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Liberty University PSYC 101 quiz 3 complete Answers | Rated A+
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Liberty University PSYC 101 quiz 3 complete Answers | Rated A+ 

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Chapter 3

Question 1

Difference thresholds are determined by a constant fraction of the magnitude of the original stimulus. This is the premise of

Question 2

The process by which we receive, transform, and process stimuli is

Question 3

Which of the following is the best definition of precognition?

Question 4

Sound from which of the following should produce the most danger to hearing upon brief exposure?

Question 5

In a research experiment, participants are shown a series of drawings before seeing an ambiguous picture that could be perceived as a rat or a man. Group 1 sees drawings of animals, while Group 2 sees drawings of humans. Perceptual set suggests which of the following results when participants are shown the ambiguous picture?

Question 6

Jonathan practices focused attention to induce a relaxed mental and physical state to help cope with stress. This practice represents

Question 7

Regarding figureground perception, which of the following statements is TRUE?

Question 8

Grouping disconnected pieces of information into a meaningful whole describes the Gestalt principle of

Question 9

Which theory of pitch best accounts for the perception of sounds between 1,000 and 4,000 cycles per second?

Question 10

The perception of stimuli that are presented below the threshold of conscious awareness is called

Question 11

Receptors for which of the following are located deepest in the skin?

Question 12

The basis of the place theory of pitch detection is that pitch is determined by the place along the _______ that vibrates the most.

Question 13

The study of events that cannot be explained by known psychological, physical, or biological mechanisms is referred to as

Question 14

Which of the following absolute thresholds for taste is correct?

Question 15

Neurons that respond to specific characteristics of the visual stimulus are called

Question 16

Which of the following best describes the organ of Corti?

Question 17

People who only see in black and white are called

Question 18

All but which of the following are examples of monocular cues for depth perception?

Question 19

Cathy takes three treatments of chemotherapy a week. At each session, she brings along novels on tape to listen to during her treatment. Cathy is using which method of pain management?

Question 20

According to signal detection theory, the threshold for detecting a signal depends on

 

Question 1

Dr. Barrington is a crosscultural researcher in the field of perception. She tests two groups of people to determine their susceptibility to the MüllerLyer illusion. Group 1 consists of Americans, while Group 2 consists of members of the African tribe of Zulus. Generalizing from previous research, what will Barrington find?

Question 2

Who won the Nobel Prize for discovering that the visual cortex contains nerve cells that respond only to lines of particular orientations?

Question 3

Austin experiences motion sickness on his first cruise vacation. From which two senses has Austin received conflicting information?

Question 4

Regarding the scientific evidence on the existence of extrasensory perception (ESP), which of the following statements is TRUE?

Question 5

Grouping disconnected pieces of information into a meaningful whole describes the Gestalt principle of

Question 6

All but which of the following are suggested by opponentprocess theory?

Question 7

Repeated exposure to the same stimulus ______ leads to _____ sensitivity in our sensory systems.

Question 8

Which theory of pitch best accounts for the perception of sounds between 1,000 and 4,000 cycles per second?

Question 9

In human hearing, the auditory receptors are _____ and approximately ______ are in each ear.

Question 10

Weber’s law suggests that

Question 11

Which of the following is an example of the depth cue of relative clarity?

Question 12

Pain receptors are located in all but which of the following?

Question 13

Which of the following is FALSE regarding sensory receptors?

Question 14

When Harold first enters his swimming pool, the water feels uncomfortably cold. Five minutes later, it feels comfortable to Harold. This is an example of

Question 15

The ratio of rods to cones is approximately

Question 16

The minimal difference between two stimuli that people can reliably detect is the

Question 17

Some birds must return to roost as darkness approaches. This is because their eyes contain

Question 18

Regarding pheromones, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 19

The part of the eye that changes shape to adjust for an object’s distance is the

Question 20

Hearing loss can occur after prolonged exposure to noise as low as _____ decibels, while hearing loss can result from brief exposure to sounds as low as ______ decibels.

 

Question 1 Pheromones play a role in which of the following animal behaviors?

Question 2 If you hold a round plate in your hand and turn it from side to side, the image it casts on your retina changes. Yet you still perceive the plate to be round. This phenomenon can be explained by the principle of

Question 3 Which of the following is an example of the depth cue of relative clarity?

Question 4 Among pitch theories, place theory best explains _______ frequency sounds, frequency theory best explains ______ frequency sounds, and volley principle best explains ______ frequency sounds.

Question 5 Dr. Rhoden conducts animal experiments on visual perception. Rhoden wants to stop the animal’s pupil from changing size, so he paralyzes the

Question 6 All of the following are basic tastes EXCEPT

Question 7 Rico is shown the following stimulus: X. When asked what he sees, Rico reports that he sees two intersecting lines rather than saying he sees four separate lines. Rico’s response demonstrates which Gestalt principle?

