A) ensure proper use of research procedures.
B) illustrate the ultimate truth regarding human behavior.
C) are mere opinions or beliefs.
D) guide and give meaning to what we see.
2. Dr. Fox believes that infants and preschoolers respond to the world in much the same way as adults do. This is consistent with the __________ view of development.
3. __________ explains why some children growing up in difficult circumstances thrive, while others are less successful.
4. __________ is considered the founder of the child study movement.
A) Charles Darwin
B) Arnold Gesell
C) G. Stanley Hall
D) Benjamin Spock
5. __________ is concerned with the adaptive, or survival, value of behavior and its evolutionary history.
B) Developmental cognitive theory
C) Sociocultural theory
D) Ecological systems theory
6. Which of the following theories emphasizes one course of development?
B) cognitive-developmental theory
C) social learning theory
D) lifespan perspective
7. The ability to examine relationships between early and later events and behaviors is a major strength of __________ design.
8. According to the lifespan perspective, __________ is supreme in its impact on the life course.
A) the prenatal period
B) early childhood
D) no age period
9. A __________ is a complex blend of genetic information that determines the species and influences unique characteristics.
10. Each of us is made up of trillions of units called
11. Generally, human __________ come in 23 matching pairs.
12. An estimated 20,000 to 25,000 __________ lie along the human chromosome.
13. __________ trigger chemical reactions throughout the body.
14. A(n) __________ contains only 23 chromosomes, half as many as a regular body cell.
15. Identical twins are created when
A) two different ova are released and fertilized.
B) two ova are fertilized by the same sperm cell.
C) a zygote that has started to duplicate separates into two clusters of cells that develop into two individuals.
D) one ovum is fertilized by two different sperm cells.
16. Fertilization usually takes place in the
C) fallopian tubes.
17. The period of the zygote
A) lasts about two weeks.
B) lasts from implantation through the eighth week of pregnancy.
C) is the longest prenatal period.
D) is the prenatal period during which the groundwork is laid for all body structures and organs.
18. The yolk sac
A) delivers food and oxygen to the developing organism.
B) helps keep the temperature of the prenatal world constant.
C) delivers nutrients and removes waste products.
D) produces blood cells until the organs are mature enough to take over this function.
19. The __________ surrounds the amnion.
B) yolk sac
D) umbilical cord
20. The mesoderm will become the
A) nervous system and skin.
B) endocrine and digestive systems.
C) muscles, skeleton, circulatory system, and other internal organs.
D) digestive system, lungs, urinary tract, and glands.
21. In the eighth month of pregnancy,
A) fetal growth doubles
B) neuron production increases
C) the eyes, ears, nose, jaw, and neck form
D) lanugo typically is shed
22. Small-for-date infants __________ than preterm infants.
A) catch fewer infections during the first year
B) are less likely to die during the first year
C) more often show evidence of brain damage
D) have higher intelligence tests by middle childhood
23. Dr. Winchester's research involves the organization and interpretation of what we see. Dr. Winchester studies
A) visual acuity.
C) reflexive responses.
24. The increase in cosleeping in Western nations over the past two decades is likely associated with
A) an increase in time babies spend breastfeeding during the night.
B) a shift from collectivistic to individualistic values.
C) parental fear of SIDS.
D) an increase in young children's bedtime struggles.
25. Which of the following statements about breastfeeding is true?
A) Breastfed and bottle-fed infants in industrialized nations do not differ in quality of the mother–infant relationship.
B) Compared with those who were breastfed, children and adolescents who were bottle-fed have more emotional adjustment difficulties.
C) Most studies report that children and adolescents who were breastfed are smarter than those who were bottle-fed.
D) Because more women are in the workforce, breastfeeding has become less common in industrialized nations.
26. Recent evidence indicates
A) that most chubby babies become overweight adults.
B) a strengthening relationship between rapid weight gain in infancy and later obesity.
C) as many as one-half of parents interviewed give their toddlers no vegetables.
D) that bottle-feeding during the first six months is associated with slower early weight gain.
27. By focusing on the shift from a novelty preference to a familiarity preference, researchers can use habituation to assess
A) remote memory.
B) recent memory.
C) an infant's imitation ability.
D) an infant's motor development.
28. Which of the following is an example of a gross-motor skill?
A) Four-year-old Betty solving simple mathematical calculations
B) Jon, a two-year-old, walking up the stairs, two feet to a step
C) Mia, a three-year-old, drawing vertical and horizontal lines
D) Five-year-old Paul tying his shoelaces without help
29. Four-month-old Logan's parents are tracking his motor development. Which of the following motor skills is Logan likely to have already achieved?
