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Liberty University PSYC 101 quiz 1 complete Answers | Rated A+
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Liberty University PSYC 101 quiz 1 complete Answers | Rated A+

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Chapter 1

Question 1

Dr. von Waldner conducts research on depression. His hypothesis is that depression results from maladaptive thought patterns. From which perspective is von Waldner working?

Question 2

Dr. Spires talks with some students before psychology class begins. Spires says, “I believe that mental experience is best understood as a whole, rather than in terms of its parts.” Her students recognize that Spires describes which school of thought?

Question 3

Regarding the psychodynamic perspective, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 4

All of the following are steps in the scientific method EXCEPT

Question 5

______ describes the attempt to duplicate research findings reported by other scientists.

Question 6

Dr. Williamson works with the FBI to develop personality profiles of rapists. Williamson is probably a(n) ______ psychologist.

Question 7

Agreement to participate in a study following disclosure of information about its purposes and potential risks and benefits is called

Question 8

In 1970, women accounted for about what proportion of new doctorates in psychology?

Question 9

Caroline Sherry is a counseling psychologist. Which of the following is she LEAST likely to see as a client?

Question 10

A school psychologist would be most likely to

Question 11

Who is generally recognized as the founder of American psychology?

Question 12

Your psychology professor refers to a research study and says the results were “statistically significant.” Which step in the scientific method does this apply?

Question 13

______ is a growing movement in psychology directed toward studies of human experience such as hope, happiness, and altruism.

Question 14

Developmental psychologists study which aspects of development across the lifespan?

Question 15

Dr. Holder is a psychologist working from the sociocultural perspective. In her research, which variable is Dr. Holder LEAST likely to study?

Question 16

As a humanist, Dr. Randall is most likely interested in all but which of the following questions?

Question 17

Which of the following statements is NOT true of a correlation?

Question 18

As scientists, psychologists have confidence in theories that

Question 19

Ethics review committees are typically composed of

Question 20

Which of the following early pioneers of psychology was a poor student and was required to repeat a grade?

 

Question 1

A placebo effect would be most likely to account for changes in

Question 2

Animal trainer Bob Jeffers uses rewards to teach his animals to perform circus tricks. Jeffers’s techniques are based on principles from which school of psychology?

Question 3

The American Psychological Association was founded in which year?

Question 4

Which theorists are associated with humanistic psychology?

Question 5

Social desirability bias and volunteer bias are problems typically associated with which research method?

Question 6

Women now account for about what proportion of doctorates in psychology?

Question 7

In a drug study, group one receives an inactive pill and group two receives a pill that is believed to be effective in treating depression. Group two is the

Question 8

______ describes the attempt to duplicate research findings reported by other scientists.

Question 9

The approach that studies the relationships between biological processes and behavior is termed

Question 10

Regarding functionalism, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 11

Wundt is to ______ as James is to ______.

Question 12

Which type of psychologist would be interested in memory loss in elderly individuals?

Question 13

Who is the only African American to have served as president of the American Psychological Association?

Question 14

Which of the following mental health professionals is most likely a behavior therapist?

Question 15

Your professor stated that stress can lead to heart disease. She cited several medical studies to show that stress was linked to heart disease. Therefore, she said we should avoid all forms of stress in order to ensure living a long and healthy life. The professor needs to rethink advice based on which of the following features of critical thinking?

Question 16

Which of the following is the newest movement in contemporary psychology?

Question 17

Which of the following pioneers of psychology was a therapist?

Question 18

Which of the following does NOT belong?

Question 19

As a humanist, Dr. Randall is most likely interested in all but which of the following questions?

Question 20

Regarding the psychodynamic perspective, which of the following statements is FALSE?

 

Question 1 Which of the following is the correct order of steps in the scientific method?

Question 2 The work of ______ psychologists often overlaps with the work of psychiatrists.

Question 3 Which of the following pioneers of psychology was a therapist?

Question 4 A movement with modern psychology that applies principles from Darwin’s theories is called

Question 5 Regarding functionalism, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 6 Dr. Chen finds in her study of people’s charitable habits that individuals overestimate the amount of money they give to their churches and private schools. Dr. Chen’s results may reflect

Question 7 Which of the following statements would be made by a humanist?

Question 8 In her dissertation research, a graduate student finds a correlation of +0.95 between two of the variables being studied. How should she interpret this correlation coefficient?

Question 9 Your psychology professor refers to a research study and says the results were “statistically significant.” What does this mean?

Question 10 Which type of psychologist might administer an intelligence test to your 12­year­old child to determine if he or she should be in special education classes?