Question 8 People who only see in black and white are called

Question 9 Regarding the sense of smell, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 10 Regarding figure­ground perception, which of the following statements is TRUE?

Question 11 Jack has the most common form of color blindness. What type of color blindness does he have?

Question 12 Regarding vision, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 13 In human audition, the vibration of the ossicles is triggered by vibration of the _____ and transmitted directly to the ______.

Question 14 To see a dimly lit object at night, the image must fall on your

Question 15 Dr. Dawson’s research program is concerned with how a person’s experience changes as the intensity of a sound is increased. Dawson is studying

Question 16 In human hearing, the auditory receptors are _____ and approximately ______ are in each ear.

Question 17 Which sense is especially effective at stimulating emotional memories?

Question 18 The perception of stimuli that are presented below the threshold of conscious awareness is called

Question 19 Salvador is a stage magician. As part of his act, Salvador identifies the written contents of a sealed envelope. This aspect of Salvador’s performance is called

Question 20 Which of the following is FALSE regarding sensory receptors?

 

Question 1 Regarding color blindness, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 2 The basis of the place theory of pitch detection is that pitch is determined by the place along the _______ that vibrates the most.

Question 3 Difference thresholds are determined by a constant fraction of the magnitude of the original stimulus. This is the premise of

Question 4 Humans can hear frequencies between about ______ cycles per second.

Question 5 Joseph has been assisting the team doctor in his treatment of relatively minor but painful injuries for his football team. The doctor has carefully instructed Joseph to alternate between applying hot compresses and cold packs to the injured area. This treatment may be effective because both heat and cold send competing messages through the spinal cord that may temporarily block pain messages. This technique is known as

Question 6 Regarding vision, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 7 Which sense is especially effective at stimulating emotional memories?

Question 8 Limiting attention to certain stimuli and filtering out other stimuli is called

Question 9 Compared to people with average taste sensitivity, people who are “supertasters” have

Question 10 Red, green, and blue­violet light can be combined to create any color of the spectrum. This has been interpreted as supporting

Question 11 When you are presented with the following visual information, “A,” your brain sees a series of lines and angles in a particular format and interprets this visual information as the letter “A.” This is an example of which concept from perception?

Question 12 In human audition, the vibration of the ossicles is triggered by vibration of the _____ and transmitted directly to the ______.

Question 13 Signal detection theory predicts all but which of the following?

Question 14 Felicia is nearly hit by a car while crossing the street. Even though it is nearly dark and the colors of the cars appear faded, she tells the police officer it was definitely a blue car. Felicia’s experience is an example of ______.

Question 15 Depth cues that require the use of both eyes are called

Question 16 The process of sensation enables us to _________, where the process of perception enables us to _________.

Question 17 All of the following are basic tastes EXCEPT

Question 18 Evelyn walks past the cafe, which is emitting odors of fresh­brewed coffee. Evelyn smells the odors, and her brain tells her she wants a cup of the delicious brew. Which of the following is responsible for carrying impulses from odor receptors in Evelyn’s nose to her brain?

Question 19 Regarding the sensation of sound, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 20 The existence of afterimages provides support for the ________ theory of color vision.

 

Question 1 Rico is shown the following stimulus: X. When asked what he sees, Rico reports that he sees two intersecting lines rather than saying he sees four separate lines. Rico’s response demonstrates which Gestalt principle?

Question 2 The text discusses ______ types of perceptual constancy and they are ______.

Question 3 Salvador is a stage magician. As part of his act, Salvador identifies the written contents of a sealed envelope. This aspect of Salvador’s performance is called

Question 4 Trichromatic theory suggests that

Question 5 Which of the following absolute thresholds for taste is correct?

Question 6 The idea that the threshold for sensing a stimulus depends not only on the properties of the stimulus itself but on the level of background stimulation, as well as characteristics of the perceiver, is explained by

Question 7 Depth cues that require the use of both eyes are called

Question 8 Neurons that respond to specific characteristics of the visual stimulus are called

Question 9 Dustin suffers from chronic back pain as the result of an old injury. Any time he is required to sit for long periods, he makes sure to bring a music player into the treatment room with him, because he has found that listening to his favorite music helps him cope with the pain. Dustin is using the pain control technique of

Question 10 The tendency to perceive properties of an object as remaining the same despite changes in its retinal image is called

Question 11 Regarding light and vision, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 12 The minimal difference between two stimuli that people can reliably detect is the

Question 13 Sebastian’s eyeball is shorter than normal. Light from nearby objects is focused behind his retina instead of on his retina. What condition does Sebastian have?

Question 14 Receptor cells for which sense regenerate within a week to 10 days?

Question 15 Dr. Halpern tells his graduate student, Dwight, that he’ll need to deliver the lecture in Halpern’s psychology class today. When Halpern tells him that the lecture is on olfaction, Dwight knows he’ll be talking about which sense?

Question 16 When sensory systems become less sensitive to unchanging stimuli, it is called

Question 17 Regarding the skin senses, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 18 Regarding cross­cultural research on visual perception, which of the following has been found?

Question 19 In a research experiment, participants are shown a series of drawings before seeing an ambiguous picture that could be perceived as a rat or a man. Group 1 sees drawings of animals, while Group 2 sees drawings of humans. Perceptual set suggests which of the following results when participants are shown the ambiguous picture?

Question 20 When you are watching a movie, what type of apparent movement gives you the perception of a “moving picture”?

 

Question 1 Depth cues that require the use of both eyes are called

Question 2 When you are presented with the following visual information, “A,” your brain sees a series of lines and angles in a particular format and interprets this visual information as the letter “A.” This is an example of which concept from perception?

Question 3 Regarding the sensation of sound, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 4 Dr. Barrington is a cross­cultural researcher in the field of perception. She tests two groups of people to determine their susceptibility to the Müller­Lyer illusion. Group 1 consists of Americans, while Group 2 consists of members of the African tribe of Zulus. Generalizing from previous research, what will Barrington find?

Question 5 An object that reflects primarily long wavelength light would most stimulate which category of cone?

Question 6 Joseph has been assisting the team doctor in his treatment of relatively minor but painful injuries for his football team. The doctor has carefully instructed Joseph to alternate between applying hot compresses and cold packs to the injured area. This treatment may be effective because both heat and cold send competing messages through the spinal cord that may temporarily block pain messages. This technique is known as

Question 7 Even though two lines are of equal length, the one with outward pointing wings looks longer than the one with inward pointing wings. This is an example of the

Question 8 According to Weber’s Law, a person would be most sensitive to changes in which sensation?

Question 9 In the process of perception, the brain

Question 10 Graduate student Shalanda Huffman studies how physical sources of stimulation relate to the physical experience of these stimuli. Huffman’s field of study is called

Question 11 Regarding pheromones, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 12 Regarding light and vision, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 13 Humans can hear frequencies between about ______ cycles per second.

Question 14 Regarding the absolute and difference thresholds, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 15 All of the following senses go through the thalamus on the way to the cortex EXCEPT

Question 16 For the sharpest vision, the image of an object should be focused on the

Question 17 In the process of sensation, the sensory receptors

Question 18 Dustin suffers from chronic back pain as the result of an old injury. Any time he is required to sit for long periods, he makes sure to bring a music player into the treatment room with him, because he has found that listening to his favorite music helps him cope with the pain. Dustin is using the pain control technique of

Question 19 Grouping disconnected pieces of information into a meaningful whole describes the Gestalt principle of

Question 20 Receptors for which of the following are located deepest in the skin?

 

Question 1 The smallest amount of a stimulus that a person can reliably detect is called

Question 2 Which of the following describes the pupil?

Question 3 A foreign object has entered Kiara’s eye, leaving a scratch. The part of Kiara’s eye that is affected is her

Question 4 Jack has the most common form of color blindness. What type of color blindness does he have?

Question 5 In a research experiment, participants are shown a series of drawings before seeing an ambiguous picture that could be perceived as a rat or a man. Group 1 sees drawings of animals, while Group 2 sees drawings of humans. Perceptual set suggests which of the following results when participants are shown the ambiguous picture?

Question 6 Red, green, and blue­violet light can be combined to create any color of the spectrum. This has been interpreted as supporting

Question 7 Joseph has been assisting the team doctor in his treatment of relatively minor but painful injuries for his football team. The doctor has carefully instructed Joseph to alternate between applying hot compresses and cold packs to the injured area. This treatment may be effective because both heat and cold send competing messages through the spinal cord that may temporarily block pain messages. This technique is known as

Question 8 The vestibular sensory system includes

Question 9 Rico is shown the following stimulus: X. When asked what he sees, Rico reports that he sees two intersecting lines rather than saying he sees four separate lines. Rico’s response demonstrates which Gestalt principle?

Question 10 Which of the following suggests that pitch detection is coded by combining frequencies of neurons firing in alternate succession?

Question 11 Receptor cells for which sense regenerate within a week to 10 days?

Question 12 About what percentage of people are “supertasters”?

Question 13 All but which of the following are suggested by opponent­-process theory?

Question 14 When Harold first enters his swimming pool, the water feels uncomfortably cold. Five minutes later, it feels comfortable to Harold. This is an example of

Question 15 A psychologist Dr. Shonda Romblay is conducting an experiment to determine how different intensities of light affect the sensations these stimuli produce. The field of study she is exploring is called

Question 16 Salvador is a stage magician. As part of his act, Salvador identifies the written contents of a sealed envelope. This aspect of Salvador’s performance is called

Question 17 A recipe requires 10 grams of salt. According to Weber’s constant for saltiness, which is 1/5, how much more salt must a chef add to make the recipe noticeably saltier?

