the following statements regarding regular use of caffeinated coffee is FALSE?

 

A)

Physiological dependence is likely to occur.

 

B)

Most caffeine users are able to maintain control over their use of the drug.

 

C)

Drinking just a cup or two of coffee or tea per day is enough to develop physiological dependence

 

D)

Caffeine is known to be associated with many different health risks.

 

E)

Heavier coffee drinking has recently been linked with increased risk of heart attack in some genetically predisposed people.

63.

Since hallucinogens alter sensory perceptions and produce sensory distortions, they are also called

 

A)

speed.

 

B)

psychedelics.

 

C)

narcotics.

 

D)

opioids.

 

E)

intoxicants.

64.

An LSD “trip” may last as long as

 

A)

30 minutes.

 

B)

60 minutes.

 

C)

2 hours.

 

D)

6 hours.

 

E)

12 hours.

65.

“Angel dust” is another name for _____, which is a type of ______.

 

A)

MDMA; stimulant

 

B)

LSD; hallucinogen

 

C)

MDMA; hallucinogen

 

D)

PCP; stimulant

 

E)

PCP; hallucinogen

66.

The psychological effects of LSD are best described as

 

A)

unknown.

 

B)

consistent and predictable.

 

C)

consistent, but unpredictable.

 

D)

variable, but predictable.

 

E)

variable and unpredictable.

67.

All of the following can help a person develop healthier sleeping patterns EXCEPT

 

A)

maintaining a regular sleep schedule.

 

B)

taking naps to make up for lost sleep the preceding night.

 

C)

exercising regularly.

 

D)

limiting intake of caffeine.

 

E)

establishing a regular bedtime routine.

 

1. A state of awareness of ourselves and the world around us is

a) selective attention.

b) arousal.

c) consciousness.

d) conscientiousness.

e) perception.

2. Which of the following statements is true about multitasking?

a) In a recent poll, the majority of people said they never read e-mail while talking on the phone.

b) Multitasking may be inefficient, but it's never dangerous.

c) Performing two mental tasks at the same time reduces the mental resources available to perform either task.

d) Multitasking is more difficult when the tasks draw on different parts of the brain than when they draw on the same part.

e) The word multitasking came into use with the invention of the telephone.

3. Psychologists use which term to describe the changing levels of awareness that people experience?

a) States of awareness

b) States of perception

c) States of sensation

d) States of cognition

e) States of consciousness

4. Who wrote Principles of Psychology, the first psychology textbook?

a) Sigmund Freud

b) Wilhelm Wundt

c) William James

d) Gustav Fechner

e) Carl Jung

5. Which of the following statements regarding William James is FALSE?

a) William James is the brother of novelist Henry James.

b) William James wrote the first textbook on psychology.

c) William James believed that consciousness is a fixed state.

d) The first psychology lecture William James ever attended was the one he gave.

e) William James earned a medical degree but never practiced medicine.

6. Wylene is able to pay attention to street signs as she drives her pick-up truck, but she is not aware of her foot on the accelerator. Wylene's experience is an example of

a) selective consciousness.

b) focused arousal.

c) conscious attention.

d) focused consciousness.

e) focused attention.

7. In a state of focused awareness, a person would be all of the following EXCEPT

a) fully alert.

b) multitasking.

c) wide awake.

d) completely engrossed in a task.

e) paying little attention to distracting external stimuli.

8. Samantha simultaneously performs two different tasks, each of which demands some level of attention. Samantha is using

a) divide

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