- What are the dangers a company might encounter when it asks its non -sales staff, such as customer service and billing reps, to sell to customers during all interactions?
Answer: When non -sales staff are asked to sell, they haven't been trained in sales techniques and may not know the proper ways to do it. In addition, if they took their jobs thinking they would not be required to sell and don't want to sell, their morale will suffer. Customers may be offended that they are being sold to when they are trying to complete other tasks with the company.
- What does "suggestive selling" mean? Why is it an effective technique? 130) Answer: Suggestive selling is suggestive that customers buy products that go along with or
aid products they've already bought from the company. it is an effective technique because the customer is already known to have purchased from the company, and it can also help the customer because the suggested products will increase their use or enjoyment of the product they've already purchased.
MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
131) Which of the following is NOT true about leadership? 131)
- Leadership is naturally stronger in some people than in others.
- Leadership occurs in a group.
- Leadership involves movement toward a goal or goals.
- Leadership involves influence.
- Leadership is a process. Answer:
- Which of the following is NOT a question organizations need to consider about leadership? 132)
- How can an organization acquire good leadership?
- Can you tell if a candidate has leadership potential when you hire the person?
- How are leading and managing related, and can employees do both?
- Can you develop leadership in employees who are already with the organization?
- Which leadership approach does this job candidate use? Answer:
- Which of the following is a key difference between leading and managing? 133)
- Leadership focuses on change while management focuses on results.
- Leadership focuses on process while management focuses on product.
- Leadership focuses on theory while management focuses on logistics.
- Leadership focuses on results while management focuses on organization.
- Leadership focuses on action while management focuses on planning. Answer:
- According to John Kotter, what activities are leaders involved with that managers are NOT involved with?
A) deciding what needs to be done
- budgeting for the department
- motivating employees
- working with other people to implement plans
- problem solving on a daily basis Answer:
- An organization that has become overly concerned with rules and order and has lost its vision is an example of:
A) an organization with management but no leadership
- an organization with motivation but no management
- an organization with leadership but no motivation
- an organization with management but no implementation
- an organization with leadership but no management Answer:
- Kotter hypothesized that we need more leadership now than in the past because: 136)
- there are more humans now than there were in the past, so we need more leaders
- people have less capacity for processing information these days
- the more things change, the more leadership is required
- technology is too complicated to be navigated by employees without managers to help them
- people were more self -directed in general in previous generations Answer:
- Three surveys were conducted asking respondents from companies questions about management and leadership. All of the following were cited as problems by the majority of the respondents EXCEPT:
A) The company had too few people with both management and leadership skills.
- Their companies did not do a good job of hiring and retaining people with leadership potential.
C) A majority of their sales managers were not meeting expectations.
- The company had too many people with management skills but too few people with leadership skills.
- The company had enough people with leadership skills but not enough with management skills.
- Which of the following is a practice of a leader, NOT a manager? 138)
- creating predictability
- providing direction and vision
- making budgets and plans
- solving problems
- organizing and staffing Answer:
- All of the following are considered leadership behaviors EXCEPT: 139)
- Motivating employees to overcome obstacles to excellence
- Organizing and creating structures that streamline work
- Bringing people into alignment toward common goals
- Creating change in an organization or group
- Providing direction to an organization or group Answer:
- Which of the following expresses the relationship between a leader and a manager in a well -functioning organization?
- The leader and manager work together to make sure that the organization has both forward motion and an efficient system.
- The leader and manager work in different positions in the organizational hierarchy, so they rarely interact.
- The leader and manager work as a team, both providing vision and direction to their employees.
- The leader and manager divide up the employees so that each can work with followers who understand their characteristics and style best.
E) The leader directs the manager, and the manager performs the tasks assigned by the leader. Answer:
- Over the last century, the approaches to studying leadership have been largely: 141)
- changing, from a behavioral view to a liberational view to a trait -based view
- static, with a behavioral view
- static, with a mixture of views
- changing, from a behavioral view to a trait -based view to a situational view
- changing, from trait -based views to behavioral views to developmental views Answer:
- The Great Man Theory of Leadership hypothesizes that: 142)
- the great leaders were more focused on people than on production
- only certain historic leaders had the true traits of leadership
- great leaders patterned themselves after the leaders who came before them, so modern people who wish to be leaders should pattern themselves after great leaders of the past
- by identifying the traits of great leaders we can predict who will be a leader because they have those traits
- by observing the great leaders we can compile a list of traits and work on teaching those traits to potential leaders
- Which of the following, if true, would be the best evidence against the trait approach to leadership? 143)
- Failures in leadership can lead to problems in every aspect of a company's operations.
