A 6-month-old female presents with rhinorrhea, cough, poor feeding, lethargy, and fever. She is diagnosed with bronchiolitis. Which of the following will the nurse most likely observe on the culture report?
a. parainfluenza virus
b. haemophilus B influenzae
c. respiratory syncytial virus
d. group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus
A 53-year-old male with a 20-year history of smoking is diagnosed with emphysema. When a staff member asks why the patient’s airways are obstructed, how should the nurse respond? The airways are obstructed because of:
a. Loss of elastic recoil
b. Airway edema
c. Infection and inflammation
d. Excessive mucus production
A 25-year-old male presents with chronic bronchitis of 5 months’ duration. When obtaining the patient’s history, which of the following findings is most likely to cause this condition?
a. chronic asthma
b. air pollution
c. cigarette smoke
d. recurrent pneumonias
A newborn has respiratory distress syndrome. When obtaining the patient’s history, which of the following is the most important predisposing factor for this condition?
a. low birth weight
b. alcohol consumption by the mother during pregnancy
c. premature birth
d. smoking by the mother during pregnancy
If an individual with respiratory difficulty were retaining too much carbon dioxide, which of the following compensatory responses would the nurse expect to be initiated?
a. Increase in respiratory rate
b. Decrease in ventilation rate
c. Increase in tidal volume
d. Vasodilation of the pulmonary arterioles
A nurse recalls asthma is classified by:
a. pathophysiologic differences
b. clinical severity
c. genetic traits
d. treatment outcomes
A 14-year-old male is experiencing an asthma exacerbation. When reviewing the lab results, which of the following cells in the submucosa promote this inflammatory response and will be elevated?
A 53-year-old male with a 20-year history of smoking is diagnosed with emphysema. When the nurse is asked what causes this, what is the nurse’s best response? Changes in his lungs are caused by:
a. Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency
b. Viral infections
c. Fibrotic lung disease
d. Destruction of alveolar macrophages
Individuals with a recent diagnosis of emphysema should be assessed for which most common presenting factor?
a. A productive cough
d. Cor pulmonale
A 50-year-old male presents with hypotension, hypoxemia, and tracheal deviation to the left. Tests reveal that the air pressure in the pleural cavity exceeds barometric pressure in the atmosphere. Based upon these assessment findings, what does the nurse suspect the patient is experiencing?
a. Transudative pneumothorax
b. Pleural effusion
c. Tension pneumothorax
d. Open pneumothorax
A nurse is preparing to teach the staff about asthma. Which information should the nurse include? Airway hyper-responsiveness in asthma is related to:
a. Type II alveolar cell injury and decreased surfactant
b. Alveolar fibrosis and pulmonary edema
c. Collapse of the cartilaginous rings in the bronchi
d. Mucus secretion, bronchoconstriction, and airway edema
A 65-year-old male recently had a cerebrovascular accident that resulted in dysphagia. He now has aspiration of gastric contents. The nurse assesses the patient for which complication?
A 57-year-old male presents with cough, sputum production, dyspnea, and decreased lung volume. He is diagnosed with pneumoconiosis. When taking the patient’s history, which finding is the most probable cause of his illness?
a. Inhalation of silica, asbestos, mica
b. Allergic reactions
c. Flail chest
d. Autoimmune disease
A 22-year-old female presents with chronic bronchitis. Tests reveal closure of the airway during expiration. While planning care, a nurse recalls this condition is most likely caused by:
a. Thick mucus from hypertrophied glands
c. Ventilation-perfusion mismatch
d. Thinning smooth muscle in the bronchioles
A 45-year-old male undergoes lung transplantation. He now suffers from airway occlusion secondary to fibrosis. Which diagnosis will the nurse see on the chart?
a. Compression atelectasis
d. Bronchiolitis obliterans
A 20-year-old male presents to his primary care provider reporting difficulty breathing when lying down. What term should the nurse use to document this condition?
a. An increase
b. A decrease
c. No change
d. An absence
A 47-year-old male is diagnosed with pulmonary edema. Which assessment findings will the nurse observe?
a. Chest pain and shortness of breath
b. Shallow respirations and wheezing
c. Dry cough and inspiratory crackles
d. Kussmaul respirations and back pain
An 80-year-old female develops pneumonia in the hospital. She becomes cyanotic, tachycardic, and develops a fever and cough. Chest x-ray reveals pus in the pleural space. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis documented on the chart?
A 30-year-old female received a severe head injury in a motor vehicle accident. She is now experiencing respiratory abnormalities characterized by alternating periods of deep and shallow breathing with periods of apnea. What term should the nurse use when charting this condition?
Which patient would the nurse assess for paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea (PND)? A patient with:
b. Pulmonary fibrosis
d. Left ventricular failure
A 50-year-old male with a 30-year history of smoking was diagnosed with lung cancer. He was previously exposed to air pollution, asbestos, and radiation at his job. Which of the following should the nurse realize had the greatest impact on the development of his cancer?
a. Cigarette smoke
c. Air pollution
A 13-year-old female is diagnosed with asthma. Which of the following should the nurse teach the patient to recognize as part of an asthmatic attack?
b. chest pain
d. low heart rate
A 60-year-old female with a 25-year history of smoking is diagnosed with emphysema. She has an increased anterior-posterior chest diameter. The nurse attributes this finding to:
a. Air trapping
b. Alveolar destruction
c. Decreased inspiratory reserve volumes
d. Increased flow rates
An 11-year-old female presents with a low-grade fever and cough. She is diagnosed with atypical pneumonia. What type of pneumonia does the nurse suspect the patient is experiencing?
a. pneumococcal pneumonia
b. viral pneumonia
c. mycoplasma pneumonia
d. streptococcal pneumonia
A 28-year-old male reports to his primary care provider that he has had a cold for a week and is coughing up bloody secretions. When giving report, what term should the nurse use to describe this condition?
A 9-year-old male contracted influenza. Which of the following complications is of greatest concern to the nurse?
a. chronic bronchitis
b. bronchiolitis obliterans
d. respiratory distress syndrome (RDS)
A 60-year-old female with emphysema is having difficulty expiring a given volume of air. When giving report, the nurse will relay that the patient is most likely experiencing _____ pulmonary disease.
A 15-year-old female is diagnosed with restrictive lung disease caused by fibrosis. The patient had a pulmonary functions test. Which of the following findings is expected?
a. increased compliance
b. increased tidal volume
c. decreased respiratory rate
d. decreased functional residual capacity
A 10-year-old male is brought to the ER with prolonged bronchospasm and severe hypoxemia. The most likely diagnosis on the chart is:
a. exercise-induced asthma
b. chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
c. status asthmaticus
While planning care for a child with asthma, which of the following is characteristic of asthma?
a. increased lung volumes
b. prolonged expirations
c. air trapping
d. dead space