Question 11 Your professor stated that stress can lead to heart disease. She cited several medical studies to show that stress was linked to heart disease. Therefore, she said we should avoid all forms of stress in order to ensure living a long and healthy life. The professor needs to rethink advice based on which of the following features of critical thinking?

Question 12 Regarding training to work in the field of psychology, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 13 Dr. Holder is a psychologist working from the sociocultural perspective. In her research, which variable is Dr. Holder LEAST likely to study?

Question 14 Ethics review committees are typically composed of

Question 15 _____ psychologists study the relationship between psychological factors and the prevention and treatment of physical illness.

Question 16 In a drug study, group one receives an inactive pill and group two receives a pill that is believed to be effective in treating depression. Group two is the

Question 17 A member of which minority group is least likely to be the recipient of a doctorate in the field of psychology?

Question 18 Psychology made the transition from philosophy to science with which event?

Question 19 The ethical code of psychologists is based on all but which of the following ideas?

Question 20 An emphasis on the unconscious and early childhood experience characterizes which school of psychology?

 

Question 1 Which of the following statements is NOT true of a correlation?

Question 2 Dr. Vickers just took a position as an educational psychologist with the Blackstone School System. Of the following tasks, which is Vickers LEAST likely to do in this position?

Question 3 Which type of psychologist would be interested in memory loss in elderly individuals?

Question 4 ______ was the first African American to receive a doctorate in psychology in the United States, and ______ was the first African American to publish research findings in a major journal.

Question 5 Psychology is a scientific discipline in that it focuses on

Question 6 An emphasis on the unconscious and early childhood experience characterizes which school of psychology?

Question 7 One of the main reasons that information published in scientific journals is trustworthy is because

Question 8 Dr. Finnegan, a psychological researcher, ensures that he maintains the privacy of his research records. Which ethical principle does this example describe?

Question 9 Which of the following is the most complete definition of psychology?

Question 10 A researcher adhering to the psychodynamic perspective would likely believe that depression

Question 11 The use of the survey method is limited by which types of biases?

Question 12 All of the following are steps in the scientific method EXCEPT

Question 13 Your professor stated that stress can lead to heart disease. She cited several medical studies to show that stress was linked to heart disease. Therefore, she said we should avoid all forms of stress in order to ensure living a long and healthy life. The professor needs to rethink advice based on which of the following features of critical thinking?

Question 14 Which type of psychologist would evaluate whether overcrowding in urban areas is associated with increased violent crimes?

Question 15 You see a journal article entitled, “Injection of Happystuff Causes a Reduction in Symptoms of Depression in Adult Males.” This tells you that the independent variable

Question 16 ______ is a growing movement in psychology directed toward studies of human experience such as hope, happiness, and altruism.

Question 17 Regarding Mary Whiton Calkins, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 18 The behaviorist emphasis on observable events as the focus of inquiry can be traced to which philosopher?

Question 19 Caroline Sherry is a counseling psychologist. Which of the following is she LEAST likely to see as a client?

Question 20 A method of developing knowledge based on the evaluation of evidence from experiments and careful observation is called the ______ approach.

 

Question 1 Regarding the major contemporary perspectives in psychology, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 2 Dr. Wilmington is a social psychologist who studies the topic of love. He goes to a variety of places where couples are found and watches how they interact with each other. Which research method is Dr. Wilmington using for his study?

Question 3 Which theorists are associated with humanistic psychology?

Question 4 Which of the following early pioneers of psychology was a poor student and was required to repeat a grade?

Question 5 In a drug study, group one receives an inactive pill and group two receives a pill that is believed to be effective in treating depression. Group two is the

Question 6 The word ‘psychology’ comes from two Greek roots that mean

Question 7 All of the following are steps in the scientific method EXCEPT

Question 8 In 1970, women accounted for about what proportion of new doctorates in psychology?

Question 9 Regarding the psychodynamic perspective, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 10 The work of ______ psychologists often overlaps with the work of psychiatrists.

Question 11 Which of the following relationships would most likely have the weakest correlation?

Question 12 As scientists, psychologists have confidence in theories that

Question 13 Your dog is demonstrating some unacceptable behavior. You are able to go back in time to talk to one of the pioneers of psychology. Who would be the best choice to help with your problem?

Question 14 A correlation coefficient of 0.00 means

Question 15 The major proponent of behaviorism for much of the 20 th century was

Question 16 A school psychologist would be most likely to

Question 17 Your psychology professor refers to a research study and says the results were “statistically significant.” Which step in the scientific method does this apply?

Question 18 Dr. von Waldner conducts research on depression. His hypothesis is that depression results from maladaptive thought patterns. From which perspective is von Waldner working?