- Even the best leaders need the support of the organization in order to accomplish their goals.
- The qualities associated with successful leadership in European businesses are different from those in Asian businesses.
- Concern for people and concern about results can conflict, forcing a leader to choose one at the expense of the other.
- Throughout history, leaders have consistently demonstrated greater intelligence, insight, responsibility, and persistence.
- Meta -analysis made which development in the study of leadership possible? 144)
- showing that a leader in one situation may not be a leader in another
- isolating studies to separate out the results for the most important one
- observing the changes a leader needed to make to become a Great Man
- introducing the concepts of focus on people and focus on results
- comparing results of many studies to formulate better theories about leadership traits Answer:
- Which of the following caused a resurgence of the trait theory of leadership, originally popular at the beginning of the 20th century?
A) a solidification of the list of traits
- an increase in intelligence and sociability in the general population
- the inclusion of more leaders on the list of "Great Men"
- a debate over which traits are more important than the others
- the development of meta -analysis Answer:
- Which of the following traits does NOT have a positive relationship to leadership? 146)
- determination Answer:
- In what way can recognizing the traits of leadership help an organization? 147)
- An organization can create a benchmarking process which allows them to tally leadership traits for each of their employees.
- An organization can compare the list of traits of leadership in their home country with lists of traits of leadership from other countries they do business with to be able to understand those cultures and facilitate relationships between the companies.
- An organization can investigate their managers and fire those who do not have the traits of leadership.
- An organization can look for those traits in the interview process and hire candidates with the traits of leadership.
- An organization can ask their managers to make a list of their characteristics and compare them to the list of traits of leadership.
- The researchers who identified consideration behavior and initiating structure found that: 148)
- leaders who displayed low levels of both were more likely to have been promoted from within the company
- conflict in the workplace could be resolved more easily when leaders engaged in higher levels of consideration behavior
C) the dimensions were independent of each other
- leaders who had lower levels of consideration behavior were more highly regarded by their employees
E) a high level of one correlated to a high level of the other Answer:
- Initiating structure is a dimension of leadership that focuses on accomplishing tasks. Which of the following is NOT an element of initiating structure?
A) providing materials and services necessary to complete tasks
- staying on schedule
- focusing employees on their tasks
- giving directions to employees
- encouraging employees
- Researchers into the behavioral approach have discovered that leaders from highly productive work groups supervise their employees at the:
A) production level
- employee level
- initiating level
- group level
- individual level Answer:
- A leader who is concerned primarily with employees and shows little concern for results is at which area of the Leadership Grid?
A) Authority -Compliance Management
- Middle of the Road Management
- Impoverished Management
- Country Club Management
- Team Management Answer:
- Which of the following is characteristic of Authority -Compliance Management? 152)
- high concern for results, high concern for people
- medium concern for results, medium concern for people
- low concern for results, high concern for people
- low concern for results, low concern for people
- high concern for results, low concern for people Answer:
- Which of the following is a valid criticism of the behavioral approaches to leadership? 153)
- Too much concern for people over production can lead to lax standards in an organization.
- The behavioral approaches reject the trait approach without providing an alternative.
- The theories are not backed up by empirical proof that certain leadership styles are more effective than others are.
D) An emphasis on production over people obscures HR problems until they are serious.
- It is difficult to find examples of leaders who have concern for people and concern for production at the same time.
- What is the main difference between Fred Fiedler's contingency theory of leadership and Hersey and Blanchard's Situational Leader model?
- The contingency theory was popular before meta -analysis allowed analysis of multiple studies, while the Situational Leader model makes use of multiple avenues of study.
- The contingency theory has been disproven by research studies, while the Situational Leader model has been empirically proven.