A) sits alone
B) when prone, lifts self by arms
D) plays pat-a-cake
30. Piaget believed that infants and toddlers
A) carry out many activities inside their heads
B) “think” with their eyes, ears, and hands
C) assimilate more than they accommodate
D) are incapable of constructing schemes
31. Children use their current schemes to interpret the external world using a process known as
32. The sensorimotor stage is Piaget's __________ period of development.
A) least complex
C) most complex
33. According to Piaget, organization takes place
A) through direct contact with the environment.
C) in the zone of proximal development.
34. Baby Olivia retrieves a stuffed sheep that her mother has hidden under a blanket. Olivia has begun to master
A) reflexive schemes.
B) the primary circular reaction.
C) mental representation.
D) object permanence.
35. __________ is the simplest form of memory, whereas __________ involves remembering something not present.
A) Recognition; recall
B) The sensory register; working memory
C) Habituation; recovery
D) Recall; recognition
36. Babies' earliest emotional life consists of
A) fear and interest.
B) happiness and anger.
C) attraction to pleasant stimuli and withdrawal from unpleasant stimuli.
D) clear, well-organized signals following exposure to stimuli.
37. The NICHD Study of Early Child Care confirms that
A) the majority of babies in child care display a resistant attachment to their mothers.
B) infants are not at risk for attachment insecurity due to inadequate child care.
C) parenting quality exerts a more powerful impact on children's adjustment than does exposure to child care.
D) regardless of quality, child care predicts long-term adjustment problems.
38. __________ promotes both parents' sensitivity and involvement and children's attachment security, but it is particularly important for fathers.
A) Dual employment
B) A warm marital bond
C) High-quality child care
D) Stay-at-home parenting
39. Dr. Thomas recognizes that the infant's emotional tie to the caregiver is an evolved response that promotes survival. Dr. Thomas accepts the __________ theory of attachment.
40. Miu, who lives in Japan, received the highest grade in her history class and was presented with a ribbon. Her parents will probably encourage Miu to feel
A) envious of the children who scored lower marks.
B) intense shame for violating a cultural standard.
C) pride in her personal achievement.
D) embarrassed by the individual attention.
41. The __________ attachment pattern is either highly stable or consistently predicts later insecurity of another type.
42. Sensitive caregiving is
A) a method of evaluating attachment security in toddlers.
B) moderately related to attachment security in diverse cultures.
C) strongly related to attachment security in diverse cultures.
D) related to temperamental characteristics, but not to attachment security.
43. As children internalize others' expectations and make social comparisons, they
A) form an ideal self that they use to evaluate their real self.
B) develop a strong sense of superiority.
C) seldom look to people beyond the family for information about themselves.
D) experience shame, the negative outcome of middle childhood.
44. Jack and Carly have separated. They are now involved in a series of meetings with a trained professional aimed at reducing family conflict. Jack and Carly are participating in
A) joint custody.
B) marriage counseling.
C) divorce mediation.
45. Self-esteem takes on a __________ structure in the mid-elementary school years.
46. Which of the following statements about self-esteem is true?
A) Children who attend schools where their SES is well-represented have fewer self-esteem problems.
B) Compared with their Caucasian agemates, African-American children tend to have slightly lower self-esteem.
C) Compared with U.S. children, Chinese and Japanese children tend to have slightly higher self-esteem.
D) Gender-stereotyped beliefs have little, in any, effect on children's overall self-esteem.
47. Children with unrealistically high self-esteem are likely to
A) be achievement-oriented.
B) be hostile and aggressive.
C) rely heavily on peers to affirm their self-worth.
D) reject compliments from others.
48. Children who believe that people's personality traits are __________ rather than __________ readily form prejudices on the basis of limited information.
A) singular; mixed
B) genetic; nurtured
C) fixed; changeable
D) malleable; constant
49. Which of the following statements about gender and identity is true?
A) Girls attach greater prestige to "feminine" characteristics than to "masculine" characteristics.
B) Girls have greater flexibility than boys to engage in "cross-gender" activities.
C) Girls are especially likely to be rejected and ridiculed when experimenting with "masculine" activities.
D) From third to sixth grade, girls tend to strengthen their identification with "feminine" personality traits, whereas boys' identification with "masculine" traits declines.
50. In middle childhood, the __________ becomes an increasingly important context for development.
B) extended family
C) society of peers