Question 19 Which of the following psychologists is most likely to study how humans process information?

Question 20 Which subspecialty represents the largest group of psychologists?

 

Question 1 Dr. Finnegan, a psychological researcher, ensures that he maintains the privacy of his research records. Which ethical principle does this example describe?

Question 2 Who is generally recognized as the founder of American psychology?

Question 3 Dr. Fiennes, a psychological researcher, studies the biological bases of memory problems in the elderly using animal research subjects. Fiennes is a(n) ______ psychologist.

Question 4 Which type of psychologist would be interested in memory loss in elderly individuals?

Question 5 What is the most common doctoral degree awarded in the field of psychology?

Question 6 A researcher adhering to the psychodynamic perspective would likely believe that depression

Question 7 ______ describes the attempt to duplicate research findings reported by other scientists.

Question 8 Dr. Burlington works with Ivy University’s basketball team, where he helps the athletes handle competitive pressures. He is also conducting a study to determine the most important factors influencing athletic performance anxiety. Burlington is probably a(n) ______ psychologist.

Question 9 The word ‘psychology’ comes from two Greek roots that mean

Question 10 A school psychologist would be most likely to

Question 11 Every participant in an experiment has an equal chance of receiving one of the treatments. This is called

Question 12 Psychology is a scientific discipline in that it focuses on

Question 13 Regarding behaviorism, which of the following statements is FALSE?

Question 14 A correlation coefficient of 0.00 means

Question 15 Psychology made the transition from philosophy to science with which event?

Question 16 In researching a report on John Watson, which of the following search terms would yield the best results?

Question 17 An extension of the behavioral perspective that incorporates the study of mental processes is termed ________.

Question 18 An industrial/organizational psychologist would typically

Question 19 Dr. von Waldner conducts research on depression. His hypothesis is that depression results from maladaptive thought patterns. From which perspective is von Waldner working?

Question 20 A developmental psychologist would most likely

 

Question 1 What is the most common doctoral degree awarded in the field of psychology?

Question 2 This early pioneer in psychology, who developed a new theory of color vision, received his/her Ph.D. several decades after completing all of the requirements for the degree.

Question 3 The Gestalt school of psychology was founded by_________.

Question 4 A member of which minority group is least likely to be the recipient of a doctorate in the field of psychology?

Question 5 Which of the following is the most complete definition of psychology?

Question 6 Christine Ladd­Franklin is credited as being

Question 7 Ajit is a graduate student in psychology who is conducting research on the effectiveness of two types of therapy in the treatment of phobias. Ajit is at the stage where he uses statistics to analyze the data he has collected in order to determine if his initial hypothesis is supported by the research. At which stage of the scientific method is Ajit working?

Question 8 Dr. von Waldner conducts research on depression. His hypothesis is that depression results from maladaptive thought patterns. From which perspective is von Waldner working?

Question 9 As a humanist, Dr. Randall is most likely interested in all but which of the following questions?

Question 10 ______ is a growing movement in psychology directed toward studies of human experience such as hope, happiness, and altruism.

Question 11 Your psychology professor asks a student volunteer to concentrate on eating an apple and then describe the individual elements of that experience. Your professor is demonstrating the technique of _______, which is a technique used by investigators of ________.

Question 12 Which of the following does NOT belong?

Question 13 All but which of the following are cognitive factors that influence behavior?

Question 14 A researcher adhering to the psychodynamic perspective would likely believe that depression

Question 15 Who is the only African American to have served as president of the American Psychological Association?

Question 16 Your dog is demonstrating some unacceptable behavior. You are able to go back in time to talk to one of the pioneers of psychology. Who would be the best choice to help with your problem?

Question 17 In researching a report on John Watson, which of the following search terms would yield the best results?

Question 18 Developmental psychologist Arthur Chang watches children in a daycare center through a one­way mirror. Chang is utilizing which form of research?

Question 19 Which of the following relationships would most likely have the weakest correlation?

Question 20 Which of the following is the newest movement in contemporary psychology?

 

Which of the following relationships would most likely have the weakest correlation

The “third force” in psychology is more formally known as

Dr. Vickers just took a position as an educational psychologist with the Blackstone School System. Of the following tasks, which is Vickers LEAST likely to do in this position?

Which perspective is most responsible for bringing issues related to diversity to the forefront of psychological research?

The founder of behaviorism was

Your psychology professor refers to a research study and says the results were “statistically significant.” What does this mean?

In an experiment, the ______ group receives the manipulation of the independent variable.

Which of the following is the correct order of steps in the scientific method?

