A 60-year-old male undergoes surgery for a bone fracture. Which of the following nursing measures would be most effective for preventing pulmonary embolism (PE) in this patient?
a. Ensure that patient uses supplemental oxygen.
b. Prevent deep vein thrombosis formation.
c. Check hematocrit and hemoglobin levels frequently during the postoperative period.
d. Promote aggressive fluid intake.
Which of the following patients is at highest risk for developing pulmonary embolism (PE)?
a.21-year-old male with a hemophilia bleeding disorder
b.28-year-old woman who had a baby 6 months earlier
c.36-year-old woman with a history of alcohol abuse who is recovering from a gastric ulcer
d.72-year-old male who is recovering from hip replacement surgery in the hospital
A 52-year-old male presents with pooling of blood in the veins of the lower extremities and edema. The diagnosis is chronic venous insufficiency, and an expected assessment finding of this disorder is:
a. Deep vein thrombus formation
b. Skin hyperpigmentation
d. Edema above the knee
a. Aortic stenosis
b. Tricuspid regurgitation
c. Aortic regurgitation
d. Mitral regurgitation
A 50-year-old male visits the cardiologist for an EKG. Results indicate that he has no PR interval and a variable QRS rate with rhythm irregularity. Which of the following is the most likely diagnosis to be recorded on the chart?
a. A trial tachycardia
b. A trial fibrillation
c. Sinus dysrhythmia
d. Idioventricular rhythm
a. Sympathetic nervous system compensation for decreased cardiac output
b. Stress hormones promoting increased cardiac contractility
c. Cardiotoxic effects of catecholamines and angiotensin
d. Diastolic dysfunction
a. A beta-adrenergic agonist
b. An alpha-adrenergic agonist
c. A diuretic
d. A calcium channel agonist
When a patient has a massive pulmonary embolism (PE), what complications will the nurse monitor for?
A. Shock and death
B. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)
C. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
D. Damage to the lung microcapillaries
A 5-year-old female is found to have hypertension during three separate visits to her primary care provider. The nurse would expect tests to suggest that the hypertension is secondary to:
a. renal disease
b. brain tumor
a. Renal retention of fluids
b. Depressed myocardial contractility
c. Release of acetylcholine
d. Increased heart rate
A 54-year-old male is diagnosed with left bundle branch block. Which of the following structures would not receive an electrical impulse?
a. Atrioventricular (AV) node
b. Sinoatrial (SA) node
c. Bundle of His
d. The left ventricle
A 28-year-old female presents with severe chest pain and shortness of breath. She is diagnosed with pulmonary embolism, which most likely originated from the:
a. Left ventricle
b. Systemic arteries
c. Deep veins of the leg
d. Superficial veins of the arm
A 50-year-old male with a 30-year history of smoking was diagnosed with bronchogenic cancer. He developed edema and venous distention in the upper extremities and face. Which of the following diagnosis will the nurse observe on the chart?
b. Deep vein thrombosis
c. Superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS)
d. Chronic venous insufficiency
A 30-year-old Caucasian female was recently diagnosed with primary hypertension. She reports that she eats fairly well, usually having red meat and potatoes daily. She also reports that her father has hypertension as well. A nurse determines which of the following risk factors is most likely associated with this diagnosis?
A 50-year-old female received trauma to the chest that caused severe impairment of the primary pacemaker cells of the heart. Which of the following areas received the greatest damage?
a. Atrioventricular (AV) node
b. Sinoatrial (SA) node
c. Bundle of His
A 65-year-old male is diagnosed with chronic pulmonary disease and elevated pulmonary vascular resistance. Which of the following heart failures should the nurse assess for in this patient?
a. Right heart failure
b. Left heart failure
c. Low-output failure
d. High-output failure
A 60-year-old male is diagnosed with cerebral aneurysm. Where does the nurse suspect the cerebral aneurysm is located?
a. Vertebral arteries
b. Basilar artery
c. Circle of Willis
d. Carotid arteries
When a nurse checks the patient for orthostatic hypotension, what did the nurse have the patient do?
a. Physical exertion
c. Stand up
d. Lie down
Most cases of combined systolic and diastolic hypertension have no known cause and are documented on the chart as _____ hypertension.
A 32-year-old female presents with lower leg pain, with swelling and redness. While obtaining the patient’s history, which finding could have caused her condition?
a. Venous thrombus
b. Heart valve damage
c. Bacterial infection
A 75-year-old female has been critically ill with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) for longer than a week and has developed a severe oxygen supply and demand imbalance. The statement that best describes this imbalance is which of the following?
a. Increased oxygen delivery to cells fails to meet decreased oxygen demands.
b. The amount of oxygen consumed by cells depends only on the needs of cells, because there is oxygen in reserve.
c. The situation results in supply-independent consumption.
d. The reserve has been exhausted, and the amount of oxygen consumed depends on the amount the circulation is able to deliver.
A patient wants to know what causes atherosclerosis. How should the nurse respond? In general, atherosclerosis is caused by:
a. High serum cholesterol levels
b. Endothelial injury and inflammation
c. An increase in antithrombotic substances
d. Congenital heart disease
Which condition should cause the nurse to assess for high-output failure in a patient?
a. Metabolic alkalosis
A 50-year-old male is diagnosed with pulmonary embolism (PE). Which of the following symptoms most likely occurred before treatment?
A. Pink, frothy sputum
C. Thick mucus secretions
What term should the nurse document for a detached blood clot?
A 62-year-old male presents to his primary care provider reporting chest pain at rest and with exertion. He does not have a history of coronary artery disease and reports that the pain often occurs at night. He is most likely experiencing which type of angina?
An 82-year-old female was admitted to the hospital with confusion and severe hypotension. Her body’s compensatory mechanisms are increased heart rate, vasoconstriction, and movement of large volumes of interstitial fluid to the vascular compartment. What kind of shock does the nurse suspect the patient is experiencing?
a. Arterial wall thinning and weakening
b. Abnormally dilated arteries and veins
c. Abnormal thickening and hardening of vessel walls
d. Autonomic nervous system imbalances
Which of the following findings in the patient with Raynaud disease would indicate a need for further teaching?
a. The patient eats bananas twice a day.
b. The patient smokes cigarettes.
c. The patient wears mittens outside.
d. The patient takes calcium channel blockers.
Question 30 A 56-year-old male is diagnosed with coronary artery disease. Which of the following modifiable risk factors would the nurse suggest the patient change?
a. Eating meat
b. Living arrangements
c. Drinking tomato juice
d. Smoking cigarettes