1. Benchmarking performance improvement programs means
targeted specific programs or functions.
achieved some dramatic results.
attempted to combine reduction of costs with increases in quality and timeliness.
using standards and points of comparisons
The unusual visibility of the public administrator
is rooted in the public purposes that are pursued.
is rooted in the tendency toward corruption.
is similar to the business administrator's visibility.
does not affect efficiency and responsiveness issues.
A process-oriented definition of "democracy" emphasizes
equality of result.
the ways in which government works,
that everyone is equal.
the ambiguity of the term "democracy."
The Volker Commission's report asserted in 1989 that
erosion in the attractiveness of public service undermines the ability of government to act effectively.
the public service should become less attractive to college graduates so they would work in the private sector.
the democratic process is not affected by the quality of the administration of government.
more senior executives needed to leave government service.
The strong mayor system of city government
is rarely used in larger American cities.
provides for the mayor to have a great deal of administrative and budgetary authority.
is most common in small mid-western towns.
does not give city councils policymaking authority
Woodrow Wilson, and other early writers, thought of public administration as
something to be combined with politics.
best conducted by rejecting the business model,
decentralizing administrative authority
Planning, management, and control are
principle purposes of the budget.
not important aspects of budgeting.
seldom achieved via the budget.
of no concern to the legislature in the budget process.
The line-item budget
aids in the planning process.
is oriented toward the funding of programs.
provides poor control of expenditures for such things as travel, supplies, and wages.
is part of the gubernatorial approval process
Risk management strategies recognize that government operations will
be immune from lawsuits.
involve unanticipated events with large compensatory expenditures (accidents, natural disasters).
have to fund risk via contingency funds, since governments are not allowed to carry insurance policies.
not need to be self-insured
As a management tool, the budget steps include
proposal, amendment, passage.
incremental, rational, bargained agreements.
budget formation, approval, execution, and audit.
committee hearings, mark-up, and report of budgets.
The two fundamental legislative actions in the budget process are
authorizing and appropriations.
committee hearings and floor passage.
executive proposal and legislative disposal.
planning and evaluation.
A grant by the federal government to a state or locality may be in the form of a block grant, which is
funding provided for a specific purpose or project.
for any purpose officials may select (within the law).
funding provided for a general program or functional area.
funding for a specific city block or neighborhood.
The writing of vague policy and law by the Congress implies what for government agencies?
Highly restricted agency action.
The lack of administrative discretion.
A highly accountable government agency.
An opportunity for government agencies to shape policy through implementation.
"Agenda setting" in the policy process refers to
the process of identifying which problems will be acted on by decision makers.
development of formal policy statements.
putting policies into action.
write public policy proposals.
do not provide testimony in support of policy proposals.
have no role in formulating public policy.
are not involved in the policy process
The Executive Order has become
an unused part of presidential power.
a rarely used presidential power.
a chief instrument of presidential power.
does not affect the work of public administrators
Court involvement in the specifics of administrative policy making and implementation does NOT include
evaluation of the health conditions in prisons.
examination of policy implementation at a mental institution.
requirement that specific types of professional individuals be hired by an agency in order to carry out a court order.
changes in administrative procedures
The legislative veto is designed to provide for
disapproval of specific presidential (executive) actions.
disapproval of the actions of particular committees in the legislature.
disapproval of specific rules, policies or actions of administrative or regulatory agencies.
presidential veto of legislative proposals.
Internal sources of bureaucratic power include
information and expertise.
vague legislative enactments.
Which of the following is NOT part of establishing a climate supportive of ethical behavior in an organization?
clearly articulate the mission of the organization.
identify unambiguously what the organization stands for, and how it seeks to achieve its goals.
develop a set of rigid and widely published ethical guidelines.
the agency leader serving as an ethical role model
When a manager delegates; rules to be followed include
holding subordinates accountable for results, but leave the selection of technique up to them.
authority and responsibility should be vague.
instructions should be subject to interpretation.
telling the subordinate how to do the task
The Pendleton Act of 1883 prohibited
active participation in political campaigns by federal employees.
political contributions by any federal employee.
state employees from engaging in election campaign work.
federal employees from serving as delegates to a party convention.
The tension between efficiency and responsiveness is rooted in
issues of effectiveness versus equity.
issues of bureaucracy versus democracy.
responsibility and irresponsibility.
An attempt to see to it that a public-sector office has employees whose gender, ethnicity, age and other demographic characteristics reflect the characteristics of the population the office serves, would be an example of______.
participatory decision making
For goal setting to be an effective motivator
goals should be broad and generalized.
goals should always be just beyond reach.
a desire for more pay must be a part.
it must be specific and achievable.