Question 18 Other factors being equal, which sensory stimulus is least likely to lead to sensory adaptation?

Question 19 Difference thresholds are determined by a constant fraction of the magnitude of the original stimulus. This is the premise of

Question 20 Some birds must return to roost as darkness approaches. This is because their eyes contain

 

If you hold a round plate in your hand and turn it from side to side, the image it casts on your retina changes. Yet you still perceive the plate to be round. This phenomenon can be explained by the principle of

Jack has the most common form of color blindness. What type of color blindness does he have?

Jonathan practices focused attention to induce a relaxed mental and physical state to help cope with stress. This practice represents

The process by which we receive, transform, and process stimuli is

Dr. Dawson’s research program is concerned with how a person’s experience changes as the intensity of a sound is increased. Dawson is studying

In a research experiment, participants are shown a series of drawings before seeing an ambiguous picture that could be perceived as a rat or a man. Group 1 sees drawings of animals, while Group 2 sees drawings of humans. Perceptual set suggests which of the following results when participants are shown the ambiguous picture?

A psychologist Dr. Shonda Romblay is conducting an experiment to determine how different intensities of light affect the sensations these stimuli produce. The field of study she is exploring is called

Graduate student Shalanda Huffman studies how physical sources of stimulation relate to the physical experience of these stimuli. Huffman’s field of study is called

Marlee’s right eardrum was punctured in an accident when she was three years old. She is deaf in her right ear, but is helped with a hearing aid that amplifies sound waves. What type of deafness does Marlee have?

Regarding the absolute and difference thresholds, which of the following statements is FALSE?

 

1. The process by which we receive, transform, and process stimuli is

a) sensation.

b) perception.

c) transduction.

d) reduction.

e) psychophysics.

2. The study of how physical sources of stimulation are related to our experience of these stimuli is termed

a) sensation.

b) perception.

c) biophysics.

d) psychophysics.

e) sensory adaptation.

3. Which German scientist is credited with initiating the scientific approach to psychology with his book Elements of Psychophysics?

a) Ernst Weber

b) Torsten Wiesel

c) Gustav Fechner

d) Max Wertheimer

e) Wilhelm Wundt

4. Dr. Dawson's research program is concerned with how a person's experience changes as the intensity of a sound is increased. Dr. Dawson is studying

a) psychophysics.

b) sensation.

c) perception.

d) transformation.

e) biophysics.

5. The smallest amount of a stimulus that a person can reliably detect is called the

a) absolute threshold.

b) difference threshold.

c) just-noticeable difference.

d) just-noticeable threshold.

e) constant threshold.

6. When the house was quiet, Rhonda, lying in bed, was able to hear the babysitter's watch ticking in the living room, from a distance of 15 feet away, about 50 percent of the time. But when the babysitter moved from the chair to the couch, another foot away, Rhonda was no longer able to hear the watch. The fact that Rhonda can hear the detect the ticking of the watch from that distance signals a(n)

a) difference threshold.

b) just-noticeable difference.

c) perceptual set.

d) absolute threshold.

e) subliminal threshold.

7. Which of the following is a test for an absolute threshold for taste?

a) Detecting a bitter taste in broccoli because one is a supertaster

b) Detecting a difference in tastes between two spots on the tongue that are one-eighth of an inch apart

c) Detecting one teaspoon of sugar dissolved in two gallons of water

d) Detecting the number and type of lemons that were used to make a pitcher of lemonade

e) Detecting the sweetness of a fruit while blindfolded

8. The absolute threshold for vision involves being able to see the flame of a candle flickering on a dark, clear night from a distance of about

a) 30 feet.

b) 300 feet.

c) 3 miles.

d) 30 miles.

e) 300 miles.

9. The ability to feel the wing of a bee falling on one's cheek from about 1 centimeter away is a(n)

a) difference threshold

b) example of subliminal perception.

c) just-noticeable difference.

d) absolute threshold for touch.

e) example of sensory adaptation.

10. The minimal difference between two stimuli that people can reliably detect is

a) the absolute threshold.

b) the difference threshold.

c) the perceptual threshold.

d) the sensitivity threshold.

e) Weber's constant.

11. Weber's constant for the volume of sound is 1/10. A car alarm is sounding off at 60 decibels. After 5 minutes, it is programmed to get louder. How loud does it have to be for people to perceive it as louder?

a) At least 61 decibels

b) At least 62 decibels

c) At least 65 decibels

d) At least 66 decibels

e) At least 70 decibels

12. "Make the TV louder," said Paula. "I did," said Jack, pointing at the remote. "Doesn't sound louder to me," said Paula. "Does to me," said Jack. Jack is failing to consider the discrepancy between his ______ and Paula's.

a) Weber's constant

b) subliminal difference

c) difference threshold

d) absolute threshold

e) absolute difference

13. Weber's law suggests that

a) absolute threshold measurements underestimate true perceptual sensitivity.

b) difference thresholds are a constant proportion of the original stimulus.

c) difference thresholds are a constant quantity.

d) difference thresholds decrease as stimuli increase.

e) difference thresholds increase as stimuli decrease.