Agreement to participate in a study following disclosure of information about its purposes and potential risks and benefits is called

Anna works for Federal Motors Corporation in the Human Factors Division. Her job is to identify ways in which engineers can design the instrumentation of the onboard navigational system to be easiest for their customers to use. Anna is most likely which type of psychologist?

Psychology made the transition from philosophy to science with which event?

An emphasis on the unconscious and early childhood experience characterizes which school of psychology?

 

1. Which of the following is the most complete definition of psychology?

a) Psychology is the science of abnormal behavior and thoughts.

b) Psychology is the science of behavior.

c) Psychology is the science of mental processes.

d) Psychology is the science of behavior and mental processes.

e) Psychology is the art of behavior and mental processes.

2. What makes psychology a scientific discipline?

a) Its discounting of tradition and folklore

b) Its focus on testing theories

c) Its reliance on popular opinion

d) Its emphasis on mental, as opposed to behavioral, processes

e) Its valuing of scholarly opinions over laboratory tests

3. Which Greek philosopher first espoused the idea that people are motivated by a pleasure principle?

a) Socrates

b) Plato

c) Sophocles

d) Confucius

e) Aristotle

4. Psychology made the transition from philosophy to science with which event?

a) Fechner published Elements of Psychophysics.

b) Confucius proposed the idea that humans have an inborn capacity for good.

c) G. Stanley Hall founded the American Psychological Association.

d) Titchener brought methods of introspection to the United States.

e) Wundt founded the first psychological laboratory.

5. For her first psychology paper in graduate school, Tina decided to write about the subject of psychophysics. Which of the following is most likely to be the name of her paper?

a) Men's physical reactions to different concentrations of perfume

b) People's reflections upon first coming in contact with "silly putty"

c) Why do only women wear makeup?

d) Why are people susceptible to optical illusions?

e) Which parts of the mind are activated when one looks at great art?

6. G. Stanley Hall is known for all of the following EXCEPT:

a) He founded the American Psychological Association.

b) He is considered the founder of American psychology.

c) He was the first president of the American Psychological Association.

d) He established the first psychological laboratory in the United States.

e) He was the first American to work in Wundt's laboratory.

7. Which of the following early pioneers of psychology became the first scientist of the mind?

a) Fechner

b) von Helmholtz

c) James

d) Wundt

e) Titchener

8. You have been assigned to write a report on Wilhelm Wundt's contributions to psychology. Which would be the most useful term for an Internet search?

a) Introspection

b) Psychodynamic

c) Behaviorism

d) Association

e) Humanism

9. A functionalist is most likely to ask which of the following questions?

a) Can you describe the taste of a peach?

b) What is the purpose of superstitions?

c) What does the texture of chalk remind you of?

d) How does seeing a butterfly make you feel?

e) What thoughts does this musical passage evoke?

10. Your psychology professor asks a student volunteer to concentrate on an apple and describe the individual elements of that experience. Your professor is demonstrating the technique of

a) psychoanalysis.

b) introspection.

c) natural selection.

d) humanism.

e) stream of consciousness.

11. Psychological researcher Dr. Tatrino relies chiefly on introspection. Tatrino probably belongs to which school of psychology?

a) Behaviorism

b) Structuralism

c) Humanism

d) Functionalism

e) Psychodynamic

12. Which of the following schools of thought focused on breaking conscious experience into its component parts?

a) Psychoanalysis

b) Structuralism

c) Gestalt

d) Introspection

e) Functionalism

13. Which early school of psychology is associated with the method of introspection?

a) Behaviorism

b) Gestalt

c) Functionalism

d) Structuralism

e) Social-cognitive

14. Who is generally recognized as the founder of American psychology?

a) Hall

b) James

c) Wundt

d) Freud

e) Watson

15. Wundt is to ________ as James is to ________.

a) structuralism; Gestalt

b) structuralism; functionalism

c) behaviorism; Gestalt

d) behaviorism; functionalism

e) functionalism; psychoanalysis

16. Your notes about William James would most likely include which term?

a) Structuralism

b) Introspection

c) Functionalism

d) Behaviorism

e) Humanism

17. Functionalism focused on

a) breaking down mental experience into its component parts.

b) how individuals adapt to their environment.

c) studying overt behavior that could be recorded and measured.

d) how the human brain organizes perceptions so that they make sense.

e) unconscious sexual and aggressive forces that motivate behavior.

18. Structuralists are to elements of ________ as chemists are to the elements listed in the periodic table.

a) nature

b) psychophysics

c) consciousness

d) genetics

e) observable behavior

19. The founder of behaviorism was

a) Watson.

b) Skinner.

c) James.

d) Pavlov.

e) Freud.

