Which statement is NOT true regarding a spinal (peripheral) nerve?
A. They will innervate all regions of the body including the head
B. There are 31 pairs of spinal nerves
C. Consist of groups of axons that are bundled in fascicles
D. They can contain both afferent and efferent axons
The spiral organ contains hair cells that form action potentials when stimulated to allow for the sense of smell to occur?
What statement is NOT true regarding the peripheral nervous system (PNS)?
A. The efferent division of the PNS is transmits information from the central nervous system out to the body
B. The autonomic nervous system is a branch of the visceral efferent division of the PNS
C. The dorsal root of the spinal nerve transmits afferent information to the spinal cord
D. The somatic division of the PNS refers to the innervation of the internal organs of the body
The cerebellum is primarily involved with conscious thought and emotions?
Which of the following is NOT necessary for muscle contraction to occur?
A. Sodium ions to bind to the thin filament
B. Nerve impulse (action potential)
C. Acetylcholine to bind to the sarcolemma receptors
D. Production and presence of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
Damage to a lower motor neuron can cause a positive Babinski’s sign?
Which statement is true regarding the white matter of the spinal cord?
A. The ventral column is located posteriorly in humans in the anatomical position
B. One side only contains ascending tracts and the other side contains only descending tracts
C. Each tract within the white matter carries a specific type(s) of stimuli
D. Ipsilateral refers to information that crosses over from one side of the white matter to the other side
Grey matter of nerve tissue is a region or collection of nerve cell bodies whose main function is to transmit nerve impulses from one region of the nervous system to another?
Blockage of the auditory (Eustachian) tube can result in conductive hearing loss?
The parasympathetic nervous system is a branch of the somatic efferent peripheral nervous system while the sympathetic is a branch of the viscera efferent peripheral nervous system?
This sensory region of the cerebrum is involved with the ability to understand written and spoken language?
A. Primary somatosensory cortex
B. Olfaction area
C. Broca’s area
D. Wernicke’s area
Which statement is correct regarding the dorsal horn of the spinal cord?
A. It receives afferent information from the peripheral nervous system
B. It is composed of white matter
C. It contains tracts that send impulses to the brain
D. It provides a pathway for information from the brain to the efferent peripheral nervous system
What statement is NOT true of epiphyseal plates?
A. Found in the epiphysis region of long bones
B. If active, allows for continued longitudinal (lengthwise) growth of bone
C. Will not show on an X-ray
D. Typically close around the age of 12 years of age
Peripheral neuropathy can cause damage to axons of peripheral nerves leading to dysfunction of the conduction of an action potential?
What sense organ allows for detection of the position of the head in the gravitational field?
A. Cristae ampullaris
C. Spiral organ
D. Olfactory bulb
Which of the following is not an effect of the parasympathetic nervous system?
A. Decreased heart rate
B. Constriction of the pupils
C. Increased blood flow to the digestive system
D. Increased respiration rate
Which statement is NOT true of dendrites?
A. Some neurons have hundreds to thousands of dendrite branches
B. They transmit information to other neurons and/or cells
C. The are found on all neurons
D. They are the main input regions of the neurons
The sense of taste depends upon the binding of food molecules dissolved in saliva onto sensory hair cells?
What statement is NOT true regarding the endocrine system?
A. Hormonal effects can occur immediately or over a few days to weeks
B. Glucagon will stimulate an increase in the blood sugar levels
C. The hormone melatonin assists in the regulation of the sleep-wake cycle
D. The adrenal medulla secretes hormones such as cortisol that assist in reducing inflammation of the body
Which region of the brain stem is associated with nuclei centers that control various autonomic activities such as sneezing, coughing and respiration rate?
D. Medulla oblongata
What is not a function of cerebrospinal fluid?
A. Help transmit electrical impulses within the central nervous system
B. Provide buoyancy to the brain and spinal cord
C. Assist in the protection of the central nervous system
D. Provide chemical stability to the central nervous system
The nerve plexuses of the body allow for individual nerves to have axons from multiple nerve root levels?
Which cranial nerve is not involved in motor control of eye movement?
A. CN III- Oculomotor nerve
B. CN II- Optic nerve
C. CN VI- Abducens nerve
D. CN IV- Trochlear nerve
This type of bone cell will breakdown the matrix of the bone tissue and release calcium into the bloodstream?
Which statement is NOT true regarding skeletal muscle tissue?
A. Muscle cells have the ability to contract and decrease in size
B. The thick and thin filament actually bind together to allow for muscle contraction to occur
C. The muscle cells need little to no adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
D. The neuromuscular junction is where the neurotransmitters are released and bind to the muscle cell
What statement is NOT true of otitis media?
A. The tympanic membrane can be possibly be damaged
B. It is inflammation of the middle ear
C. It can result from a throat or nasal infection
D. Antibiotics should always be prescribed for this condition
What is not a symptom of diabetes mellitus?
Which statement is NOT true regarding the meninges and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)?
A. CSF is found within the subarachnoid space of the meninges
B. The dura mater is the thickest and most superficial layer of the meninges
C. An epidural procedure will extract CSF from the meninges
D. CSF is reabsorbed back into the venous blood return within the venous sinuses
The central nervous system provides neural integration of efferent information transmitted from the autonomic nervous system?
Which statement is NOT true regarding myelin sheaths?
