A 20-year-old pregnant female gives birth to a stillborn child. Autopsy reveals that the fetus has 92 chromosomes. What term may be on the autopsy report to describe this condition?
A group of prison inmates developed tuberculosis following exposure to an infected inmate. On examination, tissues were soft and granular (like clumped cheese). Which of the following is the most likely cause?
a. Coagulative necrosis
b. Liquefactive necrosis
c. Caseous necrosis
A runner has depleted all the oxygen available for muscle energy. Which of the following will facilitate his continued muscle performance?
a. Electron-transport chain
b. Aerobic glycolysis
c. Anaerobic glycolysis
d. Oxidative phosphorylation
0 out of 1 points
The student is reviewing functions of the cell. The student would be correct in identifying the primary function of the nerve cell as:
a. Sensory interpretation
c. Maintenance of homeostasis
Sodium and water accumulation in an injured cell are a direct result of:
a. decreased ATP production.
c. ribosome detachment.
A nurse is teaching a patient with diabetes how glucose is transported from the blood to the cell. What type of transport system should the nurse discuss with the patient?
a. Active-mediated transport (active transport)
b. Active diffusion
c. Passive osmosis
d. Passive-mediated transport (facilitated diffusion)
Why is potassium able to diffuse easily in and out of cells?
Because potassium has a greater concentration in the intracellular fluid (ICF)
Because sodium has a greater concentration in the extracellular fluid (ECF)
Because the resting plasma membrane is more permeable to potassium
Because there is an excess of anions inside the cell
A patient who has diarrhea receives a hypertonic saline solution intravenously to replace the sodium and chloride lost in the stool. What effect will this fluid replacement have on cells?
a. Become hydrated
b. Swell or burst
The nurse would be correct in identifying the predominant extracellular cation as:
A newborn male is diagnosed with albinism based on skin, eye, and hair appearance. Which finding will support this diagnosis?
a. Increased melanin
b. Increased hemoproteins
c. Inability to convert tyrosine to DOPA (3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine)
d. Inability to convert bile to bilirubin
A nurse is reading a chart and sees the term oncotic pressure. The nurse recalls that oncotic pressure (colloid osmotic pressure) is determined by:
a. Concentration of sodium
b. Plasma proteins
c. Hydrostatic pressure
d. Availability of membrane transporter proteins
A patient wants to know the risk factors for Down syndrome. What is the nurse’s best response?
a. Fetal exposure to mutagens in the uterus
b. Increased paternal age
c. Family history of Down syndrome
d. Pregnancy in women over age 35
Which of the following mutations have the most significant effect on protein synthesis?
a. Base pair substitutions
b. Silent mutations
c. Intron mutations
d. Frameshift mutations
What is the diagnosis of a 13-year-old female who has a karyotype that reveals an absent homologous X chromosome with only a single X chromosome present? Her features include a short stature, widely spaced nipples, reduced carrying angle at the elbow, and sparse body hair.
a. Down syndrome
b. Cri du chat syndrome
c. Turner syndrome
d. Klinefelter syndrome
A 55-year-old male with a 30-year history of smoking is examined for respiratory disturbance. Examination of his airway (bronchial) reveals that stratified squamous epithelial cells have replaced the normal columnar ciliated cells. This type of cellular adaptation is called:
A nurse is discussing the movement of fluid across the arterial end of capillary membranes into the interstitial fluid surrounding the capillary. Which process of fluid movement is the nurse describing?
a. Hydrostatic pressure
d. Active transport
A eukaryotic cell is undergoing DNA replication. In which region of the cell would most of the genetic information be contained?
d. Nucleus Cytoplasm
A nurse is reviewing the pedigree chart. When checking for a proband, what is the nurse looking for?
a. The person who is first diagnosed with a genetic disease.
b. The individual who has a disease gene but is phenotypically normal.
c. The phenotype of genetic material.
d. The codominance.
The ion transporter that moves Na+ and Ca2+ simultaneously in the same direction is an example of which of the following types of transport?
A 15-year-old female is diagnosed with Prader-Willi syndrome. This condition is an example of:
a. genomic imprinting.
b. an autosomal recessive trait.
c. an autosomal dominant trait.
d. a sex-linked trait.
What causes the rapid change in the resting membrane potential that initiates an action potential?
a. Potassium gates open, and potassium rushes into the cell, changing the membrane potential from negative to positive
b. Sodium gates open, and sodium rushes into the cell, changing the membrane potential from negative to positive
c. Sodium gates close, allowing potassium into the cell to change the membrane potential from positive to negative
d. Potassium gates close, allowing sodium into the cell to change the membrane potential from positive to negative
What principle should the nurse remember when trying to distinguish aging from diseases?
a. It is difficult to tell the difference because both processes are believed to result from cell injury.
b. It is easy to tell normal processes from abnormal processes.
c. Disease, unlike aging, has a genetic com-ponent.
d. Aging is defined as exceeding life expec-tancy, but not maximal life span.
A patient has a heart attack that leads to progressive cell injury that causes cell death with severe cell swelling and breakdown of organelles. What term would the nurse use to define this process?
A 50-year-old male was recently diagnosed with Huntington disease. Transmission of this disease is associated with:
a. penetrance of a trait.
b. recurrence risk.
d. delayed age of onset.