Question details

Considering just the average densities in the table,
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Submission Instructions

Follow the directions in the Galilean Moons Lab. The Galilean Moons Lab file provides information about how to complete this lab. After you have completed all of your work according to the laboratory instructions, refer to General Lab Instructions on how to submit your work for grading. 

Step 1: Save this file for your answers to the questions in this lab.

Step 2: Delete the Questions from this document. Your file will be checked by TurnItIn and the questions will be identified as plagiarism. I only need to see your answers.

Step 3:Type up your answers to all questions found in this lab making sure to correctly number your answers to correspond to the questions in the lab.

Step 4: Perform the observation, and record the observation and the necessary data.

Step 5: Save the file with your answers. Title your document “Galilean Moons Lab”, including your first and last name, ex.Galilean_Moon_Lab._CC_Student.

Step 6: Submit your assignment answers as an attachment to this dropbox as either a .doc or .rtf file. See the General Lab Instructions for the document formats that are acceptable.


**Please be sure to include proper citations for all sourced material, including the textbook.


Part I: Properties of the Galilean Satellites


I.1. Considering just the average densities in the table,

(a) which Galilean moon would you expect to have the most ice (i.e., the least rock/iron

(b) which moon could be all rock and iron, with no ice on the surface?


I.2. Can you think of another moon in the solar system that is also “phase locked” with the planet that it orbits? What is its name?

Part II: Io — The Jovian Cauldron


II.1. The dark spots are volcanoes. Make a rough count of the number of volcanoes in the image.

II.4. The scale factors S for the insets of Figure 3 are about 10 km per millimeter. Measure the height of the plume of Pillan with a ruler, and determine its actual physical height. Convert this height to meters (1 km = 1,000 m) (1mm = 1x 10^-3m).


II.5. What does this tell us about the materials that build up inside Io compared with the magmas that feed volcanoes on Earth?


II.8.  If such eruptions occur at random over the surface every 6 months, estimate how many years it would take to resurface the moon.


II.9.  Do you see any impact craters on any of the Io pictures? Explain your observation.


II.10  Is Io’s surface young or old?


Part I: Europa — Water World?


III. 2.  Does it look like the contaminants come from below or from above Explain.


III.3. Which moon has the older surface? Explain your reasoning.


III.4. Given the similar appearance of the two small craters, what can you conclude about the material properties of water/ice at Europan temperatures and those of basalt?


III.5. What does the peculiar appearance of this large impact structure on Europa suggest about its crust of ice? Do you think it is frozen solid all the way through? What do you think happened to the impactor that made Tyre Macula?


III.6. Could there be just a thin layer of ice over a liquid ocean today? What is the evidence in Figure 8  that the chaos terrain froze over relatively recently? (Millions rather than billions of years ago.)


III.8. What difficulties do you think life in a hypothetical European ocean would have to overcome in order to survive?

Part IV: Ganymede — The Giant Moon


IV.1. For the Moon, which is older, the lighter or darker regions?


IV.2. Looking at the close up of the dark region in Figure 10, how do the craters on the icy surface of Ganymede change as they get older?


IV.3. What has happened to the crust in the blown-up image of the light region in Figure 11?


IV.4. For the cases of (a) San Francisco Bay and (b) Ganymede, describe how the higher-resolution images change our interpretation of the surfaces of these two regions.


IV.5. How many pieces of comet impacted Ganymede?

Part V: Callisto—A Battered World


V.1. However, when we go to smaller scales, does the surface remain saturated with craters?


V.2 What is the approximate size of the smallest crater that you can distinguish as a crater in the 1-km image?

V.4.  From the table at the beginning of this exercise, which of the Galilean moons is not in orbital resonance with any of the other Galilean moons? How does the surface age of this non-resonant moon’s surface compare to the others?


V.5.  Now, you are equipped to make some very general statements about how the characteristics of the four Galilean moons vary with distance from Jupiter. First, how does the degree of tidal heating vary with distance from Jupiter? How might this lead to the observed differences in the amount of water on these four moons? How might this result in the observed ages of their surfaces?

**Please be sure to include proper citations for all sourced material, including the textbook.

Available solutions