A. Myelin sheaths allow for action potentials to be transmitted faster within the dendrites of neurons
B. The spaces between each myelin sheath is referred to as the“Node of Ranvier”
C. Myelin sheaths are found on neurons in the central and peripheral nervous systems
D. Collections of myelin sheaths within the nervous system give nerve tissue a white appearance, which is referred as white matter
Addison’s disease is due to increased amounts of cortisol being secreted?
Both the epidermis and dermis contain blood vessels?
Which endocrine hormone influences the uterine contractions during pregnancy and stimulates breast milk ejection during breast-feeding?
B. Luteinizing hormone
Which statement is NOT true regarding the special senses?
A. The cornea, pupil, and lens are the structures of the eye that refract incoming light
B. The vestibular apparatus within the inner ear allows for the sense of equilibrium
C. Sensory hair cells of the olfactory bulb bind molecules within the nose that ultimately allow for the sense of smell
D. Rod and cone cells are the only two types of photoreceptor cells
The spinal cord travels from the foramen magnum of the occipital bone down to the sacrum region?
What statement is true regarding reflexes?
A. Neural integration (processing) of all reflexes occurs in the brain
B. The sensory neuron of a reflex arc will transmit efferent impulses to the spinal cord
C. The Babinski’s test is testing a specific reflex of the upper motor neurons
D. The flexor/withdrawal reflex is commonly initiated with a reflex hammer in a neurological examination
What is NOT true of the ciliary body and ciliary processes of the eye?
A. It is involved in controlling the amount of light that is allowed into the eye
B. The suspensory ligaments are attached to the ciliary processes
C. It produces an aqueous humor that fills the anterior and posterior chamber of the eye
D. It contains muscles that help assist in control the thickness and size of the lens
Which statement is true regarding action potentials?
A. The generation or creation of an action potential does not depend on the strength of the stimulus a neuron receives
B. An action potential once started, cannot be stopped or negated
C. Action potentials travel slower in myelinated axons
D. The repolarization phase must occur prior to depolarization during an action potential
A dermatome is associated with a specific cranial nerve that innervates the body’s skin?
Which statement is NOT true regarding neurons?
A. All neurons have myelin sheaths
B. Dendrites receive information (nerve impulses) coming from the preganglionic neurons
C. The cell body of the neuron contains the nucleus
D. Neurons are found in both the central and peripheral nervous systems
Which endocrine hormone is involved with increasing the blood calcium levels of the body?
A. Parathyroid hormone
C. Thyroid hormone
Hyperthyroidism is commonly caused by insufficient amounts of the element iodine within the body?
The autonomic nervous system will innervate both internal organs and skeletal muscles?
This organelle is responsible for producing adenosine triphosphate (ATP)?
Red bone marrow is only found in spongy bone and is involved in hemopoiesis?
One of the main functions of the gyri and sulci is to allow for increased surface area of the cerebral cortex?
Which eye condition best describes the vision impairment that occurs when individuals age and the lens becomes less flexibility which causes the refracted light to fall behind the retina?
Which endocrine hormone, in higher quantities, can suppress the function of the immune system and decrease inflammation of the body?
B. Thyroid hormone
What is NOT true of aerobic and anaerobic cellular respiration?
A. Anaerobic respiration produces the waste product lactic acid
B. Cells can only perform aerobic respiration to make adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
C. Aerobic respiration utilizes oxygen and glucose to make adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
D. Aerobic respiration produces more adenosine triphosphate (ATP) molecules compared to anaerobic respiration
Which statement is true regarding the neuron synapse?
A. The preganglionic and post ganglionic neurons physically touch
B. Binding of a neurotransmitter on a postganglionic neuron always generates an action potential
C. Neurotransmitters can be degraded by enzymes within the synaptic cleft to terminate its effect
D. A neural synapse consists of dendrites on a preganglionic neuron and the axon terminal of a postganglionic neuron
A neurotransmitter bound to a postsynaptic neuron membrane will affect its permeability of certain ions that will either cause an increase OR decrease ability to initiate an action potential?
Which type of neuroglia cell forms myelin sheaths on axons within the peripheral nervous system?
B. Ependymal cells
C. Schwann cells
What statement is true regarding the eye?
A. The cornea provides the eye with the ability adjust the amount of light coming into the eye
B. The fovea centralis region has a high concentration of cone cells
C. The choroid of the eye is where the photoreceptor cells are found
D. The blind spot of the eye has a high concentration of rod cells
The melanocytes are the most common cell in the epidermis and produce melanin?
Which statement is NOT true regarding the CNS?
A. The left hemisphere of the cerebrum primarily controls the right side of the body
B. The cerebral cortex is only found in the cerebrum
C. The spinal cord terminates around L1-L2 region
D. Damage to the primary somatosensory center of the brain will result in an inability to move skeletal muscles
What statement is NOT true regarding the special senses?
A. The macula is the sense organ for the utricle and saccule
B. The blind spot of the eye contains a high concentration of rod cones
C. Damage to the olfactory bulb could will cause a decreased ability to taste food
D. The cristae ampullaris contains the sensory hair cells that when stimulated, detect rotational movement of the head
Both aldosterone and antidiuretic hormones have indirect effects of increasing blood volume and blood pressure?
What is NOT a symptom of hypothyroidism?
A. Increased heart rate
B. Dry and itchy skin
This endocrine hormone is stored in the posterior pituitary and increases the amount of water reabsorbed in the kidneys increasing blood pressure and blood volume?
D. Antidiuretic hormone
A tendon is a band of connective tissue that attaches and stabilizes one bone to another within a joint?