14. With reference to Weber's constants, people are LEAST sensitive to changes in which of the following?

a) Pitch of sounds

b) Saltiness of food

c) Heaviness of weights

d) Brightness of lights

e) Odor

15. A recipe requires 10 grams of salt. Since Weber's constant for saltiness is 1/5, how much more salt must a chef add to make the recipe noticeably saltier?

a) 0.2 gram

b) 2 grams

c) 5 grams

d) 10.2 grams

e) 10.5 grams

16. According to Weber's law, people are most sensitive to changes in which sensation?

a) The loudness of sounds

b) The heaviness of weight

c) The saltiness of food

d) The brightness of lights

e) The pitch of sounds

17. The idea that the threshold for sensing a stimulus depends not only on the properties of the stimulus itself but also on the level of background stimulation is explained by

a) Weber's law.

b) dual-process theory.

c) opponent-process theory.

d) signal-detection theory.

e) sensory adaptation.

18. Which of the following is a psychological factor that influences a person's threshold for determining a visual signal?

a) The sensitivity of her visual system

b) Her level of fatigue

c) Her physical health

d) Her level of alertness

e) Her level of motivation

19. If you are expecting a telephone call, you may be more likely to notice the telephone ringing while you are in the shower than if you were not expecting a call. This example is an illustration of

a) signal-detection theory.

b) Weber's law.

c) sensory adaptation.

d) opponent-process theory.

e) dual-process theory.

20. Roger was studying psychology in his quiet bedroom when there was a loud "pop" in the apartment next door. Later, when the police asked him whether he heard a gunshot, he said, "No, I guess I was concentrating too hard on my studies." According to Roger, the fact that he did not detect the signal is due mostly to

a) the properties of the stimulus.

b) the level of background stimulation.

c) his physical condition.

d) psychological factors

e) the sensitivity of his hearing.

21. The phenomenon whereby sensory systems become less sensitive to unchanging stimuli is called

a) discrimination threshold shift.

b) sensory adaptation.

c) signal-detection.

d) threshold degradation.

e) psychophysics.

22. Other factors being equal, which sensory stimulus is LEAST likely to lead to sensory adaptation?

a) The wail of a loud car alarm

b) The sound of a grandfather clock ticking

c) The offensive odors of a cattle farm

d) The pressure of wearing a new bracelet on one's wrist

e) The temperature of water when one enters a pool

23. When Harold first enters his swimming pool, the water feels uncomfortably cold. Five minutes later, the water feels comfortable to Harold. This is an example of

a) transduction.

b) sensory adaptation.

c) Weber's law.

d) signal-detection theory.

e) just-noticeable difference.

24. Differentiate between absolute and difference thresholds.

25. Visible light consists of wavelengths of approximately

a) 100-550 nanometers.

b) 200-650 nanometers.

c) 300-750 nanometers.

d) 400-850 nanometers.

e) 500-950 nanometers.

26. Which color of the spectrum has the shortest wavelength?

a) Violet

b) Red

c) Yellow

d) Indigo

e) Green

27. When you scratch your eye, the part that is actually scratched is the

a) pupil.

b) iris.

c) lens.

d) fovea.

e) cornea.

28. The muscle that regulates the amount of light entering the eye is the

a) lens.

b) cornea.

c) pupil.

d) iris.

e) fovea.

29. Dr. Rhoden conducts animal experiments on visual perception. Rhoden wants to stop the animal's pupil from changing size, so he paralyzes the

a) cornea.

b) iris.

c) lens.

d) retina.

e) pupil.

30. Which part of your eye gives your eye its color?

a) The cornea

b) The iris

c) The pupil

d) The fovea

e) The retina

31. Which of the following describes the pupil?

a) An opening through which light enters the eye

b) A part of the eye that adjusts its shape to view objects at varying distances

c) A transparent covering at the front of the eye

d) A part of the eye that contains the photoreceptors

e) A structure responsible for peripheral vision

32. The part of the eye that changes shape to adjust for an object's distance is the

a) lens.

b) pupil.

c) cornea.

d) retina.

e) iris.

33. The photoreceptors, or sensory cells, of the human eye are located in the

a) iris.

b) lens.

c) cornea.

d) pupil.

e) retina.

34. Only rods allow us to see

a) in dim light.

b) colors.

c) fine detail.

d) under bright illumination.

e) moving objects.

Type: conceptual

35. In vision, the sensory receptors are called

a) ganglion cells.

b) hair-cell receptors.

c) bipolar cells.

d) optic nerves.

e) rods and cones.