20. In preparing a report on John Watson, you would want to do a literature search using what term?

a) Psychodynamic

b) Functionalism

c) Structuralism

d) Humanism

e) Behaviorism

21. The behaviorist emphasis on observable events as the focus of inquiry can be traced to which philosopher?

a) Socrates

b) Plato

c) Aristotle

d) Rousseau

e) Confucius

22. A strong belief that the environment molds the behavior of humans and other animals is characteristic of which school of psychology?

a) Psychodynamic

b) Behaviorist

c) Structuralist

d) Gestalt

e) Humanist

23. The major proponent of behaviorism for much of the twentieth century was

a) Titchener.

b) Skinner.

c) James.

d) Wertheimer.

e) Freud.

24. Animal trainer Bob Jeffers uses rewards to teach his animals to perform silly tricks in the circus. Jeffers's techniques are based on principles from which school of psychology?

a) Behaviorism

b) Structuralism

c) Psychodynamic

d) Functionalism

e) Humanism

25. Regarding behaviorism, which of the following statements is true?

a) Watson believed that personality was determined by our genes and was not subject to change.

b) B. F. Skinner conducted most of his research with humans.

c) Behaviorism was the dominant force in psychology in the latter part of the nineteenth century.

d) B. F. Skinner presented ideas and techniques for rewarding and punishing behavior.

e) Behaviorists accepted introspection as a research method.

26. Your dog is demonstrating some unacceptable behavior. You are able to go back in time to talk to one of the pioneers of psychology. Who would be the best choice to help with your problem?

a) Sigmund Freud

b) Wilhelm Wundt

c) Edward Titchener

d) William James

e) B. F. Skinner

27. The Gestalt school of psychology was founded by

a) Wundt.

b) Koffka.

c) Maslow.

d) Darwin.

e) Wertheimer.

28. Dr. Spires talks with some students before psychology class begins. Spires says, "I believe that mental experience is best understood as a whole, rather than in terms of its parts." Her students recognize that Spires follows which school of thought?

a) Gestalt

b) Humanism

c) Introspection

d) Structuralism

e) Functionalism

29. An emphasis on the unconscious and early childhood experience is characteristic of which school of psychology?

a) Behaviorism

b) Structuralism

c) Empiricism

d) Psychodynamic

e) Humanism

30. The definition of the German word "Gestalt" is closest to that of the English word

a) "thought."

b) "element."

c) "guess."

d) "pattern."

e) "part."

31. According to Freud, abnormal behaviors, like phobias, are

a) shaped by early experiences.

b) learned through reinforcement.

c) genetically determined.

d) adaptive from an evolutionary perspective.

e) the product of introspection.

32. "Talk therapy" is associated with which of the following?

a) William James

b) Edward Titchener

c) Kurt Kafka

d) Max Wertheimer

e) Sigmund Freud

33. Which of the following reflects an influence of psychodynamic theory in today's culture?

a) The realization that ethnicity plays a role in psychological adjustment

b) The stress on the creative potential of each individual

c) The tendency to explain human thinking in computer terms

d) The belief that psychological problems are rooted in childhood

e) The understanding of the biological bases of behavior

34. An extension of the behavioral perspective that incorporates the study of mental processes is termed

a) social-cognitive theory.

b) psychophysics.

c) Gestalt psychology.

d) humanism.

e) neuroscience.

35. Which of the following mental health professionals is most likely a behavior therapist?

a) Dr. Angelo, who helps clients learn techniques for changing maladaptive thoughts

b) Dr. Barney, who uses techniques based on learning principles to help clients alter maladaptive behaviors

c) Dr. Childers, who helps her clients uncover unconscious motives and desires

d) Dr. Diaz, who prescribes drugs for his patients who suffer from anxiety disorders

e) Dr. Evans, who helps her patients understand how their culture influences their maladaptive behaviors

36. Compared to Freud, neo-Freudians place less emphasis on

a) childhood roots of abnormal behavior.

b) sexual and aggressive motives.

c) self-awareness.

d) self-direction.

e) conscious choice.

37. The "third force" in psychology is more formally known as

a) social-cognitive theory.

b) humanistic psychology.

c) the psychodynamic perspective.

d) Gestalt psychology.

e) the physiological perspective.

38. Which theorists are associated with humanistic psychology?

a) John B. Watson and B. F. Skinner

b) Wilhelm Wundt and Edward Titchener

c) William James and Charles Darwin

d) Max Wertheimer and Sigmund Freud

e) Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers

39. A humanistic psychologist is most likely to agree with which of the following statements?

a) "Human behavior is determined by the environment."

b) "Behavior reflects inherited dispositions that had survival value to our ancestors."

c) "Each individual is unique."

d) "Psychology should focus on unconscious motives and wishes."

e) "Psychology should limit itself to observable behavior."

