Liberty University PHIL 201 Module Week 5 Study Guide Lesson 13 complete Answers | Rated A+
Study Guide Lesson 14
Study Guide Lesson 15
Study Guide: Lesson 13
Do We Need Justification?
From our previous lessons we arrived at a basic understanding of what philosophers mean by “knowledge” and why they call for “justification” of beliefs. In this lesson we go further and ask, how does the structure of the mind relate to what should count as justification? And we ask, does one have an obligation to make sure that he/she has good reasons for holding whatever beliefs he/she holds? Some say that if you believe something is true and can’t give a reason for believing it then you cannot reasonably claim to know that belief is true. This view is called internalism and it has a long and honored history in epistemology. In recent years, this view has been challenged by externalists who claim that there are at least some beliefs that we are reasonable to hold even though we don’t, and probably can’t, give a reason for holding them.
View and take notes on the presentation, “An Overview of Issues in Contemporary Justification, Part 1.” Be able to answer these questions:
· What is a noetic structure, in brief?
· What beliefs are included in one’s noetic structure?
· What does that have to do with a continuum of beliefs?
· What are the two main theories of how beliefs relate within ones noetic structure?
· How does foundationalism describe the relations of beliefs within a noetic structure?
· Exactly how do strong and moderate foundationalism differ?
· Know the criticisms of strong foundationalism.
· What is the moderate foundationalist view of the basing relation, in terms of “access?”
· What is coherentism’s view of the basing relation, in terms of the doxastic assumption?
· Know the criticisms of coherentism.
View and take notes on the presentation, “An Overview of Issues in Contemporary Justification, Part 2.” This presentation concentrates on the other question under the topic of justification: epistemic obligations. Be able to answer these questions:
· What is the motivation that drives internalism?
· What is the motivation behind externalism?
· How does externalism answer the question of quality control?
· How does this presentation suggest bringing internalism and externalism together?
Read and take notes of Chapter 7 of How Do We Know? “Do We Need Justification?” This reading overlaps with material introduced in the presentations, but with some further details. Make sure you understand the following points and questions:
· Explain what it means for a belief to be justified.
· Explain the distinction between a belief being justified and a belief being true.
· What is internal about internalism? Why is it called that?
· According to internalism, if a person does not have good reason for what he/she believes, does that mean the belief is not true?
· Does internalism claim one must be consciously aware of one’s reasons in order to be justified for a belief?
· Explain Clifford’s brand of Evidentialism.
· What is the problem with Clifford’s version of Evidentialism?
· What is the problem with the statement “It is wrong always, everywhere and for anyone, to believe anything upon insufficient evidence?”
· Why has internalism been so dominant?
· What is external about externalism? Why is it called that?
· Explain why it is difficult to justify the reliability of our memories.
· How does an externalist handle the question of the reliability of our memories?
· According to reliabilism, do I need to know that my cognitive processes are functioning reliably to be warranted in holding a belief?
· What is the major criticism internalism raises against externalism?
· What is the major criticism externalism raises against internalism?
· What is Plantinga’s modest foundationalists/externalist warrant for believing in God?
· Compare the internalist and externalist justification for belief in God.
· Explain the balanced approach to resolving the conflict between externalism and internalism suggested in this reading.
Make sure you fully understand the following terms and concepts:
· Epistemic Deontology
· Cognitive Process
· Reformed Epistemology
· Sensus Divinitas
· High Accessibility Requirements
Study Guide: Lesson 14
The Intellectual Virtues
In the lesson, we introduce a highly two important issues in epistemology: intellectual virtues and virtue epistemology. We first introduce virtue itself and then go on the show how they can be applied to our intellectual pursuits. After this, we show how specific intellectual virtues like humility, honesty, courage, and carefulness helps us gain an accurate understanding of reality.
Read Chapter 8 of How Do We Know: An Introduction to Epistemology. As you do, consider the following questions and points:
- Aside from Epistemology, which area of philosophy do discussions of virtues and vices arise?
- How was Aristotle’s understanding of happiness different from hedonistic understandings of it?
- How should we define virtue?
- What is a vice and how does it compare to virtue?
- Describe Aristotle’s understanding of the Golden Mean.
- What are the two kinds of vices that Aristotle mentions?
- How did Aristotle say that virtue develops in a person?
- What is an Intellectual Virtue?
- According to Aquinas, what is the relationship between moral and intellectual virtues?
- What are the 5 ways that Wood says moral and intellectual virtues are parallel to each other?
- Describe the way each of the intellectual virtues work towards helping us find the truth.
- How might virtue epistemology help us with the Gettier Problem?
Make sure you can explain the following terms and concepts:
· Moral Virtues
· Intellectual Virtues
· Virtue Epistemology
· Golden Mean
· Vices of Excess
· Vices of Deficiency
Study Guide: Lesson 15
Skepticism and Certainty
Throughout the history of western society, people have been on a search for certain knowledge about things. Many philosophers have given up hope for finding certainty and therefore, have taken the view that one can never really claim to know anything. This view is called skepticism and it comes in many shapes and varieties. Yet the question may be asked, “Is certainty necessary for knowledge?” Can we say we know and yet be less than absolutely certain? This lesson examines the polar opposite views of skepticism and certainty, and attempts to answer the question of where does knowledge fit in this scheme.
View and take notes of the presentation, “The Challenge of Skepticism.”
· Much of this is repeated in the reading, but note the list of problems with skepticism on the last slide, especially the question “Is certainty necessary for knowledge?”
Read Chapter 10 of How Do We Know? “How Certain Can We Be?” As you do, make sure you understand the following points and questions:
· Why is common sense skepticism actually epistemically healthy?
· Explain the difference between a global and local skeptic.
· Contrast and compare the different forms of skepticisms.
· What kind of skeptic was Pyhrro of Ellis?
· Why did Sextus Empiricus adopt skepticism?
· How did Descartes employ skepticism to arrive at certain knowledge?
· Explain Descartes’ evil demon hypothesis.
· What kind of skeptic was Hume?
· Explain the process by which Hume denied the principle of causality.
· What did Kant’s skepticism cause him to deny that we could know on the basis of pure reason?
· On what basis did Kant believe we were justified in believing in God?
· Explain 3 causes of skepticism.
· What is 1 benefit of philosophical skepticism?
· Explain 4 problems with skepticism.
· What are some reasons why certainty is so elusive?
· Is certainty necessary for knowledge?
· What causes the different variations of certainty?
Make sure you can explain the following terms and concepts:
· Common Sense Skepticism
· Global Skepticism
· Local Skepticism
· Mitigated Skepticism
· Unmitigated Skepticism
· Methodological Skepticism
· Metaphysical Skepticism
· Pyhrronian Skepticism
· Systematic Doubt
· Principle of Causality
· Epistemic Humility
· Logical/Absolute Certainty
· Probabilistic Certainty
· Sufficient Certainty