36. The ratio of rods to cones is approximately

a) 10 to 1.

b) 1 to 10.

c) 20 to 1.

d) 1 to 20.

e) 1 to 1.

37. Which of the following is true of cones?

a) They are responsible for peripheral vision.

b) They are more sensitive to light than are rods.

c) They provide detailed vision.

d) They function in dim light.

e) They allow some animals, such as bats, to see at night.

Type: conceptual

38. Since they can see only during the daylight, some birds must return to roost as darkness approaches. This is because their eyes contain

a) cones, but no rods.

b) rods, but no cones.

c) inefficient cones.

d) inefficient rods.

e) no rods or cones

39. To see a dimly lit object at night, the image must fall on your

a) fovea.

b) blind spot.

c) cones.

d) rods.

e) optic nerve.

40. The nerve cells in the back of the eye that transmit neural impulses in response to chemical changes in the rods and cones are

a) bipolar cells.

b) optic cells.

c) foveal cells.

d) retinal cells.

e) ganglion cells.

41. The optic nerve is made up of the ________ of the ________ cells.

a) axons; bipolar

b) dendrites; bipolar

c) axons; ganglion

d) dendrites; ganglion

e) dendrites; optic

42. The optic nerve transmits information to the visual cortex in the brain via the

a) basal ganglia.

b) thalamus.

c) hypothalamus.

d) hippocampus.

e) amygdala.

43. What is true about the blind spot?

a) It contains rods but not cones.

b) It contains cones but not rods.

c) It contains both rods and cones.

d) It's the part of the retina where the optic nerve leaves the eye.

e) It's the part of the retina where light is converted into neural signals.

44. For the sharpest vision, the image of an object should be focused on the

a) fovea.

b) blind spot.

c) optic chiasm.

d) optic nerve.

e) retina.

45. Who won the Nobel Prize for discovering that the visual cortex contains nerve cells that respond only when an animal is shown a line with a particular orientation?

a) Ewald Hering

b) Hermann von Helmholtz and Thomas Young

c) Ernst Weber

d) Gustav Theodor Fechner

e) David Hubel and Torsten Wiesel

46. Neurons that respond to specific characteristics of the visual stimulus are called

a) photoreceptors.

b) ganglion cells.

c) bipolar cells.

d) optic neurons.

e) feature detectors.

47. The role of feature detectors is to

a) respond to specific objects such as a house.

b) detect color stimuli.

c) detect black and white stimuli.

d) respond to very simple stimuli such as a horizontal line.

e) regulate the size of the pupil.

48. Trichromatic theory suggests that

a) the retina has one type of color receptor that responds differently to each color.

b) the retina has two types of color receptors that respond in a different manner for each color.

c) the retina has three types of color receptors—red, green, and blue-violet.

d) color results from opposing processes involving three sets of color receptors, red-green, blue-yellow, and black-white.

e) color vision is a function of brain activity.

49. Red, green, and blue-violet light can be combined to create any color of the spectrum. This has been interpreted as supporting

a) trichromatic theory of color vision.

b) opponent-process theory of color vision.

c) feature detection theory of color vision.

d) color constancy theory of color vision.

e) the existence of afterimages.

50. In color vision, blue-violet cones are most sensitive to ________ wavelengths, red cones to ________ wavelengths, and green cones to ________ wavelengths.

a) short; middle; long

b) short; long; middle

c) long; short; middle

d) long; middle; short

e) middle; short; long

51. An object that reflects primarily long-wavelength light would most stimulate which category of cone?

a) blue-violet

b) green

c) red

d) yellow

e) black-white

52. Regarding the theories of color vision, which of the following is true?

a) Trichromatic theory is supported by the behavior of cells lying between the cones and the occipital lobe of the cerebral cortex.

b) Opponent-process theory is supported at the receptor level.

c) Most authorities today suggest that color vision includes elements of both trichromatic and opponentprocess theories.

d) Trichromatic theory is based on Hering's work with afterimages.

e) Opponent-process theory suggests that the eyes have four types of color receptors.

53. Alice has the job of lighting director for the school play. She wants the Cowardly Lion to be bathed in yellow light. In front of her is a console with three buttons: red, blue, and green. Which ones would give her yellow light?

a) Blue and red

b) Blue and green

c) Red, blue, and green

d) Red and green

e) No combination of any of the three

54. Negative afterimages provide support for which theory of color vision?

a) Trichromatic theory

b) Feature detection theory

c) Color constancy theory

d) D. Young-Helmholtz theory

e) Opponent-process theory

55. Regarding colorblindness, which of the following statements is true?

a) More women than men suffer from red-green color-blindness.

b) Blue-yellow colorblindness is more common than red-green colorblindness.

c) People who are dichromats can perceive the world only in shades of gray.

d) About one in every forty thousand people is completely colorblind.

e) Red-green colorblindness appears to be carried on the Y chromosome.