A decision tree
provides information concerning efficiency dimensions of organizational performance.
is an application of policy analysis
is an application of PERT techniques.
is an application of strategic planning.
A study of the degree to which pothole repairs last through the winter season would be an example of an evaluation concerned with
A common limitation of quantitative techniques for selecting a policy alternative is
the difficulty of assigning dollar value to such variables as pain, suffering, and lives saved.
the inability to take account of the effects of inflation.
lack of access to computers.
the lack of quantitative methods
The cost-effectiveness approach involves
a focus on identifying the impacts of alternative proposals.
translating "effective" approaches into their dollar values.
avoiding the use of dollar values in assessing either the effectiveness or costs associated with a proposal.
identifying the critical path in a project.
are not part of federal aid programs
may occur as direct orders from the national government.
create no additional expenses for state/local governments.
are of no concern to state government administrators
Quality of the work performed
is an important part of evaluating a productivity improvement program.
has little to do with productivity improvement.
is always secondary to cost savings.
cannot be measured.
To what extent must criminal trials be open to the public?
They may be closed only to protect a compelling governmental interest in a manner narrowly tailored to that purpose
They may never be closed
They may be closed at the judge’s discretion
They may be closed except for a right of press access
Regulations are primarily issued by:
Federal and state agencies
The compilation of all federal rules currently in effect is:
Code of Federal Regulations
U.S. Code Annotated
Financial disclosure laws typically apply:
To all federal, state, and local government employees
To judges only and not to public officials or employees
To public officials with significant responsibility
To public employees but not to public officials with significant responsibility
An agency rule that explains an agency’s understanding of the law or its regulations is known as:
The Model Procurement Code:
Governs all federal contracts
Governs U.S. Postal Service Contracts
Governs all public contracts in all states
Has been adopted in some states and is similar to the law in other states
What must a document contain for it to satisfy the Statute of Frauds with respect to a transfer of an interest in real property?
The parties’ fingerprints
The signature of the person conveying the property and a property description sufficient to identify it
The amount being paid for the property
A list of all prior owners of record of the property
Employers are responsible for the acts of their employees’ negligence:
Only if the employee’s act was intentional
Only if the employer failed to give warnings of foreseeable harm
If the negligent act was within the scope of authority associated with the work
Only if the negligent act was not within the scope of authority associated with the work
Merit selection, tenure, and responsiveness to political leaders are
no longer important elements in the civil service system.
the three basic principles of the civil service system.
important features of the spoils system.
features of the budgeting process
is an acronym developed by Woodrow Wilson
refers to the functions of public management.
refers to the functions of the post office.
is a type of organizational structure
The Pendleton Act provided for
establishment of a Human Rights Commission.
mandated federal employee contributions to election campaigns.
merit-based selection of government employees.
the spoils system
Arbitration in labor-management negotiations
uses a neutral third party to negotiate a settlement.
uses a third party to investigate and issue specific recommendations concerning a settlement.
is a fact-finding process, normally followed by binding recommendations.
does not occur in the governmental sector.
“Quid pro quo” sexual harassment is:
Unlawful only when the supervisor repeatedly insists on unwelcome sexual activity
Occurs when supervisors make adverse employment decisions against employees who deny unwelcome sexual demands
Occurs only when the employee is terminated for refusing to have sex with a supervisor
International politics is an area in which vital decisions are made based on
understandings of cause and effect.
fear and misunderstanding.
A major objective of the United Nations is to
solve global environmental problems.
protect the world’s children.
promote peace and development.
solve the crisis in the Middle East.
A zero-sum game refers to the situation in which
one state can gain only at the expense of another.
both states can gain at the same time.
neither state can gain and both will lose.
both states can cooperate with one another.
One of the main criticisms of globalization is that it
makes the powerful more powerful and wealthy.
actually makes everyone less well off.
outsources jobs from developing to developed countries.
prevents poorer countries from expanding their economies.
The United States’ refusal to sign the International Criminal Court (ICC) treaty is based mainly on its belief that the ICC
has too much power.
holds the view that the U.S. invasion of Iraq was illegal.
is dominated by countries associated with the “Axis of Evil.”
might be used as a political tool against the United States.
The European Union was established in order to
offset the power and wealth of the United States.
promote peace by binding countries together economically.
be the first step toward a world government.
create a European military to fight global terrorism.