- The contingency theory assumes that the leader's style doesn't change, while the Situational Leader model assumes that a leader can adapt his or her style to the situation.
- The contingency theory assumes that style is flexible, while the Situational Leader model assumes that style is fixed and unchangeable.
- The contingency theory does not allow for external influences on the leaders, while the Situational Leader model takes into account the things that influence leaders from outside their organizations.
- All of the following are behaviors leaders can choose to enact, depending on the situation, according to Hersey and Blanchard's Situational Leader model EXCEPT:
- Implementing Answer:
- A leader who spends most of her time communicating with the public about the company and interacting with her employees to ensure that they have what they need to do their jobs, but who does not engage in planning of activities or employee goals is engaging in which of the Situational Leader styles of leadership?
- Directing Answer:
- The Situational Leader is a popular training program. However, there are some valid critiques of the approach. Which of the following is one of them?
- It is not actually possible to develop leaders from those who do not have the personality traits necessary for leadership.
B) There is no evidence that in -group exchanges are more beneficial than out -group exchanges.
- Leaders may not actually be able to determine the level of development of those they lead.
- Researchers have not been able to replicate the results of the initial studies the program is based on.
E) Followers may not be able to follow the program as written, which reduces its effectiveness. Answer:
- What is the essential idea of the situational approach to leadership? 158)
- In order to lead effectively, a leader has to develop a strong style.
- There is no one best style, and a good leader adapts to the demands of the situation.
- A leader can adapt a situation to make better use of the leader's set of strengths.
- The essence of leadership is maintaining strong leadership behavior even in the midst of chaos.
- Leaders have different strengths, and different leaders will be better than others in certain situations.
- Which of the following is the focus of both the leader -member exchange theory and the transformational leadership theory?
- the relationships between leaders at different organizations and sharing their experiences to transform their followers
- the relationships between different group members and using those relationships to develop leadership traits
- the relationships between leader and group members and fostering group members to take on more shared leadership roles
D) the transformation from follower to leader through active mentoring
- the transformation from trait -based approaches to leadership to situational -based approaches to leadership
- In leader -member exchange (LMX) theory, what is the difference between in -group exchanges and out -group exchanges?
- In -group exchanges strengthen the relationship between leader and follower, while
out -group exchanges consist of the leader giving orders and the follower carrying them out with no bond between them.
- In -group exchanges develop the classic leadership traits, while out -group exchanges focus on leadership behavior.
- In -group exchanges take place in person in the workplace, while out -group exchanges take place either in a non -work setting or remotely by telephone or electronic communication.
- In -group exchanges enforce loyalty of the follower to the leader, while out -group exchanges allow for loyalty to develop more naturally by fostering independence in the follower.
- In -group exchanges consist of interactions between three or more members of the group, while out -group exchanges consist of interactions between only two members of the group.
- The approach that says that leaders should have as many in -group relationships and as few out -group relationships as possible with followers is:
A) situational leadership
- servant leadership
- contingency theory
- Level 5 leadership
- leadership making Answer:
- Some leadership approaches have captured the imagination of the general public and are thought of as being "self -help." Despite their general popularity, these approaches:
A) also have acceptance in the business community
- have been proven repeatedly through controlled research studies
- are only useful for solving specific, personal problems
- cannot be understood easily by the general public
- are not statistically valid and are hypothesis only Answer:
- Steven Covey's principle -centered leadership model emphasizes: 163)
- focusing your actions on your goals and on developing the people around you
- providing concrete goals and requirements first, then giving followers support
- collecting a variety of experiences to aid in the application of leadership skills
- maintaining a calm, centered attitude even while under pressure
- following the eight steps in order, as written Answer:
- The servant leadership model believes that leaders should serve their followers so that: 164)
- the leader sets an example for the followers
- the leader maintains humility
- the followers and leaders can switch positions
- the followers can understand why the leaders are in authority positions
- the followers can develop the traits necessary for leadership Answer:
- The servant leadership model has inspired companies and university programs: 165)
- to follow the teachings of Jesus Christ
- to use transformational leadership
- to make service to others part of their work and focus
- to ask executives and professors to serve employees and students
- to develop their leadership traits Answer:
- Ethics can go hand -in -hand with high sales numbers. Which of the following would NOT be an ethical leadership principle?
