1. Hemispheric lateralization influences metaphor comprehension.
2. _____ are beliefs about what will happen in a future situation.
3. The JND (just noticeable difference) represents how much stronger one stimulus has to be relative to another so that someone can notice that the two are not the same.
4. Barring some physical incapacity, long-term memory represents permanent information storage.
5. Perception represents an objective reality.
6. Refer to Prom Night Scenario. Sara was so happy when she was dancing the waltz that she soaked in the music. This indicates that the noise of the crowd and the music were most likely to be stored in Sara’s _____ memory.
7. Joanna looks out for good bargains for all her purchases. She once bought a T-shirt that was being sold for $50 and perceived it to be a good deal as everything else was priced higher. However, on her next shopping trip, she dismissed the same t-shirt as expensive as the other apparels were being sold at prices much lower than $50. Joanna’s varying interpretation of the value and meaning for the same product is an example of _____.
8. Which of the following statements is true of workbench memory?
a. It has unlimited duration.
b. It has limited capacity.
c. It is considered to be preattentive.
d. Its capacity remains the same across different levels of consumers’ involvement.
e. It uses only semantic coding to store information.
9. The term “anthropomorphism” refers to a design that gives humanlike characteristics to inanimate objects.
10. Consumers prefer objects that are consistent with the golden section.
11. A _____ is a portion of an associative network that represents a specific entity and thereby provides it with meaning.
12. Consumers who are right- brain dominant may respond particularly well to metaphors.
13. _____ refers to a design that gives humanlike characteristics to inanimate objects.
14. In Pavlov’s classical conditioning experiment, the salivation of the dogs on being exposed to the meat powder is an example of a(n) _____.
a. surprising stimulus
b. orientation reflex
c. involuntary attention
d. unconditioned response
e. selective distortion
15. Research examining subliminal processing suggests that subliminal persuasion is a very effective marketing tool.
16. The process by which continuous exposure to a stimulus affects the comprehension of and response to the stimulus is known as _____.
17. According to the behaviorist approach to learning, the human mind acts much like a computer.
18. Cognitive interference provides the deepest comprehension and greatest chance of accurate recall.
19. Consumers tend to comprehend and remember more from an ad that is presented with congruent material surrounding it.
20. Contrasting stimuli are extremely ineffective in getting attention.
21. Consumers are undiscriminating in the information to which they pay attention.
22. _____ involves screening out most stimuli and subjecting oneself to only a small portion of stimuli.
a. Selective attention
b. Selective exposure
c. Selective distortion
23. To be effective, the conditioned stimuli should be presented before the unconditioned stimuli, and the pairing of the two should be done consistently and with repetition.
24. Comprehension applies not only to consumer learning but to consumers’ attitudes as well.
25. Sensory memory is considered to be preattentive.
26. Refer to the Warning Labels Scenario. Some of the consumers have started putting their cigarette packs in plastic holders that cover up the information on the package. These consumers’ decision to hide the warning label is an example of _____.
b. selective distortion
c. selective exposure
27. The process of grouping stimuli by meaning so that multiple stimuli can become a single memory unit is known as _____.
28. In order to deal with the declining effectiveness of traditional advertising, marketers are finding unique ways to reach out to target customers. Integrating their goods with popular television programs is one such way. This sort of advertising in which actors are shown using branded products is an example of _____.
a. product customization
b. product placement
c. product segmentation
d. selective exposure
e. selective distortion
29. Comprehension refers to a consumer’s awareness and interpretation of reality.
30. In classical conditioning, behavior is conditioned through reinforcement.