The most common psychological problem of adolescence is
Parents of obese children tend to
give their children several snacks a day.
reward their children's good behavior with food.
breastfeed their children into toddlerhood.
feed on demand during infancy.
Which parents will probably have teenagers with superior school performance?
the Berrys, who have an authoritative parenting style.
the Kidmans, who have a permissive parenting style.
the Roberts, who have an authoritarian parenting style.
the Bates, who have an inconsistent parenting style.
When Darren's classmates were asked to rate each others' likeability, he received almost no votes, either positive or negative. He would be classified as
Natasha's parents have an authoritative child-rearing style, Natasha is likely to
be very anxious and insecure.
be extremely popular with peers.
act overly dependent on others.
feel especially good about herself.
Chin-Li's teacher uses a constructivist classroom. Which of the following would you be most likely to see there?
Children wandering around unable to choose activities.
Students sitting in rows facing the front of the classroom.
A teacher at the front of the class lecturing to the entire class.
Small groups of students engaged in different tasks.
Elementary and middle-school students exposed to reciprocal teaching
exhibit a drop in general intelligence relative to their peers in traditional classrooms.
show delayed critical thinking skills.
hinder teachers' ability to create a zone of proximal development within their classrooms.
show impressive gains in reading comprehension.
In North America, the typical two- to six year-old watches television
for less than one hour a day.
for 3 ½ hours a day.
from 1 ½ to 2 hours a day.
for more than 4 hours a day.
Preschoolers rarely use memory strategies because
of slow information-processing.
strategy use requires sophisticated cognitive inhibition.
of limitations in long-term memory capacity.
strategies tax young children's limited working memories.
According to Piaget, the most obvious change during the preoperational stage is the increase in
problem solving skills.
Preschoolers same-sex groups
increase children's tolerance for gender-inappropriate activities.
strengthen gender-stereotyped beliefs and behaviors.
serve to reduce the gender stereotypes coming from parents.
increase children's opportunities for cross-gender play.
According to Vygotsky, private speech during the preschool years
reflects young children's egocentrism.
helps young children guide their behaviors during challenging tasks.
does not play a major role in young children's cognitive development.
is due to the nonsocial nature of young children.
Twelve-year-old Dorothy has just started her first menstrual cycle. She is experiencing
this maturational process much later than the average North American female.
Beginning in middle childhood, a common fear is
thunder and lightning.
ghosts and goblins.
being robbed or hurt.
According to Erikson, the psychological conflict of middle childhood is
autonomy versus shame and doubt.
industry versus inferiority.
identity versus confusion.
generativity versus stagnation.
has improved the quality of the public educational system.
has served to decrease achievement gaps between black and white students.
is consistent with the emphasis on teaching for deeper understanding.
has had a negative impact on the self-esteem, motivation, and graduation rates of many minority youths living in poverty.
A decline in appetite during the preschool years
is normal because growth has slowed.
suggests a pituitary hormone disorder.
indicates a deficiency of thyroxine.
is an early sign of ORT.
developing an identity.
Compared with the peer groups of middle childhood, adolescent peer groups are
less tightly structure and exclusive.
limited to peers of the same gender.
not as constructive in their activities.
increasingly common and more tightly organized.
Four- to seven-year olds regard friendship
as dependent on physical proximity.
in terms of similar personality characteristics.
as based on mutual trust.
as pleasurable play and sharing toys.
Leon is more likely to help, share, and defend victims of injustice.
Leon is just as likely to cheat on tests as Dan.
Dan is actually more honest than Leon.
Dan is more likely to display behavior that is in line with his beliefs.
Research indicates that easy access to contraceptives for teenagers results in
an increase in childbirth rates.
higher rates of sexual activity.
higher abortion rates.
reduced pregnancy rates.
Parents can help their adolescents achieve greater gains in moral understanding by
remaining silent when adolescents struggle with exercises in reasoning.
stating their own personal opinions frequently.
listening critically to adolescents' ideas.
asking clarifying questions.
Kiela's best friend is angry because Kiela played with someone else during recess. Kiela talks to her friend and explains that, although she likes playing together, sometimes she wants to do something different. She asks her friend to understand her feelings and not be upset. Kiela is using
During early childhood, gender-stereotyped beliefs
are applied as blanket rules that should not be violated.
are flexible until the age 5, after which they become more rigid.
emerge very slowly, as parents treat boys and girls in similar ways.
are highly flexible with respect to clothing and hairstyle but less so with respect to types of play.
Compared to younger children, school-age children are more likely to explain emotions by making reference to
Vygotsky viewed _________________ as an ideal context for fostering cognitive development in early childhood.
video game play
The best way to reduce the emotional trauma of sexual abuse on a child is to
move on quickly and not dwell much on what has happened.
prevent the abuse from continuing.
allow the child to see the abuser is severely punished.
expose the child to other children who have had similar experiences.
According to psychoanalytic theory, _______________ leads to conscience formation and moral behavior.
the emergence of the reality principle
repression of sexual longings for the mother or father
identification with the opposite-sex parents
fear of punishment and loss of parental love
The authoritative child-rearing style is linked to
low self-reliance and high rates of anger and defiance.
high self-esteem, moral maturity, and favorable school performance.
low persistence, antisocial behavior, and poor school performance.
poor emotional self-regulation and attachment security.
A secular trend in the timing of puberty is the tendency for
puberty to begin with breast enlargement.
girls to mature earlier than their mothers.
boys to mature later than girls do.
menarche to begin after the growth spurt.
Which of the statements below is true of teenage mothers?
They are less likely to divorce if they do marry.
They have fewer complications during pregnancy due to age.
They have a 30% likelihood of dropping out of school.
They are rarely on welfare.
Sally and Susie are using dolls to act out a make-believe story in which Sally is the mother and Susie is the daughter. What type of play are these preschoolers engaging in?
Question 36 Describe the functions that cliques and crowds serve during adolescence, and explain the factors that cause the importance of crowds and cliques to decline over time.
Question 37 Describe three teaching methods that foster achievement.
Question 38 Discuss the impact of religious beliefs on moral values and behavior.