40. Your friend asks whether there is any evidence that ADHD (Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) might be due to abnormal brain structures. You might suggest that she take a course in

a) cognitive psychology.

b) physiological psychology.

c) personality psychology.

d) evolutionary psychology.

e) geropsychology.

41. The approach that studies the relationships between biological processes and behavior is termed

a) cognitive-behavioral therapy.

b) Gestalt psychology.

c) structuralism.

d) introspection.

e) physiological psychology.

42. A movement within modern psychology that applies principles from Darwin's theories is called

a) humanism.

b) evolutionary psychology.

c) cognitive psychology.

d) behaviorism.

e) sociocultural psychology.

43. Which of the following psychologists is most likely to study how humans process information?

a) Dr. Alvarez, a behaviorist

b) Dr. Benitez, a humanist

c) Dr. Carlson, a cognitive psychologist

d) Dr. Dimitri, a neo-Freudian

e) Dr. Elrod, a physiological psychologist

44. The research study of a cognitive psychologist is most likely to involve which of the following topics?

a) Instincts

b) Physiological bases of behavior

c) Learned habits

d) Ethnic differences

e) Problem solving

45. Which perspective is most responsible for bringing issues related to diversity to the forefront of psychological research?

a) Cognitive

b) Behaviorism

c) Psychodynamic

d) Sociocultural

e) Humanistic

46. Ethnic minorities make up approximately what portion of the population in the United States?

a) 1/10

b) 1/6

c) 1/5

d) 1/4

e) 1/3

47. How many people in the United States describe themselves as multiracial?

a) 380,000

b) 2 million

c) 7 million

d) 14 million

e) 20 million

48. Moreno, trigueno, and indio are terms used by which Americans to indicate ancestry and variations in skin tones?

a) European

b) Native

c) African

d) Hispanic

e) Asian

49. Traditional "racial" distinctions between people

a) are based on genuine biological differences.

b) do not stand up to genetic tests.

c) are becoming less blurred.

d) were discounted in early psychology research.

e) need to be taken into consideration when studying behavior.

50. An eclectic psychologist is one who

a) compares different cultural and ethnic groups on psychological measures.

b) conducts basic as opposed to applied research.

c) does research only on animal subjects.

d) applies the principles of computer-based information processing to humans.

e) employs the theories and principles of different psychological perspectives.

51. Positive psychology is distinctively different from much of the rest of psychology because of its emphasis on

a) unconscious factors in determining thoughts and behaviors.

b) understanding human weaknesses and deficits.

c) behavior as opposed to mental processes.

d) understanding the sociocultural factors that influence human behavior and thinking.

e) understanding human strengths and assets.

52. Who is most closely associated with the positive psychology movement?

a) Abraham Maslow

b) Kenneth Clark

c) Martin Seligman

d) Sigmund Freud

e) Max Wertheimer

53. Which perspective in psychology would suggest that depression is related to changes in brain chemistry?

a) Psychodynamic

b) Physiological

c) Cognitive

d) Humanistic

e) Behavioral

54. A humanist would give which explanation for aggression?

a) Brain abnormalities explain violent behavior in some people.

b) Social conditions give rise to drug use, which, in turn, causes aggressive behavior.

c) Aggression results from unconscious impulses.

d) Aggression increases when people become frustrated by not being able to meet their goals.

e) Aggression is learned through observing others and through reinforcement.

55. Dr. von Waldner conducts research on depression. His hypothesis is that depression results from maladaptive thought patterns. From which perspective is von Waldner working?

a) Cognitive

b) Humanistic

c) Psychodynamic

d) Sociocultural

e) Physiological

56. Which perspective in psychology would suggest that obesity is related to unresolved childhood needs for love and support?

a) Cognitive

b) Psychodynamic

c) Sociocultural

d) Humanistic

e) Behavioral

57. A researcher adhering to the behavioral perspective would likely believe that aggression

a) is learned when it is rewarded by the environment.

b) results when people are blocked from pursuing their goals.

c) is related to changes in brain chemistry.

d) is related to unconscious impulses.

e) involves negative thought patterns.