56. What is the most common form of colorblindness?

a) Blue-green

b) Red-yellow

c) Red-green

d) Blue-yellow

e) Blue-red

57. People who see only in black and white are called

a) monochromats.

b) dichromats.

c) trichromats.

d) unichromats.

e) partially colorblind.

58. Describe how the eyes process light.

59. Summarize the two major theories of color vision.

60. Kim wrote a term paper about the sense of hearing. She might have titled her paper

a) All About Audition

b) Knowing Everything There Is to Know About Kinesthesis

c) Valuing the Vestibular Sense

d) Facts of Olfaction.

e) Thinking About Telepathy

61. Which physical property of a sound wave is represented by its height?

a) Pitch

b) Frequency

c) Timbre

d) Audition

e) Amplitude

62. Rebecca tells Tom that he is singing "off pitch." Rebecca is referring to which physical property of sound?

a) Amplitude

b) Frequency

c) Loudness

d) Speed

e) Decibel

63. Humans can hear frequencies between

a) 100,000 and 200,000 cycles per second.

b) 50,000 and 100,000 cycles per second.

c) 20,000 and 50,000 cycles per second.

d) 20 and 20,000 cycles per second.

e) 1 and 20 cycles per second.

64. Which of the following statements is true about sound waves?

a) Sound waves travel faster than light waves.

b) The frequency of sound waves determines their perceived loudness.

c) Humans hear by sensing sound waves that result from changes in the pressure of air or water.

d) Pitch, the perception of how high or low a sound seems, corresponds to the amplitude of the sound wave.

e) Sound waves can travel through the empty reaches of outer space.

65. In sound waves, height of the wave is to ________ as number of complete waves is to ________.

a) pitch; frequency

b) frequency; pitch

c) amplitude; decibel

d) decibel; amplitude

e) amplitude; frequency

66. Women's voices are generally higher than men's voices because their vocal cords tend to be ________ and to vibrate ________.

a) shorter; more slowly.

b) longer; faster.

c) longer; more slowly.

d) shorter; faster.

e) thinner; more slowly.

67. In what order do the ossicles vibrate during hearing?

a) Anvil, hammer, stirrup

b) Stirrup, hammer, anvil

c) Stirrup, anvil, hammer

d) Hammer, stirrup, anvil

e) Hammer, anvil, stirrup

68. Which of the following best describes the organ of Corti?

a) An auditory receptor that transforms vibration of sound waves into neural impulses

b) A gelatinous structure in the cochlea that contains the auditory receptors

c) A sheet of connective tissue separating the outer ear from the middle ear

d) A shell-shaped organ in the inner ear that contains sensory receptors for hearing

e) A collection of tiny bones in the middle ear that vibrate in response to vibrations from the eardrum

69. The brain can detect differences in arrival times to the ears of as little as

a) 1 second.

b) 1/10 of a second.

c) 1/100 of a second.

d) 1/1,000 of a second.

e) 1/10,000 of a second.

70. The belief that the experience of pitch is related to alternate firing of groups of neurons along the basilar membrane is known as

a) the volley principle.

b) place theory.

c) gate-control theory.

d) frequency theory.

e) the succession principle.

71. The basis of the place theory of pitch detection is that pitch is determined by the place that vibrates the most along the

a) eardrum.

b) basilar membrane.

c) oval window.

d) auditory nerve.

e) ossicles.

72. High-frequency sounds cause the greatest vibration of

a) hair cells in the middle of the basilar membrane.

b) hair cells nearest the oval window.

c) hair cells nearest the auditory nerve.

d) hair cells farthest down the basilar membrane from the oval window.

e) the membrane of the eardrum.

73. Which theory of pitch is used to account for the perception of sounds between 1,000 and 4,000 cycles per second?

a) Place theory

b) Trichromatic theory

c) Frequency theory

d) Opponent-process theory

e) Volley principle

74. Place theory and frequency theory explain how we detect ________ pitches, and volley principle explains how we detect ________ pitches.

a) mid-range; high and low

b) high and low; mid-range

c) mid-range and high; low

d) mid-range and low; high

e) low; mid-range and high

75. Approximately ________ Americans have hearing problems, and approximately ________ are deaf.

a) 2 million; 100,000

b) 5 million; 200,000

c) 10 million; 1 million

d) 30 million; 2 million

e) 50 million; 5 million

76. Sound from which of the following should produce the most danger to hearing upon brief exposure?

a) A ringing telephone

b) A jet airplane

c) A lawn mower

d) A jack hammer

e) Headphones

77. The loudness of normal conversation is about how many decibels?

a) 25

b) 50

c) 75

d) 100

e) 125

78. Marlee's right eardrum was punctured in an accident when she was three years old. She is deaf in her right eardrum but is helped with a hearing aid that amplifies sound waves. What type of deafness does Marlee have?

a) Nerve

b) Continuity

c) Closure

d) Subliminal

e) Conduction

79. Conduction deafness is to ________ as nerve deafness is to ________.

a) outer ear; inner ear

b) inner ear; outer ear

c) middle ear; inner ear

d) inner ear; middle ear

e) middle ear; outer ear

80. Regarding hearing loss, which of the following is true?

a) Cochlear implants can help correct damage to the auditory nerve.

b) Permanent hearing loss results from prolonged exposure to sounds of at least 60 decibels.

c) People with conduction deafness cannot benefit from hearing aids.

d) Hearing loss in later life is inevitable.

e) Most hearing loss in later life is the result of years of abuse from loud music and noise.

