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Question 1

Home delivery

is usually attended by a doctor.

is not appropriate if the mother is at risk for any kind of complication.

gives the mother less control over her own care than in a hospital.

provides a safer birthing environment than a hospital.

Question 2

In a __________ design, groups of people differing in age are studied at the same point in time.





Question 3

The term teratogen refers to

a fluid within the placenta that helps feed the fetus.

any environmental agent that causes damage during the prenatal period.

the blood that is passed from mother to child through the umbilical cord.

a perfect test score given to a newborn upon delivery.

Question 4

Theorists who emphasize plasticity believe that

children develop so that they can exhibit characteristically different behaviors arranged around specific age groups.

change is possible and likely if new experiences support it.

individuals high and low in a characteristic will remain so in later ages.

children experience similar circumstances that result in wide individual differences.

Question 5

In vitro procedures

have never been used by a couple who could have become pregnant naturally.

are most often used to permit women without a male partner become pregnant

cannot help postmenopausal women become pregnant

can ensure that couples with X-linked diseases have a daughter.

Question 6

Vygotsky's theory emphasizes that individual differences in complex mental activities are mainly due to cultural differences in

infant physical care practices.


social experience.

genetic makeup.

Question 7

When baby Zoey becomes upset when her mother leaves a room, she is displaying

effortful control.

emotional self-regulation.

social referencing.

separation anxiety.

Question 8

Continuous development regards the environment as the most important influence.



Question 9

The notion that an effective match between child-rearing practices and a child's temperament will lead to favorable outcomes is known as


an internal working model.

sensitive caregiving.

secure base.

Question 10

A sequential design can identify cohort effects by comparing groups of people of

the same age who were born in the same year.

differing ages who were born in different years.

differing ages who were born in the same year.

the same age who were born in different years.

Question 11

Emotions that can be directly inferred from facial expressions are referred to as

self-conscious emotions.

basic emotions.

social emotions.

referential emotions.

Question 12

In Piaget's theory, what are two types of adaptation that result in changes to schemas?

Organization and conservation

Assimilation and conservation

Accommodation and assimilation

Accommodation and conservation

Question 13

In which period are serious prenatal effects most likely to occur due to the effects of teratogens?

The period of the zygote

The same level of risk is present during each of the prenatal stages.

The fetal period

The embryonic period

Question 14

Higher-SES parents emphasize the importance of __________________ for their children, whereas lower-SES parents emphasize ______________________.

external characteristics; psychological traits

intellectual abilities; psychological traits

external characteristics; intellectual abilities

psychological traits; external characteristics

Question 15

Discontinuous development views development as a progression through a series of qualitatively distinct stages.



Question 16

Plasticity regards human change as possible if new experiences support change.



Question 17

An infant born two months early but weighing an appropriate amount for the time spent in the uterus is called





Question 18

Which of the following is an ethical concern regarding in vitro fertilization?

The privacy of donors may be compromised as their identity is public record.

In vitro procedures cannot be used to overcome most male fertility problems

Over 90 percent of in vitro procedures result in multiple births.

Among in vitro babies, the risk of major birth defects doubles.

Question 19

Which of the following is true of research rights involving informed consent?

The right to inform consent applies to all research participants except young children and elderly people with mental impairments.

For children 7 years and older, their own informed consent should be obtained in addition to parental consent.

Unless the research obviously risks harm to the participant, researchers are not required to obtain informed consent.

In most cases, researchers need only obtain the child's assent; parental consent is not required.

Question 20

The innate system that contains a set of rules common to all languages is called the

Home Observation

Language Acquisition Device (LAD).

Chomsky device

Early Head Start.

Question 21

Nature Views heredity as the most important influence on development.



Question 22

Marcus was physically abused by his parents during his early years. Now he is in elementary school and living with a foster family; his school counselor believes that the negative events of his first few years can be overcome by his now positive life circumstances. The counselor emphasizes the role of _____________________ in development.





Question 23

Amanda believes that when her 1-year-old son says, "hi" and "bye-bye," his understanding of these greetings is the same as her understanding.Amanda would likely characterize her son's development as

determined by nurture.


determined by nature.


Question 24

The stress of adapting to parenthood

can be managed when parents support each other.

is generally more difficult for men than it is for women.

goes on for at least the first three or four years.

is not as great as most people believe it to be.

Question 25

A neutral stimulus that leads to a new response after learning has occurred is a(n)

conditioned response (CR).

unconditioned stimulus (UCS).

unconditioned response (UR).

conditioned stimulus (CS).

Question 26

Infant's expression of fear toward unfamiliar adults during the second half of the first year is called

separation anxiety.

the strange situation.

avoidant attachment.

stranger anxiety.

Question 27

Baby Hector accidentally pushes over a tower of blocks. Each time his sister rebuilds the tower, Hector tries to push it over again. In Piaget's theory, this is an example of a __________ circular reaction.





Question 28

Socioeconomic status consists of

years of education, neighborhood lived in, and cost of house.

size of bank savings account, stock portfolio, and income.

years at current job, prestige and skills required of job, and job title.

years of education, prestige and skills required of job, and income.

Question 29

The left hemisphere of the brain is largely responsible for

verbal abilities.

attention and complex thought.

spatial abilities.

regulation of negative emotions.

Question 30

In an individualistic society,

people think of themselves as separate entities and are concerned with their own needs.

people define themselves as part of a groups and stress group goals.

a small group of people hold different beliefs than those of the larger culture.

three or more generations usually live together.

Question 31

Research shows that by age three, children in Early Head Start

evidenced gains in IQ only among middle-SES children.

had warmer, more stimulating parenting.

showed an increase in aggression.

lost gains in IQ that they had acquired while enrolled in the program as infants and toddlers.

Question 32

Piaget's sensorimotor stage spans

ages 6 through 8.

ages 2 and 3.

the first 2 years of life.

ages 3 and 4.

Question 33

Gabriela is inactive, shows mild, low-key reactions to environmental stimuli, is negative in mood, and adjusts slowly to new experiences. Gabriela would be classified as



slow to warm up.


Question 34

A sensitive period is a time in which an individual is

lacking judgment due to a destructive event.

nonresponsive to environmental influences

especially responsive to environmental influences.

unable to determine which influences are environmental

Question 35

Resistant infants tend to have mothers who are




highly intelligent.


Question 36

Describe the advantages and disadvantages of two different delivery methods. What factors are related to choice of delivery method?

Question 37

Describe the concept of a sensitive period in human development and how this concept was developed.

Question 38

Describe the physical, cognitive, and social characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS).


Available solutions

    Question 1 Home delivery is usually attended by a doctor. is not appropriate if the mother is at risk for any kind of complication. gives the mother less control over her own care than in a hospital. provides a safer birthing environment than a hospital. Question 2 In a __________ design, groups of people differing in age are studied at the same point in time. microgenetic cross-sectional sequential longitudinal Question 3 The term t

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