58. "You alone know what is good for you," said Dr. Philips, "You need to make a conscious choice to change your behavior and start being true to your self." Dr. Philips most likely subscribes to which psychological perspective?

a) Behaviorist

b) Humanist

c) Psychodynamic

d) Evolutionary

e) Physiological

59. You eavesdrop as several psychologists eat lunch together. After reading the first chapter in your psychology textbook, you can correctly identify which psychologist as a behaviorist?

a) Dr. Tsui, who says, "I'm excited about my new research project. I'll be studying how creativity helps people solve problems."

b) Dr. Lightman, who says, "I believe that early learning experiences have shaped my actions as an adult."

c) Dr. Melfi, who says, "I have a client who has a lot of unresolved unconscious conflicts with his mother. I think we'll be working together a long time."

d) Dr. Fraser, who says, "Looking back at my life at midlife, I recognize how my goals have given me a sense of meaning."

e) Dr. Reeves, who says, "I'm delivering my favorite lecture today – the role of heredity in language development."

60. A researcher adhering to the psychodynamic perspective would likely believe that depression

a) represents anger turned inward.

b) stems from a sense of purposelessness.

c) is influenced by genetic factors.

d) is more common among certain groups because of social stresses more prevalent in those groups.

e) can be treated through changes in reinforcement patterns.

61. As a humanist, Dr. Randall is most likely interested in which of the following questions?

a) Do negative role models play a part in eating disorders?

b) Is shyness inherited?

c) Is obesity associated with a malfunction in the hypothalamus?

d) Can a lack of purpose influence a person's depression?

e) How do aggressive people direct their unconscious impulses?

62. Psychology is often characterized as being represented by three main forces: Freud's psychodynamic approach, behaviorism, and humanism. Highlight the main features of each of these forces.

63. The difference between basic and applied research is that only basic research

a) involves finding solutions to specific problems.

b) has practical consequences.

c) is conducted in the workplace.

d) is almost always associated with universities or government agencies.

e) involves psychologists who provide services to individuals or organizations.

64. Most psychologists

a) teach at colleges and universities.

b) work for business and industry.

c) work for the government.

d) engage in laboratory research.

e) provide psychological services.

65. What is the graduate degree most commonly earned by psychologists?

a) Psy.D.

b) Ph.D.

c) Ed.D.

d) Master's

e) Bachelor's

66. Which subspecialty represents the largest group of psychologists?

a) Industrial/organizational

b) Clinical

c) Counseling

d) School

e) Experimental

67. Of the following subspecialties in psychology, which is LEAST likely to focus on applied research?

a) Experimental

b) Clinical

c) School

d) Industrial/organizational

e) Counseling

68. The Psy.D. degree is appropriate for those who wish to focus more on ________ skills than on ________ skills.

a) practitioner; research

b) writing; practical

c) teaching; consulting

d) basic; applied

e) research; clinical

69. Which of the following play a professional role that most closely approximates that of psychiatrists?

a) Experimental psychologists

b) Physiological psychologists

c) Clinical psychologists

d) Biological psychologists

e) Comparative psychologists

70. A school psychologist would be most likely to

a) help teachers develop new instructional techniques.

b) study how groups affect individuals.

c) administer an intelligence test to a twelve-year-old child.

d) make suggestions as to how managers could improve employee morale.

e) investigate the relationship between childhood obesity and self-esteem.

71. Dr. Fiennes, a psychological researcher, studies the biological bases of memory problems in the elderly using animal research subjects. Fiennes is what type of psychologist?

a) Comparative

b) Biological

c) Environmental

d) Health

e) Physiological

72. The executives of an aircraft company want to redesign the interior of their jet planes to offer passengers the most comfort within the confined space. What type of psychologists would they need to consult?

a) Industrial/organizational

b) Social

c) Cognitive

d) Environmental

e) Consumer

73. An industrial/organizational psychologist would typically

a) testify at a trial in which the defendant's sanity was in question.

b) make suggestions to a manager regarding employee morale.

c) administer a cognitive abilities test to a teenager.

d) be interested in the structure and measurement of personality.

e) do research to determine how to help people quit smoking.

74. A developmental psychologist is most likely to study which of the following research questions?

a) How can we get teenagers to eat more nutritious meals?

b) What effect do fast-food restaurants have on teens' eating habits?

c) What personality characteristics do obese teens have in common?

d) How do children's eating habits change as they progress from childhood through adolescence?

e) What psychological disorders are likely to coexist with eating disorders in teenagers?

75. Dana and Leonard are being quizzed tomorrow in their elective psychology courses. Dana is studying the variables that influence initial attraction, while Leonard is studying the traits that are typical of couples in long-term relationships. Dana is most likely taking a class in ________ psychology, whereas Leonard is most likely taking a class in ________ psychology.

a) social; personality

b) developmental; health

c) experimental; social

d) social; developmental

e) personality; environmental

76. Graduate student Felicity Farraday has just completed her dissertation, which is entitled "The role of observational learning in the development of prejudice." What is Farraday's major in college?

a) Health psychology

b) Environmental psychology

c) Experimental psychology

d) Educational psychology

e) Social psychology

77. A health psychologist might study the

a) brain centers that are involved in nicotine addiction.

b) effectiveness of ads that use fear to get adolescents to stop smoking.

c) different brands of cigarettes that men and women prefer.

d) change in smoking habits as teens progress through high school and then college.

e) personality traits that chain smokers have in common.

78. Caroline Sherry is a counseling psychologist. Which of the following is she most likely to see as a client?

a) Andrew, a mailman, who has generalized anxiety disorder

b) Pamela, a housewife, whose obsessive-compulsive disorder is interfering with her ability to care for her baby

c) Lynn, a college student, who is confused about choosing a college major

d) Drew, a high school student, who suffers from panic attacks

e) Eva, a six-year-old, who is mildly retarded and needs to be tested for school placement

79. Which type of psychologist is most likely to administer an intelligence test to a seven-year-old child who is being evaluated for placement in a special education program?

a) School

b) Educational

c) Counseling

d) Clinical

e) Personality

80. Dr. Vickers just took a position as an educational psychologist with the Blackstone School System. Of the following tasks, which is Vickers LEAST likely to perform in this position?

a) Develop a test to measure students' academic potential

b) Train teachers in the use of a new instructional method

c) Administer intelligence tests to students

d) Develop a new instructional method for use in the classroom

e) Conduct research on student motivation

81. Which type of psychologist would most likely study such phenomena as the effects of parenting style on a child's emotional growth?

a) Clinical

b) Physiological

c) Experimental

d) Developmental

e) Health

82. Of the following, which psychologists would be most likely to be involved in a study that seeks to identify the common traits of people who develop a stress-related disorder?

a) Experimental psychologists

b) Personality psychologists

c) Environmental psychologists

d) Social psychologists

e) Developmental psychologists

83. Which type of psychologist would evaluate whether overcrowding in urban areas is associated with increased violent crimes?

a) Evolutionary

b) Consumer

c) Environmental

d) Clinical

e) Personality

84. Jean is an industrial/organizational psychologist. On her first day at Ace Manufacturing, she was LEAST surprised when management asked her to

a) recommend ways to improve employees' job satisfaction.

b) provide counseling for employees who have psychological problems.

c) create a test that will identify potential employees who are dishonest.

d) devise a nutritious menu for the employees' cafeteria.

e) study the relationship between productivity and employee age.

85. Dr. Mars is conducting research on the type of toothbrush that is most likely to appeal to young adults. Dr. Mars is most likely which of the following types of psychologists?

a) Consumer

b) Physiological

c) Industrial/organizational

d) Clinical

e) Health

86. The American Psychological Association was founded in which year?

a) 1875

b) 1892

c) 1909

d) 1923

e) 1971

87. A geropsychologist is likely to spend time working mostly with

a) college students.

b) stroke victims

c) senior citizens.

d) schizophrenics.

e) athletes.

88. Dr. Samuelson conducts research on the relationship between stroke and speech problems. He is probably a(n)

a) experimental psychologist.

b) health psychologist.

c) neuropsychologist.

d) social psychologist.

e) geropsychologist.

89. Which type of psychologist would be most interested in memory loss in elderly individuals?

a) Social psychologist

b) Health psychologist

c) Counseling psychologist

d) Forensic psychologist

e) Geropsychologist

90. Dr. Starling works with the FBI to develop personality profiles of rapists. Dr. Starling is probably what type of psychologist?

a) Social

b) Forensic

c) Industrial/organizational

d) Physiological

e) Health

91. A consultant who advises defense attorneys regarding what their accused client should wear in court is likely to be what type of psychologist?

a) Developmental

b) Forensic

c) Educational

d) Consumer

e) Industrial/organizational

92. Which of the following statements is true of Mary Whiton Calkins?

a) She was the first woman in the United States to earn a Ph.D. in psychology.

b) She was the first female president of the American Psychological Association.

c) She was the first African American woman to receive a Ph.D. in psychology.

d) She was a student of John Watson.

e) She was the first African American woman in the United States to receive a Ph.D. in psychology.

93. Who is the only African American to have served as president of the American Psychological Association?

a) Kenneth Clark

b) J. Henry Alston

c) Gilbert Haven Jones

d) Francis Sumner

e) Richard Suinn

94. Who was the first woman to earn a Ph.D. in psychology in the United States?

a) Mary Whiton Calkins

b) Margaret Floy Washburn

c) Christine Ladd-Franklin

d) Francis Sumner

e) Mamie Phipps-Clark

95. Which psychology pioneer(s) conducted the study that showed that African American preschoolers p

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