is usually attended by a doctor.
is not appropriate if the mother is at risk for any kind of complication.
gives the mother less control over her own care than in a hospital.
provides a safer birthing environment than a hospital.
In a __________ design, groups of people differing in age are studied at the same point in time.
The term teratogen refers to
a fluid within the placenta that helps feed the fetus.
any environmental agent that causes damage during the prenatal period.
the blood that is passed from mother to child through the umbilical cord.
a perfect test score given to a newborn upon delivery.
Theorists who emphasize plasticity believe that
children develop so that they can exhibit characteristically different behaviors arranged around specific age groups.
change is possible and likely if new experiences support it.
individuals high and low in a characteristic will remain so in later ages.
children experience similar circumstances that result in wide individual differences.
In vitro procedures
have never been used by a couple who could have become pregnant naturally.
are most often used to permit women without a male partner become pregnant
cannot help postmenopausal women become pregnant
can ensure that couples with X-linked diseases have a daughter.
Vygotsky's theory emphasizes that individual differences in complex mental activities are mainly due to cultural differences in
infant physical care practices.
When baby Zoey becomes upset when her mother leaves a room, she is displaying
Continuous development regards the environment as the most important influence.
The notion that an effective match between child-rearing practices and a child's temperament will lead to favorable outcomes is known as
an internal working model.
A sequential design can identify cohort effects by comparing groups of people of
the same age who were born in the same year.
differing ages who were born in different years.
differing ages who were born in the same year.
the same age who were born in different years.
Emotions that can be directly inferred from facial expressions are referred to as
In Piaget's theory, what are two types of adaptation that result in changes to schemas?
Organization and conservation
Assimilation and conservation
Accommodation and assimilation
Accommodation and conservation
In which period are serious prenatal effects most likely to occur due to the effects of teratogens?
The period of the zygote
The same level of risk is present during each of the prenatal stages.
The fetal period
The embryonic period
Higher-SES parents emphasize the importance of __________________ for their children, whereas lower-SES parents emphasize ______________________.
external characteristics; psychological traits
intellectual abilities; psychological traits
external characteristics; intellectual abilities
psychological traits; external characteristics
Discontinuous development views development as a progression through a series of qualitatively distinct stages.
Plasticity regards human change as possible if new experiences support change.
An infant born two months early but weighing an appropriate amount for the time spent in the uterus is called
Which of the following is an ethical concern regarding in vitro fertilization?
The privacy of donors may be compromised as their identity is public record.
In vitro procedures cannot be used to overcome most male fertility problems
Over 90 percent of in vitro procedures result in multiple births.
Among in vitro babies, the risk of major birth defects doubles.
Which of the following is true of research rights involving informed consent?
The right to inform consent applies to all research participants except young children and elderly people with mental impairments.
For children 7 years and older, their own informed consent should be obtained in addition to parental consent.
Unless the research obviously risks harm to the participant, researchers are not required to obtain informed consent.
In most cases, researchers need only obtain the child's assent; parental consent is not required.
The innate system that contains a set of rules common to all languages is called the
Language Acquisition Device (LAD).
Early Head Start.
Nature Views heredity as the most important influence on development.
Marcus was physically abused by his parents during his early years. Now he is in elementary school and living with a foster family; his school counselor believes that the negative events of his first few years can be overcome by his now positive life circumstances. The counselor emphasizes the role of _____________________ in development.
Amanda believes that when her 1-year-old son says, "hi" and "bye-bye," his understanding of these greetings is the same as her understanding.Amanda would likely characterize her son's development as
determined by nurture.
determined by nature.
The stress of adapting to parenthood
can be managed when parents support each other.
is generally more difficult for men than it is for women.
goes on for at least the first three or four years.
is not as great as most people believe it to be.
A neutral stimulus that leads to a new response after learning has occurred is a(n)
conditioned response (CR).
unconditioned stimulus (UCS).
unconditioned response (UR).
conditioned stimulus (CS).
Infant's expression of fear toward unfamiliar adults during the second half of the first year is called
the strange situation.
Baby Hector accidentally pushes over a tower of blocks. Each time his sister rebuilds the tower, Hector tries to push it over again. In Piaget's theory, this is an example of a __________ circular reaction.
Socioeconomic status consists of
years of education, neighborhood lived in, and cost of house.
size of bank savings account, stock portfolio, and income.
years at current job, prestige and skills required of job, and job title.
years of education, prestige and skills required of job, and income.
The left hemisphere of the brain is largely responsible for
attention and complex thought.
regulation of negative emotions.
In an individualistic society,
people think of themselves as separate entities and are concerned with their own needs.
people define themselves as part of a groups and stress group goals.
a small group of people hold different beliefs than those of the larger culture.
three or more generations usually live together.
Research shows that by age three, children in Early Head Start
evidenced gains in IQ only among middle-SES children.
had warmer, more stimulating parenting.
showed an increase in aggression.
lost gains in IQ that they had acquired while enrolled in the program as infants and toddlers.
Piaget's sensorimotor stage spans
ages 6 through 8.
ages 2 and 3.
the first 2 years of life.
ages 3 and 4.
Gabriela is inactive, shows mild, low-key reactions to environmental stimuli, is negative in mood, and adjusts slowly to new experiences. Gabriela would be classified as
slow to warm up.
A sensitive period is a time in which an individual is
lacking judgment due to a destructive event.
nonresponsive to environmental influences
especially responsive to environmental influences.
unable to determine which influences are environmental
Resistant infants tend to have mothers who are
Describe the advantages and disadvantages of two different delivery methods. What factors are related to choice of delivery method?
Describe the concept of a sensitive period in human development and how this concept was developed.
Describe the physical, cognitive, and social characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS).