Which of the following is not a risk factor for developing substance abuse problems?
having excessively permissive parents
having easy access to drugs
having friends who use and tolerate the use of drugs
being involved in a sexual relationship
Studies of the long-term consequences of adolescent parenthood indicate that the problems associated with it:
are actually relatively minor, and research studies have difficulty replicating the findings.
may actually be greater for the children than for their mothers.
may actually be greater for the mothers than for their children.
are likely limited to psychological and emotional domains.
Who is the most likely, after becoming pregnant, to have an abortion?
Jamie, a White female living in the suburbs
Kimberly, a White female who dropped out of high school
Dotty, a Black female who dropped out of high school
Tara, a Black female living in poverty
According to social control theory, delinquency is caused by:
unconventionality in the adolescent's personality.
an inherited predisposition toward deviance.
biologically based differences in arousal and sensation-seeking.
a lack of bonds to the family, the school, or the workplace.
Which of the following is not typically considered to be autoerotic behavior during adolescence?
sexual activity experienced alone
Which of the following statements about parent-adolescent communication about sex is not true?
Adolescents are more receptive to having one "big talk" about sex than having multiple conversations over a period of time.
Sexually active adolescents underestimate their parents' disapproval of sexual activity.
Parents assume that if they disapprove of sexual activity, their adolescent is not likely to be sexually active.
There seems to be a gap between what parents say they have discussed with their adolescent child and what adolescents say they have discussed with their parents.
According to research cited in the textbook, all of the following are reasons that some sex education programs fail, except:
when they are introduced into the curriculum too late (after adolescents are already sexually active).
when teachers are uncomfortable talking about the subject with students.
when they focus primarily on changing students' knowledge rather than their behavior.
when they emphasize abstinence-only sex education.
One of the most consistent predictors of chronic delinquency (or being a life-course persistent offender) appears to be rooted in:
poor relations with peers during childhood.
being exposed to disorganized families with hostile, inept, or neglectful parenting.
academic failure in junior high school.
pessimistic attitudes about employment prospects.
Evaluations of adolescent treatment programs suggest:
placing adolescents who experiment with drugs into treatment programs has been effective in preventing escalation to drug abuse.
drug treatment programs for adolescent substance abuse are more effective when the adolescent's family is involved in therapy with the adolescent.
the most effective programs are those that deal with substance abusing adolescents in a private setting, away from their families and friends.
most substance abuse treatment programs for adolescents have strict admission guidelines so they only accept adolescents who are seriously abusing drugs.
What is the most common method of birth control among sexually active adolescents?
birth control pills
the rhythm method
According to national surveys, sexual activity among adolescents is occurring ______ it has in past decades.
at the same time as
earlier for boys but later for girls than
Which of the following is least likely to explain why growing up in a single-parent home affects girls' sexual behavior more than boys' sexual behavior?
Social influences on sexual behavior are weaker for girls than for boys, thereby leading to fewer restraints on girls' sexual activities.
Single mothers may be dating, thereby inadvertently acting as role models of sexual activity for their adolescent daughters.
Girls are more likely than boys to look outside the family for warmth and support.
There may be a genetic link inherited from the girls' fathers that increases daughters' sexual behavior.
Members of which of the following racial groups are most likely to become sexually experienced at earlier ages?
Asian American adolescents
Many experts endorse a model of depression that suggests individuals who are predisposed toward internalizing problems will develop depression when they are exposed to chronic or acute stressors. This is called:
the diathesis-stress model.
Bobbie Jo's employer has been sexually harassing her. Bobby Jo has decided to find a new job, which she will start next week, and she also has filed sexual harassment charges against her current employer. Bobbie Jo is using ______ strategies to deal with her stress.
Margaret has been able to withstand many stressors in her life without showing negative effects. Margaret's behavior would be considered an example of:
an internalizing behavior.
an externalizing behavior.
Peter's parents caught him drinking alcohol with a couple of his friends and now they're worried. They think his alcohol use might turn into a long-term problem. Which of the following best illustrates the nature of adolescent drug use?
Many adolescents experiment with alcohol in high school without growing into adult alcoholics.
Adolescent alcohol use is the first sign of long-term problems with drugs.
Adolescent alcohol use is a clear indication of permissive parenting techniques.
None of the above is true.
Greg, a 17-year-old, has gotten his girlfriend pregnant. If he is typical of other males who impregnate adolescent women, we would expect him to experience all of the following, except:
school or work problems.
an increased sense of responsibility and optimism about the future.
problems with alcohol and other drugs.
Since 1991, a survey assessing eighth-graders', tenth-graders', and high school seniors' use and abuse of a variety of drugs has been distributed to a nationwide sample every year. The name of this survey is:
Examining the Future.
Monitoring the Future.
Focus on the Future.
According to the textbook, which adults are most likely to describe their fathers as distant and rejecting?
bisexual and homosexual adolescents
Recent research on promoting safe-sex behaviors among adolescents has suggested all of the following, except:
it is more effective to focus on adolescents' motives and social relationships, rather than their knowledge about safe sex.
adolescents are often unaware that their partners may be having sex with others as well.
being aware of the risk of STDs is sufficient to ensure safe sex practices among adolescents.
it may be important to use different strategies for sexually active and inexperienced adolescents.
Generalizing from the textbook, Marge is most likely to have her first sexual encounter with a:
What is the best way to conceptualize adolescent sexual development?
as gradual stages of increasing intimacy
with the first event being intercourse
as an isolated behavior
there are no systematic patterns to adolescent sexual development
Which aspect of parent-adolescent communication about sex is likely to have a meaningful effect on the adolescent's behavior?
parent-child communication specifically focused on the topic of contraception lowers the rate of risky sex
parent-child discussion about whether the adolescent should have sex at all
parent-child communication that involves an authoritarian approach with specific, rigid rules with respect to sexual activity
parent-child communication that directly cautions their teenager against sex but avoids implying that sex is a moral or religious issue
Some people who are delinquent as adolescents grow up to be law-abiding adults. What type of pattern is this?
adolescent limited offender
Tim and Carol are upset because they recently discovered that their 13-year-old daughter has already engaged in sexual intercourse. What other types of problems is their daughter likely to have?
drug and alcohol problems
low interest in academics
tolerance of deviant behavior
All of the above.
_______________ is an example of an internalizing disorder; _______________ is an example of an externalizing disorder.
Depression; psychosomatic disturbance
Drug and alcohol abuse; delinquency
Truancy; psychosomatic disturbance
Alcohol and marijuana are considered ______ drugs because they are almost always used before harder drugs.
Studies of adolescent drug use suggest that:
a large majority of adolescents have serious drug dependence problems.
a large majority of adolescents use hard drugs.
drug and alcohol use are the underlying cause of many adolescents' problems.
the drug of choice among adolescents is alcohol.
The neurotransmitter associated with the experience of pleasure that is implicated in substance abuse problems is known as:
Which of the following would be considered a status offense?
being truant from school
All of the above.
"Decreased enjoyment of pleasurable activities" and "low self-esteem" would be examples of what type of depressive symptoms?
Which type of intervention has been effective for adolescent-limited offenders?
teaching them how to resist peer pressure and settle conflict without resorting to aggression
training parents to monitor their children effectively
making sure adolescents know that misbehavior has serious consequences
a combination of all of the above
Which of the following is a likely reason that Black youngsters have a lower rate of drinking than their White counterparts?
They don't have money to purchase alcohol.
They are biologically unable to process alcohol.
Their parents are less likely to drink and tolerate drinking.
Their celebrity role models do not drink.
Which of the following statements about boys' first sexual experience is false?
A boy's first sexual experience is usually through masturbation.
Boys typically view sex as recreation.
A boy's first sexual partner is likely to be someone he's in love with.
Boys are more likely than girls to keep sex and intimacy separate.
Kate is a Black teen mom and has decided to move back to her parents' home. Which of the following statements is not true?
Kate is more likely to stay in school.
Living with parents might actually undermine the development of Kate's parenting skills and increase her likelihood of getting pregnant again.
It would be best if Kate lived with her parents for an extended period.
Problems in the relationship between Kate and her mother can adversely affect Kate's mental health.
One explanation for girls' greater susceptibility to internalizing problems, such as depression, emphasizes their greater orientation toward and sensitivity to interpersonal relationships. Specifically, gender differences in the level of the hormone ________ may play a role in making females both more invested in close relationships, and more vulnerable to adverse consequences of interpersonal problems.
Sexual activity in the United States is _____ in other industrialized countries, and the rate of pregnancy is _____.
higher than; higher
lower than; the same
comparable; the same
For adolescent girls, which of the following is the most important factor in determining the onset of sexual intercourse?
increased levels of androgens
availability of birth control
the attitudes of friends toward sexual activity
receiving sex education in school
At age 17, Cherise is a frequent drug user. According to one team of researchers who followed a sample of individuals from preschool into young adulthood, it is possible that:
she had psychological disturbance before the age of 7.
her problem behavior began a few months ago.
her problem behavior began by age 15.
it is her peer group, not her early family relations, that has directed her into using drugs.
Suzanne has just found out that her 13-year-old daughter had been sexually abused by her piano teacher. According to research presented in the textbook, what type of problems is Suzanne's daughter most likely to face?
According to research by Small and Luster, which adolescent is most likely to engage in early sexual activity?
Chelsea, who lives in a low SES/disadvantaged neighborhood
Ryan, who has many antisocial peers
Frank, someone who has completely disengaged from school
The adolescent most likely to engage in early sexual activity is one that has a combination of the above risk factors.
Todd would rather date men than women. This refers to Todd's:
What is a reason offered by the textbook to explain why many youth do not receive substance abuse treatment?
These programs are rarely offered during times that do not interfere with a typical public school schedule.
There are many stigmas attached to seeking drug or alcohol treatment.
Many families, especially minority families, cannot afford (or don't have adequate health insurance) to send their adolescent to treatment.
It is difficult to actually meet the clinical cut-off for "substance abuse"; therefore, it is hard to be accepted into one of these programs.
The term "______ syndrome" refers to covariation among various types of externalizing disorders that results from an underlying trait of unconventionality found in the adolescent's personality and social environment.
Evaluations of individual-focused approaches to drug prevention programs have found that:
these programs are largely ineffective.
these programs are more effective for changing adolescents' sexual behaviors than their drug use.
scare tactics are more effective in changing behavior than rational information.
random drug testing in schools has been the only effective strategy for reducing adolescents' use of drugs.
All of the above.
Approximately what percentage of American adolescents have had sexual intercourse before the end of their sophomore year of high school?
An analysis of "virginity pledges" that encourage adolescents to promise to abstain from premarital sex has found that:
pledging works equally well for adolescents of all ages.
pledging has a big effect in schools in which few students take the pledge.
pledging works well in schools in which nearly everyone takes the pledge.
about 82% of adolescents who take a virginity pledge will deny having done so five years later.