81. Summarize the three major theories of pitch perception.

82. Which of the following are the chemical senses?

a) Touch and smell

b) Touch and taste

c) Touch, taste, and kinesthesis

d) Taste, smell, and kinesthesis

e) Taste and smell

83. Olfaction refers to the sense of

a) taste.

b) touch.

c) seeing.

d) hearing.

e) smell.

84. Which of the following statements is true about olfaction?

a) Human nasal passageways contain about 1,000 odor receptors.

b) Human odor receptors are capable of sensing about 1,000,000 different substances.

c) All odor molecules have the same shape.

d) Smell is the only sense in which sensory information does not go through the thalamus on its way to the cerebral cortex.

e) The intensity of an odor depends on the size of a substance's odor molecules.

85. All of the following senses go through the thalamus on the way to the cortex EXCEPT

a) vision.

b) smell.

c) hearing.

d) taste.

e) touch.

86. Which sense has connections with several structures in the limbic system and is especially effective at stimulating emotional memories?

a) Smell

b) Taste

c) Hearing

d) Vision

e) Touch

87. Which of the following is(are) responsible for carrying impulses from the odor receptors in the nose to the brain?

a) Olfactory bulb

b) Olfactory nerve

c) Taste buds

d) Pheromones

e) Vestibular organ

88. Renee is smelling a rose. Its odor's chemical molecules lock into the odor receptors in Renee's nose. The resulting neural impulses then follow which path?

a) Olfactory bulb to olfactory nerve to olfactory cortex in the parietal lobe

b) Olfactory nerve to olfactory bulb to olfactory cortex in the temporal lobe

c) Olfactory nerve to thalamus to olfactory cortex in the temporal lobe

d) Olfactory nerve to olfactory bulb to olfactory cortex in the occipital lobe

e) Olfactory nerve to olfactory cortex to olfactory bulb in the occipital lobe

89. Various species emit chemical substances that play important roles in many behaviors. These substances are called

a) hormones.

b) pheromones.

c) neurotransmitters.

d) perfumes.

e) olfactions.

90. Which of the following is true about pheromones?

a) Pheromones are human sexual hormones.

b) Humans lack the receptors needed to sense pheromones.

c) Pheromones are not associated with sexual behavior in animals.

d) Scientists have found that pheromones influence sexual attraction in humans.

e) The role of pheromones in human sexual behavior remains unclear.

91. In studies cited in the text, when women were exposed to male sweat, what were the findings?

a) Some complained of nausea; others became sexually aroused.

b) Some felt relaxed; others complained of nausea.

c) Some felt relaxed; others became sexually aroused.

d) All became nauseated.

e) All became sexually aroused.

92. All of the following are basic tastes EXCEPT

a) sweet.

b) salty.

c) sour.

d) savory.

e) bitter.

93. The taste receptors are called

a) taste cells.

b) taste buds.

c) gustatory nerves.

d) taste nodes.

e) gustatory nodes.

94. Receptor cells for which sense regenerate within a week to ten days?

a) Vision

b) Audition

c) Taste

d) Touch

e) Olfaction

95. Regarding the sense of taste, which of the following statements is true?

a) People without tongues are unable to sense taste.

b) The receptors for taste are located mostly on the tongue.

c) When taste receptors are "killed off" by hot foods, they remain inactive.

d) Genetic factors do not play a large role in either taste sensitivity or taste preferences.

e) Pigs are unable to taste sweetness, whereas cats are able to do so.

96. Compared to people with average taste sensitivity, people who are "supertasters" have

a) different types of taste buds.

b) more sensitive taste buds.

c) a very dense network of taste buds.

d) bigger taste buds.

e) fewer specialized taste buds.

97. Approximately what percent of people are "supertasters"?

a) 5 percent

b) 10 percent

c) 25 percent

d) 40 percent

e) 50 percent

98. Other factors being equal, which person is most likely to be a "supertaster"?

a) Yuan, an Asian man

b) Yuna, an Asian woman

c) Lenny, a European-American man

d) Betty, a European-American woman

e) Gaspar, a Hispanic-American man

99. Which of the following statements is true about the skin senses?

a) Sensations for hotness are produced by stimulation of specialized&

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