A) Salespeople should treat others as they would like to be treated.
- To start the relationship off on the right foot, salespeople should always tell customers the truth.
C) The core of the salesperson's relationship with customers should be trust and respect.
- The corporation's duty is to its shareholders, so employees should prioritize the good of the company over customer service.
- Communication is critical to a good selling relationship, so time should be spent listening as well as speaking.
- A sales manager who was promoted because she was able to work well in a group situation is now developing the ability to put her employees in the right situations and give them the support and direction to achieve their quotas each month. Which level is the manager at, according to the Level 5 leadership model?
A) Level 1 -Highly Capable Individual
- Level 2 -Contributing Team Member
- Level 3 -Competent Manager
- Level 4 -Effective Leader
- Level 5 -Executive Answer:
- Which of the following is NOT a challenge cited by sales executives? 168)
- motivating and maintaining sales teams
- hiring good employees
- maintaining their own level of sales production while leading and managing their teams
- integrating technological advances into the sales department
- leveling the playing field for women Answer:
- Why would sales executives be concerned with making sure the company's sales force is diversified?
A) The challenges of managing employees remotely is alleviated by having a diverse sales force.
- Customers are a diverse group, so having a sales force that matches them will help the company understand and sell to customers.
- Many companies conduct workshops and seminars on diversity to make sure that employees can work together while accepting each others' differences.
D) Companies need to comply with federal regulations about diversity in the workplace.
- Having a diverse sales force helps sales executive avoid making ethical mistakes resulting from having a homogeneous group.
- The majority of the challenges sales executives have to face have to do with: 170)
- managing production
- managing people
- managing women
- managing technology
- managing ethics Answer:
TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false.
- Leadership is a trait, and good leaders have more of this trait than others do. 171) Answer:
- Leading and managing are terms that can be used interchangeably. 172) Answer:
- Approaches to studying and developing leadership have changed widely over the past 100 years. 173) Answer:
- The traits that are considered admirable in a leader are the same from country to country. 174) Answer:
- Leaders that are production centered tend to get a higher level of productivity from their groups than do leaders who are employee centered.
- The three behavioral approaches to leadership have not determined one best method of leadership. 176) Answer:
- The contingency theory of leadership holds that a leader's style is not likely to change. 177) Answer: True False
- The leader -member exchange theory focuses on the relationship between a leader and each member of the leader's group.
Answer: True False
- Under transformational leadership theory, a leader focuses more on people in the organization than on specific results.
Answer: True False
- Steve Covey's principle -centered leadership model has found acceptance both in the business community and in the self -help world.
Answer: True False
SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question.
- What is the definition of leadership, including the four key traits of leadership? 181) Answer:
- Explain the differences between leadership and management. What are the similarities? 182)
- List the different approaches to researching leadership in chronological order. Give a brief description of the essential theory of each approach.
- What is meta -analysis? How did it advance the study of leadership? 184)
- What is the difference between the trait approach and the behavioral approach? What two behaviors does the behavioral approach specify?
- How do ideas about leadership in the United States compare to the ideas about leadership in other countries? Are leadership traits universal? In what way?
- What categories do all three behavioral approaches divide leadership behaviors into? What behaviors do the theories imply are most effective?
- Why were situational models of leadership developed after behavioral models were studied? What was the pioneering situational theory? What things did it assess?
- What do both Fiedler's contingency theory of leadership and the Situational Leader model have in common? How do they differ? How do they differ from behavioral models of leadership?
- Describe the Vroom and Yetton model of leadership. How does this model differ from the other two situational approaches to leadership?
- Explain the core of the leader -member exchange (LMX) theory, including the types of exchanges. What is the goal of leadership making?
- What are the main ideas of transformational leadership theory? What are the strengths of the theory? What is a weakness of this theory?
- What is the common feature of Steven Covey's principle -based leadership theory and the servant leadership model? In what way are they different?
- Explain the five different levels of the Level 5 leadership model. What other two ways of looking at leadership does the model draw from?
- Explain some of the challenges faced by sales executives with regard to personnel. 195)